Bibliography: Selective Perception (page 4 of 4)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized for the Alternative Facts website.  

Hughey, Jim D. (1986). A Communication Configuration of AIDS. A study focused on the way that image, knowledge, behavioral intent, and communicative responsiveness are configured for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The classic model of the adoption process expects that knowledge about a subject will lead to a favorable evaluation of it, which in turn will lead to a decision to act. But the decision to help a sick person with a mysterious disease is difficult. Fifty-three students enrolled in two sections of a basic speech communication course responded to a survey measuring image, knowledge, and behavioral intent about three diseases: AIDS, Toxic Shock Syndrome, and Legionnaire's Disease. Results suggest that the communication configuration of AIDS is different from the configuration of other diseases in the respect that as knowledge about AIDS increases, the stigma of AIDS increases. If this is so, then the task of moderating hysteria and panic through an educational campaign will fail. Under these circumstances, it might be appropriate to aim at getting individuals involved in help projects prior to educational efforts, so that through the act of helping, selective attention and perception may work to promote a more favorable image of and a tolerance for the facts about AIDS. (Tables and figures are appended.)   [More]  Descriptors: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, College Students, Disease Control, Health Education

Shepp, Bryan E.; And Others (1987). The Development of Selective Attention: Holistic Perception versus Resource Allocation, Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. Investigates multiple trends in perceptual development of kindergarten, second grade, and fifth grade children who performed a speeded card sorting task with spatially integrated versus spatially separated dimensions. Results strongly support the hypothesis that there are developmental differences in perceived structure as well as ability to allocate attentional resources. Descriptors: Age Differences, Attention, Classification, Elementary Education

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Bibliography: Selective Perception (page 3 of 4)

This bibliography is selected and organized by the Alternative Facts website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Allen Munro, Albert D. Talbott, Bob Bohlken, Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, John J. Steffen, Herbert J. Gans, Ann Gonzalez, Richard F. Reckman, C. Jay Frasier, and William C. Hill.

Stewart, Robert A.; And Others (1985). Locus of Control as a Mediator of College Students' Reactions to Teacher Compliance Attempts. A study was conducted to determine the effects of student locus of control on perceptions of and resistance to teacher influence attempts. Subjects, 302 college students, were provided with 22 sets of Behavior Alteration Messages and were instructed to rate on a 1-5 scale "how frequently your teacher uses statements of each type to get you to change your behavior in the classroom." Higher scores indicated greater frequency. To measure likelihood of resistance, students were asked to rate on the same scale how likely they would be to resist statements of each type if their teachers were to use them to change students' behavior in the classroom. Analyses of results suggests that locus of control is a significant predictor of students' selective perceptions of teacher Behavior Alteration Technique (BAT) for 14 of the 22 BATs analyzed. Externally oriented students, those who rely on outside forces to govern their behaviors, more often interpret teachers as more powerful people than do internally oriented students. Further research is needed to answer questions that arose as a result of this study. Descriptors: Behavior Change, Behavior Modification, Behavioral Science Research, Classroom Communication

Frasier, C. Jay (1993). Magic in the Classroom: Using Conjuring To Teach Selectivity and General Semantics. Communication teachers can use magic in the classroom to teach the selective nature of the communication process and principles of general semantics. Since magic "works" due to perceptual limitations, selective perception can be illustrated through various magic effects. Magical effects where the secret is apparent to everyone in the class except for one member can show the students that an individual's perception is limited and selective. Several principles of general semantics, including "nonallness" and "nonidentity," can similarly be illustrated through the use of select magic effects. The three best ways that teachers can learn magic that can be used in the classroom are from books, from video tapes, and from personal instruction. Some teachers might desire to start performing magic in their classes but hesitate to do so. Magic is a novel, fun, and interesting way to gain students' attention, to keep their attention focused on the subject matter of the class, and to teach them something in the process. (Contains 37 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Class Activities, Communication (Thought Transfer), Higher Education, Instructional Innovation

Bohlken, Bob (1995). Learning To Listen through Experiences: Developing Listening Competencies. Intended for college-level instructors, this paper aims to establish behavioral objectives for listening or listening competencies and provide experiential learning to develop and assess those objectives and/or competencies. The paper begins with an overview which notes the lack of material on listening competencies in many college speech textbooks and the relegation of listening to the speech communication department. The paper then offers a list of 8 listening competencies for the student, including requiring the student: (1) to discriminate among a series of spoken words or numbers and immediately recall them for interpretation; (2) to demonstrate emphatic listening through questioning; (3) to demonstrate awareness of the listening process through writing, through selective perception, and message abstraction; (4) to demonstrate an awareness of the distinctions among facts, inferences, judgments, and between qualified and unqualified statements; and (5) to demonstrate an awareness of his/her interpersonal listening behavior. A number of specific exercises show how these skills may be developed and tested, among them: an exercise on word meaning discrimination, an exercise on listening to a message, a critical/comprehensive exercise, and an emphatic listing responses exercise. A four-item list of available standardized listening tests concludes the paper. (Each section contains references.) Descriptors: Behavioral Objectives, Class Activities, Communication Skills, Curriculum Evaluation

Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication. (1998). Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (81st, Baltimore, Maryland, August 5-8, 1998). Communication Theory and Methodology. The Communication Theory and Methodology section of the Proceedings contains the following 20 papers: "Information Sufficiency and Risk Communication" (Robert J. Griffin, Kurt Neuwirth, and Sharon Dunwoody); "The Therapeutic Application of Television: An Experimental Study" (Charles Kingsley); "A Path Model Examining the Influence of the Media on Fear of Crime and Protective Act" (Mahmoud A. M. Braima, Thomas Johnson, and Jayanthi Sothirajah); "Cognitive Innovativeness as a Predictor of Student Attitudes and Intent: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Online Learning Environments" (Tracy Irani and Michelle O'Malley); "Source Perception and Electrodermal Activity" (No-Kon Heo and S. Shyam Sundar); "The Crisis of Communication for Citizenship: Normative Critiques of News and Democratic Processes" (Erik P. Bucy and Paul D'Angelo); "The Hoopla Effect: Toward a Theory of Regular Patterns of Mass Media Coverage of Innovations" (Eric A. Abbott and April A. Eichmeier); "Predicting Online Service Adoption Likelihood among Nonsubscribers" (Carolyn A. Lin); "Evidence for Selective Perception in the Processing of Health Campaign Messages" (Ekaterina Ognianova and Esther Thorson); "Revisiting the Knowledge Gap Hypothesis: Education, Motivation, and Media Use" (Nojin Kwak); "Predicting Future Risky Behavior among Those 'Too Young' to Drink as the Result of Advertising Desirability" (Erica Weintraub Austin and Christopher Knaus); "Thoughtful Self-Critique or Journalistic Cannibalism? International Press Coverage of Princess Diana's Death" (Martin Eichholz); "The Third-Person Perception and Support for Restriction of Pornography: Some Methodological Problems" (Ven-hwei Lo and Anna R. Paddon); "A Virtual Fetish: Themes of a Virtual Community as Presented in 'Time' and 'Wired'" (Marjorie Lynne Yambor); "Mood Congruence and the Utility of Sad Media Content–An Exploration of 'Wallowing'" (Kimberly A. Neuendorf); "Identifying Structural Features of Radio: Orienting and Memory for Radio Messages" (Robert F. Potter, Annie Lang, and Paul Bolls); "Video Violence: Desensitization and Excitation Effects on Learning" (Bradford L. Yates and others); "Developing an Integrated Theory of Recall of News Stories" (Margaret H. De Fleur); "Viewer Elaboration about News Video" (Michael Murrie); and "Understanding Deliberation: The Effects of Discussion Networks on Participation in a Public Forum" (Jack M. McLeod and others).   [More]  Descriptors: Advertising, Audience Response, Citizen Participation, Communication (Thought Transfer)

Hill, William C. (1981). Galatea in the Classroom: The Distribution of Teacher-Pupil Interaction and Its Relationship to Class-Size. If what is known about selective processes of perception is coupled with awareness of the extremely rapid pace of classroom interaction, the classroom setting becomes one in which differential teacher expectations are likely to be formed and maintained. In fact, research findings reveal the power of teacher expectations: high teacher expectations can increase student achievement and low expectations can actually decrease achievement. Attempts to alter the communication of differential expectations by retraining teachers have generally been successful, but have been found to be quite expensive. Student achievement is also influenced by class size. Research findings indicate that a student achieving at the 50th percentile in a class of 40, if instructed in a group consisting of 1 to 5 students, is likely to achieve at the 83rd percentile or higher. Because this achievement effect is specific to groups of 20 pupils or less, a "student threshold for achievement" concept of facilitative student-teacher interaction is supported. It is possible that in classes of 21 to 40 pupils, fewer students' thresholds for achievement are reached by teachers due to the much wider distribution of interaction. There are several procedural methods for equitably distributing interaction that teachers can use (1) to counter the reluctance of peripherally seated students to initiate interaction, and (2) to compensate for teacher expectancy behaviors. (Directions for further research are suggested.) Descriptors: Bias, Class Size, Classroom Communication, Elementary Education

Strain, Barbara (1970). Developmental Trends in the Selective Perception of Race and Affect by Young Negro and Caucasian Children, DARCEE Papers and Reports (George Peabody College for Teachers). This study used a "disguised-structured" technique for determining the differential saliency of race and affect on preference behavior of 60 5-, 6-, and 7-year-old Negro and Caucasian children. Positively and negatively valued objects were distributed by subjects among photographs of happy and sad Negro and Caucasian children. No racial preference was found among 5-year-olds of either race or among older Negro children; 6- and 7-year-old Caucasian children showed growing preference for the Caucasian stimuli. Preference for the happy stimuli was shown by all groups of children, the affect differences overriding all race preferences. Included are both references and a bibliography of sources not cited in the text. Appendixes provided include a duplication of task photographs, sample data form, and additional task tables.   [More]  Descriptors: Affective Behavior, Age Differences, Attitudes, Bias

Gonzalez, Ann (1990). Video Materials Production and Use in Intensive Language Instruction: The Experience of the University of South Carolina's Master's in International Business Program. As part of a communicative approach and to provide non-linguistic information to students, authentic videotape recordings were incorporated into the summer intensive Spanish course in the University of South Carolina's master's program in international business. Students were introduced to the tapes by first seeing segments without sound, both to illustrate what can be understood visually and to emphasize the need for selective perception. The second phase was viewing with sound, with or without concurrent exercises. Exercises were created with clear cues to students to pay attention to the video. Video recordings allowed for immediate replay for feedback. The final instructional stage included follow-up activities, the most effective of which were directly related to cultural issues or analysis of the video itself, such as selective use of diminutives in a family situation. Discussion of why students respond with embarrassment or laughter, appropriate or inappropriate, and of the film's possible biases were also found to be essential to understanding the film's content. Use of video was seen to enhance motivation and retention of cultural and linguistic material. Testing, not used in this course, will be incorporated in future courses. Handouts accompanying videos are appended. Contains 13 references.   [More]  Descriptors: Business Administration Education, Business Communication, College Second Language Programs, Cultural Awareness

Talbott, Albert D.; And Others (1974). A News Game Called TRIO: A Task for Reporting, Interviewing and Observing. The reason for creating the Task for Reporting, Interviewing, and Observing (TRIO) was to make selective perception and metaphoric transformation come alive for students. This paper includes the experiences in designing, implementing, and trying out the exercise, a description of the exercise, a summary of the participants' play, and suggestions and recommendations on how the exercise can be used in similar and other kinds of settings. TRIO allows students to play various roles in reporting, being reported on, and news report evaluating. The exercise includes nursing students as specialists who present the pros and cons of abortion to another group of nurses. The presentation is covered by journalism students who write up news reports of the event for a lay audience. Groups of reporters cover the event under differing conditions, including second-hand and third-hand reporting. Afterward the lay audience, the reporters, and the specialists evaluate the coverage and prizes are awarded for the best stories. A give-and-take discussion is held a week after the event for all the participants. (Also included are selected bibliographies on gaming and simulations.)   [More]  Descriptors: Class Activities, Educational Games, Higher Education, Instructional Materials

Munro, Allen; And Others (1981). An Experimental System for Research on Dynamic Skills Training. Interim Technical Report, February 1980-September 1981. A research project was conducted to determine if dynamic skill training differs in important ways from knowledge system instruction. The term dynamic skills was used to mean sets of intellectual processes responsible for selective perceptions in a real time driven content and for the selection and performance of appropriate responses in that context; knowledge systems was used to mean sets of related facts that are commonly taught as a body of coherent subject matter. The research was conducted on a microcomputer-based experimental simulation training system. Experimental subjects were taught to perform a simulation task based on the job of an air intercept controller. The training program permitted controlled differences in instructional treatment for different groups of students in order to explore empirical issues in dynamic skill training. The results of the research show that dynamic skill training differs in important ways from knowledge system instruction; e.g., the demands placed upon students' cognitive processing resources are different in the two types of learning. Ten references are listed.   [More]  Descriptors: Computer Assisted Instruction, Decision Making Skills, Feedback, Military Training

Steffen, John J.; Reckman, Richard F. (1978). Selective Perception and Interpretation of Interpersonal Cues in Dyadic Interactions, Journal of Psychology. Suggests that socially anxious and low anxious males may perceive social events similarly but interpret them differently. Descriptors: Anxiety, Attribution Theory, Behavioral Science Research, Higher Education

Martini, Mary (1994). Acquiring the Language of Learning: The Performance of Hawaiian Preschool Children on the Preschool Language Assessment Instrument (PLAI). The Preschool Language Assessment Instrument (PLAI) was designed as a diagnostic tool for 3- to 6-year-old children to assess children's abilities to use language to solve thinking problems typically posed by teachers. The PLAI was developed after observing middle-class teachers in preschool classrooms encourage children to use language in different ways. The differences in the use of language were grouped into 4 levels of difficulty, and the PLAI consists of 60 items selected from these 4 levels. The performance of 60 Hawaiian preschool children on this test was assessed at the four levels: (1) Matching Perception; (2) Selective Analysis of Perception; (3) Reordering Perception; and (4) Reasoning about Perception. Overall, the children performed better on tasks at lower levels of complexity than on tasks at higher levels. The group's performance was compared to that of a sample of mainly white upper-middle-class, 3- to 4-year-old children attending private preschools; and to a second sample of primarily black or Puerto Rican lower class, 3- to 4-year-old children attending public day care centers. At all four levels, the Hawaiian children scored to varying degrees higher than the lower class sample but lower than the middle class sample. Eight tables and one figure are included.   [More]  Descriptors: Comparative Analysis, Error Analysis (Language), Language Processing, Language Tests

Gans, Herbert J. (1968). The Uses of Television and Their Educational Implications; Preliminary Findings from a Survey of Adult and Adolescent New York Television Viewers. To collect data on how to make television a more effective learning instrument outside of the classroom, a standard probability sample with quotas consisting of 200 adults and 200 adolescents living in New York City was interviewed to study how people use TV, their attitudes toward various types of programing, and their viewing preferences. Designed to exclude light viewers, the interview schedule featured questions on viewing habits, relevance of TV to personal problems, audience preferences in news coverage, and entertainment vs. information. An attempt was made to correlate opinion with variables of age (by describing TV use among adolescents), class, race (by describing the effects of white television in the black community), emotional health (as judged by the respondents), and frequency of viewing. Such variables influence the choice of a network newscaster (Huntley-Brinkley, Cronkite, or Jennings), the selective perception of news and editorial content, and the taste for reality or fantasy in hypothetical programs. Characteristics of the sample, the interview schedule, and attitude data from East Harlem residents are appended to the text.   [More]  Descriptors: Adolescents, Adults, Audiences, Black Attitudes

Johnson, Charles D.; And Others (1974). Personality Mediators of Interpersonal Attraction. The current study was an examination of the effect of personality variables on the relationship between attitude disagreement and attraction. Attraction was measured in a neutral situation, designed to maximize any existing affective predispositions toward attitude agreement-disagreements. Subjects were placed in an ambiguous face-to-face situation in which an accomplice agreed with the subject on 7 of 14 attitude issues. The personality variables of interest were Spielberger's (1966) state-trait anxiety measures and the Marlowe-Crowne (1964) scale of social desirability. In the context of attraction toward neutral strangers, anxiety and social desirability were expected to have quite different, in fact, complementary, effects. Specifically, two hypotheses were advanced: (1) that high anxiety would be related to disliking others and enhanced recall for disagreements; and (2) that high social desirability would be associated with liking others and heightened recall for agreements, when the proportion of attitude agreements-disagreements was constant. Results supported both hypotheses. Neutral interactions elicited very different affective reactions from high anxiety and high need for approval subjects despite the fact that proportion of attitude agreements was constant. Anxiety and social desirability apparently influenced interpersonal attraction by promoting selective perception in an ambiguous social situation.   [More]  Descriptors: Affective Behavior, Anxiety, Attitudes, Interaction

Zarcone-Alessandrino, Lisa (1990). Reading and the ESL Student: Alternative Materials Used To Enhance a Phonetic Approach to Reading. The design and testing of an approach to reading instruction are described. The design system consists of five stages: analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. A needs analysis indicated the necessity to improve the reading skills of limited-English-proficient students. A group of 6- to 8-year-old students were identified for pilot testing of the approach. Five tasks in the development of reading proficiency were identified and linked to specific subskills. Supplementary audio-visual materials found to be highly motivating were used to reinforce and strengthen psychomotor skills, intellectual skills, and verbal information. Instruction was designed to enhance nine internal processes occurring during learning, including: reception, expectancy, retrieval, selective perception, semantic encoding, responding, reinforcement, retrieval and reinforcement, and retrieval and generalization. Formative evaluation was used during the instructional period, with adjustments made in instruction, and summative evaluation was used at the end of instruction. Results showed the use of supplementary materials with dictation to be effective in raising both the reading level and the confidence level of subjects. Appended materials include a weekly and monthly planner for the reading and ESL student development plan, a task analysis, a list of instructional objectives, a sample questionnaire, a performance checklist, the Durrell Analysis of Reading Difficulty Phonetic Inventory, and a scope and sequence storybook list. Descriptors: Audiovisual Aids, English (Second Language), Formative Evaluation, Instructional Effectiveness

SCHMUCK, RICHARD (1967). SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS IN KNOWLEDGE UTILIZATION AS APPLIED TO EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION. THREE PROBLEM AREAS ARE EXPLORED IN THIS SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF RESEARCH UTILIZATION IN EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION–(1) INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN BEHAVIORAL SCIENTISTS AND SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS, (2) PSYCHOLOGICAL LINKAGES BETWEEN THE ADMINISTRATOR'S SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE AND HIS ACTIONS, AND (3) THE LACK OF CONNECTION BETWEEN THE ADMINISTRATOR'S ACTION REPERTOIRE AND THE REQUIREMENTS OF EACH NATURAL SITUATION AS IT ARISES. UNPRODUCTIVE RESEARCHER-ADMINISTRATOR RELATIONSHIPS ARE CHARACTERIZED BY POOR COMMUNICATION, NEGATIVE STEREOTYPES OF ONE ANOTHER HELD BY RESEARCHER AND ADMINISTRATOR, AND DISTRUST AND SUSPICION SUPPORTED BY THE INCONSISTENT NORMS OF EACH ONE'S REFERENCE GROUP. PSYCHOLOGICAL PROCESSES CONTRIBUTING TO THESE DIFFICULTIES IN INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS INCLUDE SELECTIVE PERCEPTION OF EACH OTHER'S BEHAVIOR, DISTORTIONS OF MEMORY, A TENDENCY TO PLACE LOW VALUE ON EACH OTHER'S WORK, AND THE POSSIBILITY OF COLLABORATION THREATENING THE SELF-CONCEPTS OF BOTH RESEARCHER AND ADMINISTRATOR. TEN CLUSTERS OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSUMPTIONS ARE LISTED FOR BUILDING CONNECTIONS BETWEEN THE PRODUCTION OF RESEARCH KNOWLEDGE AND THE IMPROVEMENT OF ADMINISTRATIVE PRACTICE IN EDUCATION. THIS PAPER WAS PREPARED FOR PRESENTATION AT THE UCEA CAREER DEVELOPMENT SEMINAR (17TH), CO-SPONSORED BY THE UNIVERSITY COUNCIL FOR EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND THE UNIVERSITY OF OREGON (PORTLAND, OREGON, OCTOBER 22-25, 1967), AND WILL BE AVAILABLE FROM THE PUBLICATIONS DEPARTMENT, CENTER FOR THE ADVANCED STUDY OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION, HENDRICKS HALL, UNIVERSITY OF OREGON, EUGENE, OREGON 97403.   [More]  Descriptors: Administrator Role, Administrators, Bibliographies, Diffusion

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Bibliography: Selective Perception (page 2 of 4)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized for the Alternative Facts website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Kent Clement, Dan G. Drew, Joan E. Sussman, Harold de Bock, Michael P. Brawer, James McQueen, Cheryl Riley Powell, Kathleen M. Galvin, Barbara K. Keogh, and Steven H. Chaffee.

Kjeldergaard, Paul M.; And Others (1969). Perception of Language: Proceedings of a Symposium of the Learning Research and Development Center; Parts I and II. This report describes in two volumes the proceedings of a conference on the perception of language held at the University of Pittsburgh in January, 1968. The objectives of the conference, to present the particular research interests of the participants and to attempt to find points of concurrence in thinking through discussion of the conference topic, are emphasized throughout the nine articles and summary discussion. Major areas of psychological research which are presented as chapters in the proceedings include listening, reading, and grammatical structure; age changes in the selective perception of verbal materials; acoustic and grammatical features of spontaneous speech; the perception of time compressed speech; current approaches to syntax recognition; speech and body motion synchrony of the Speaker-Hearer; an analysis of laterality effects in speech perception; children's language development and articulatory breakdown; and perception of phonetic segments with evidence from phonology, acoustics, and psycholinguistics.   [More]  Descriptors: Acoustics, Articulation (Speech), Language Acquisition, Language Patterns

Wilhoit, G. Cleveland; de Bock, Harold (1976). Archie Bunker in a Foreign Culture: A Panel Study of Selectivity Processes in the Dutch Television Audience. A national sample of 503 Dutch people aged 15 and over who were accessible by telephone was used in this longitudinal study of reactions to a series of eight broadcasts of "All in the Family." Attitude scales were developed for three independent variables–ethnocentrism, lifestyle intolerance, and parental authoritarianism. Questionnaire items were also developed for three dependent variables–selective exposure, selective perception, and selective retention. Analyses concentrated on three questions: Do the Dutch perceive "All in the Family" as pertaining only to the American context, or is it seen as also pertinent to Dutch society? Is there selectivity in the Dutch exposure, perception, and retention that is related to ethnocentrism, lifestyle intolerance, and parental authoritarianism? What are the uses and gratifications received by the Dutch audience from "All in the Family"?   [More]  Descriptors: Adults, Bias, Cognitive Processes, Communication (Thought Transfer)

McQueen, James (1996). Phonetic Categorisation, Language and Cognitive Processes. Notes that in phonetic categorization, listeners hear a range of speech sounds forming a continuum of ambiguous sounds between two endpoints and are required to identify the sounds as one or other of the endpoints. Points out that this task has been used in phonetics and in psycholinguistics to study categorical perception, selective adaptation, speaking rate normalization, and trading relations. (61 references) Descriptors: Ambiguity, Auditory Perception, Auditory Stimuli, Classification

Snavely, William B. (1974). An Instructional Model of the Process of Selectivity. In view of the importance of selectivity to the understanding of the interpersonal, small group, and public communication processes, this concept must be introduced into the communication classroom. This paper introduces an instructional model that simplifies the student's understanding of the four major steps involved in the selectivity process: selective exposure, attention, perception, and retention. Discussion is included regarding possible extensions of this model and suggested areas of classroom application. A diagram of the model is included.   [More]  Descriptors: Attention, Behavioral Science Research, Communication (Thought Transfer), Conceptual Schemes

Braverman, Marc T.; Yates, Mary Ellen (1989). Enhancing the Educational Effectiveness of Zoos. This study addressed whether the educational impact of a zoo visit can be enhanced through the provision of appropriate instructional supports such as preparatory trainings or orientations. One important function of the educational process, in contrast to providing direct information or skill development, is to make the learner more sensitive to the learning environment by developing motivation and increasing skills in attention and/or selective perception. This is particularly significant when dealing with experiential education settings such as zoos, because those settings tend to be unstructured and the learner is more on his or her own. The subjects, Extension 4-H agents, were either presented an orientation lecture with slides, or given a packet of orientation reading materials. The two groups visited the San Diego Zoo in November 1987 as part of the annual meeting of the National Association of Extension 4-H Agents. Both of these groups were tested against a control group. This study demonstrated that orientation sessions can serve to boost the educational effectiveness of zoos, at least in the area of knowledge gain. The orientation did not increase the strength of attitudes and values related to zoos. Descriptors: Class Activities, Educational Facilities, Elementary School Science, Elementary Secondary Education

Drew, Dan G. (1974). Reporters' Attitudes, Expected Meetings with a Source and Journalistic Objectivity. A cornerstone of twentieth century journalism is the concept of objectivity. This experimental study explores psychological pressures on the reporter in a theoretical framework of balance theory and social perception. Specifically, it deals with reporters' attitudes toward their sources, their expectation of a future meeting with the sources, and the type of stories they write. It also seeks to determine whether perceptual screening, resulting from the journalist's attitude toward the source, is a factor in reportorial performance. Objectivity for this study is defined as fairness or balance in decision making, information seeking, and presentation of information. The most important finding of this study is the evidence that attitudes of reporters toward the source seemed to have little impact on news stories or editorials. The data also provide evidence indicating that selective perception is not a particularly strong restraint on reportorial activity.   [More]  Descriptors: Attitudes, Communication (Thought Transfer), Journalism, Media Research

Galvin, Kathleen M.; Book, Cassandra L. (1972). Communication/Speech. This book is intended as a resource for teachers who are adopting a communication approach to a speech course. Organized into seven chapters which each contain behavioral and learning objectives and activities, the book is designed to help educators guide their students toward an understanding of inter- and intrapersonal communication and the development of effective communication skills. The introductory chapter discusses communication models and networks. Chapter two concerns the encoding and decoding of messages in terms of selective perception, accuracy, and interference. Chapters three through six address the numerous communication settings and relationships including intrapersonal, one-to-one, group, and one-to-group communication situations. The final chapter is devoted to the study of nonverbal communication in relation to symbols, sign and signals, space and setting, status, and intercultural influences. Also included is a list of selective terminology with parallel examples used throughout the book, special monographs, and an annotated bibliography. Descriptors: Behavioral Objectives, Communication Skills, Communication (Thought Transfer), Curriculum Guides

Powell, Cheryl Riley (1978). The Reporter's Control of News. A recent study profiles the American journalist as young, male, white, educated, and coming from a solid middle- or upper-middle-class background. Women and minority groups are grossly underrepresented in the field of journalism. Other studies present parallels between the topics that are selected as newsworthy and the characteristics of those who gather and edit the news, revealing that the selective perception of the reporter does influence what becomes news. Other factors that color the individual reporter's approach to the news include reasons for entering the profession, motivation for staying on the job, personal values and professional ethics, mood, intelligence, imagination, and the competitive, self-protective atmosphere of the newsroom. Fearing a loss of credibility with the public, today's reporter faces problems in verifying all information, defining an ethical position toward sources and the public, deciding a personal role as a private citizen, and guarding relationships and affairs from conflict-of-interests charges. Descriptors: Bias, Individual Characteristics, Information Dissemination, Journalism

Griessman, B. Eugene; Bertrand, Alvin L. (1967). Factors Related to Communication of Forest Fire Prevention Messages, a Study of Selected Rural Communities. Two rural Louisiana communities were selected to evaluate the effectiveness of certain types of communication in preventing man-caused forest fires. The communities were selected on the basis of differences in fire occurrence rates and other factors related to conservation. Questionnaires and personal interviews were utilized to determine views of inhabitants and access to communication media. The relation of sociocultural factors to fire occurrence rates, the social process of communication, the potential of mass media and informal media in communication of fire prevention messages, and selective perception and effectiveness of fire prevention messages were evaluated. It was recommended that persons with roles as fire prevention change agents design their information programs to reach all the inhabitants of a community after careful appraisal of all available data on local environmental factors.   [More]  Descriptors: Area Studies, Change Agents, Communication Problems, Communication (Thought Transfer)

Sussman, Joan E. (1993). Auditory Processing in Children's Speech Perception: Results of Selective Adaptation and Discrimination Tasks, Journal of Speech and Hearing Research. Ten children (ages 5-6) and 10 adults participated in discrimination and selective adaptation speech perception tasks using a synthetic consonant-vowel continuum. Results support hypotheses of sensory processing differences in younger, normally developing children compared with adults and show that such abilities appear to be related to speech perception skills. Descriptors: Adults, Attention, Auditory Discrimination, Auditory Evaluation

Brawer, Michael P. (1982). Integrating Motivational Activities into Instruction: A Developmental Model. A model for integrating motivational activities into instruction and the problem with motivational activities in the classroom for the disadvantaged learner are examined. Eight basic learning processes are identified that the teacher should understand in preparation for presenting information to students: attention/reception, selective perception, rehearsal, semantic encoding, search and retrieval, response organization, feedback, and executive control. Motivational activities can help to gain the interest of the learner and make the task relevant to the learner. Four basic steps that should lead a teacher or instructional designer toward a definitive means of selecting appropriate motivational activities and incorporating them into instruction are considered. The first step is to determine the media needs of the learners (e.g., lower ability groups generally respond better to visual stimuli such as films, overheads, or displays). The second component of the model is derived from examining the prior decisions and entails such decisions as whether the motivational activity should focus on related past instruction, or whether remedial activities are needed. A next step is to examine the feasibility of that activity within the learning environment (i.e., the time and materials available), and the final step is to develop/select the actual motivational events of instruction. It is suggested that by examining the problem of motivation, identifying student characteristics, and carefully planning lessons, many of the motivational problems teachers face in the classroom can be overcome. A flowchart illustrating the steps in selecting motivational activities for instruction is appended. Descriptors: Classroom Environment, Diagnostic Teaching, Educationally Disadvantaged, High Risk Students

Kaid, Lynda Lee (1975). The Impact of Political Television Commercials. For decades research on mass media in political campaigns has yielded little evidence of direct, significant effects. Most survey research on elections found adequate explanations for voting decisions while excluding the impact of mass media. Although the increasing use of expensive television advertising campaigns is evidence of the confidence of candidates and their advisors, researchers have remained unconvinced, although in recent years they have begun to examine political television commercials more closely. The number of surveys has remained small, however, and fraught with methodological difficulties. Recent topics of research include: levels of voter exposure; extent of selective exposure; voter recall of information; selective perception and retention of information;"image" versus "issue" spots; the effect of length; direct impact on voting decisions; and the functions that such spots perform for voters. Recommendations for future research include the following: make further efforts to isolate the impact of particular spots; use more realistic viewing situations; measure the cumulative impact of several different spots over time; study the interaction of spots with other information sources; and study the uses voters make of the information derived from spots. Descriptors: Advertising, Broadcast Television, Communication (Thought Transfer), Information Utilization

Keogh, Barbara K. (1977). Early ID: Selective Perception or Perceptive Selection?, Academic Therapy. The state of the art in early identification of children with learning problems is reviewed, and generalizations about the value of early screening are offered. Descriptors: Early Childhood Education, Educational Diagnosis, Elementary Education, Exceptional Child Education

Clement, Kent (1997). The Psychology of Judgment for Outdoor Leaders. Judgment is the process of making decisions with incomplete information concerning either the outcomes or the decision factors. Sound judgment that leads to good decisions is an essential skill needed by adventure education and outdoor leadership professionals. Cognitive psychology provides several theories and insights concerning the accuracy of human judgment. Selective perceptions refers to the fact that perceptions are selective, reconstructive, and subject to memory biases. The context in which one encounters a situation affects the way it is perceived, and therefore will affect judgments and decisions. There are three such context effects: the primacy effect, the recency effect, and the halo effect. General rules to help find solutions are known as "heuristics." Although generally helpful, heuristics can be obstructive by creating predictable biases. Two impediments unique to group decision-making are "groupthink" and "social loafing." Three main types of common traps in decision making are overconfidence, self-fulfilling prophecies, and behavioral traps. The five types of behavioral traps discussed are the time delay trap, ignorance trap, investment trap, deterioration trap, and collective trap. Strategies to mitigate each of these phenomena are given.   [More]  Descriptors: Adventure Education, Bias, Cognitive Psychology, Cognitive Structures

Chaffee, Steven H. (1978). Communication Patterns in the Family: Implications for Adaptability and Change. The argument for renewed theoretical development in the study of family communication has several implications. One is that researchers should concentrate on family communication as such rather than expanding generalizations from family communication to other groups and institutions; this requires grappling more specifically with the explication and testing of theoretical propositions about the ways in which family communication functions. The roster of possible hypotheses includes such empirical theories as reinforcement, selective perception, information-seeking, and de facto selective exposure. Methodologies that are quite different from those used in the past will have to be devised and employed. Firsthand observation, experimental variation, and longitudinal designs are all needed. The latter is particularly important because the greatest implications of what is known about family communication have to do with developments occurring long after the child matures and leaves the family. Both observational and experimental ingenuity are needed to test specific hypotheses about the nature of the process by which family communication patterns shape the developing child's construction of the world around him.   [More]  Descriptors: Communication Problems, Communication Research, Communication (Thought Transfer), Family Influence

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Bibliography: Selective Perception (page 1 of 4)

This bibliography is selected and organized by the Alternative Facts website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Klara Overland, Judy I. Schwartz, Ingunn Storksen, David L. Klemmack, Thomas Kochman, Alexander Grob, Linda S. Fidell, Steven F. Tuckey, Isabelle Drewelow, and Robert M. Gagne.

Kochman, Thomas (1976). Perceptions along the Power Axis: A Cognitive Residue of Inter-Racial Encounters, Anthropological Linguistics. This paper is one of a series examining language and interactional patterns of white and black Americans manifested in cultural contexts. It considers the relative impact of the power or status differential on selective perceptions, attitudes and speech behavior where power difference is crucial to the communicative process. Descriptors: Black Attitudes, Blacks, Communication Problems, Interaction Process Analysis

Cone, Dick; Harris, Susan (1996). Service-Learning Practice: Developing a Theoretical Framework, Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning. Service-learning has drawn largely on a few major theorists for theoretical support. Additional theoretical perspectives drawn from cognitive psychology and social theory can also contribute, including constructs of concept formation, selective perception, categorization, critical reflection, and mediated learning. Each of these helps to explain the transformational nature of experiential education and provides intellectual support for "best practices." Descriptors: Classification, Cognitive Psychology, College Curriculum, College Instruction

Reimann, Giselle; Gut, Janine; Frischknecht, Marie-Claire; Grob, Alexander (2013). Memory Abilities in Children with Mathematical Difficulties: Comorbid Language Difficulties Matter, Learning and Individual Differences. The present study investigated cognitive abilities in children with difficulties in mathematics only (n = 48, M = 8 years and 5 months), combined mathematical and language difficulty (n = 27, M = 8 years and 1 month) and controls (n = 783, M = 7 years and 11 months). Cognitive abilities were measured with seven subtests, tapping visual perception, selective attention, memory, and reasoning, as well as full-scale-IQ. Children with difficulties in mathematics only differed in their cognitive abilities, not only from controls, but also from children with comorbid language difficulties. Children with mathematical difficulties only performed worse than controls in a selective attention measure, but not in any working memory measure, meanwhile children with difficulties in mathematics and language performed worse than controls in verbal working memory components, but not selective attention. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.   [More]  Descriptors: Children, Cognitive Ability, Mathematics, Learning Disabilities

Giorgianni, Thomas E. (2013). Impact of Professional Background on Problem Perception among Community College Leaders, ProQuest LLC. With the rising need for community college administrators, many colleges are looking outside of academia for individuals to fill upper-level positions. Controversy has risen over administrative hires as to whether the incumbent should be from within academia or from business. This leads us to question if there is a difference between individuals that have been working within academia versus those that have worked in business. Considering that an individual's perception is one of the major inputs into the decision-making process, testing the individual's perception might yield some insight and help to determine if any differences do exist between those individuals who have worked in either academia or business. This research tests if community college administrator's work history and/or educational background have a relationship with their perception. If selective perception is evidenced, then it might influence whether community colleges should take professional background into account when looking to academics or to business professionals to hire as administrators. This research consists of two studies collecting basic background information on selected subjects, along with their respective educational backgrounds, work histories, survey responses, and interviews. The research methodology utilized was based on the studies of Dearborn et al., Walsh, and Beyer et al. The first study requested each subject to read a case, identify the issues in the case, rank each identified issue on a Likert scale (1-7), and note which of all the identified issues is most important. The second study examined variances in subjects' issue perception, word utilization, and mental content in a more open ended interview format. The research shows strong support for selective perception based on professional background. It also shows that administrators from the two groups tend to preference different mental models, academics preferring "inclusive" approaches, compared to the more "top down" approaches of administrators with business background. Finally, the research raises questions as to the differential impact of "on the job socialization" on both groups. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.%5D   [More]  Descriptors: Community Colleges, College Administration, Administrators, Administrator Characteristics

Drewelow, Isabelle (2011). Learners' Selective Perceptions of Information during Instructed Learning in French: Consequences, Modern Language Journal. The present study examined how American learners of French perceived the influence of instruction on their existing stereotypes about the French people to determine the effects of these stereotypes on their language learning and cultural openness. During a semester, 22 undergraduate students, all native English speakers enrolled in 4 sections of first-semester French at a large Midwestern university were interviewed 3 times via Instant Messenger. The data analysis revealed that, for some participants, the information received during instruction was selectively interpreted (Barna, 1998; Bennett, 1998) through the lenses of beliefs and images present in their habitus (Bourdieu, 1982), with as a result the reinforcement of preexisting stereotypes and impressions. This article focuses on 3 participants who, at some point during the semester, identified a stereotype about the French people and how they believed their instructor or the instructional material participated in its reinforcement.   [More]  Descriptors: Undergraduate Students, Second Language Learning, Instructional Materials, Reinforcement

Gagne, Robert M. (1980). Is Educational Technology in Phase?, Educational Technology. Discusses whether educational technology has kept pace with recent developments in the related fields of psychology and communication science. Addressed are several areas in cognitive psychology: the process of selective perception, semantic encoding, the effects of previous learning, and the influence of metacognitlon.   [More]  Descriptors: Cognitive Development, Educational Technology, Learning Theories, Perception

Schwartz, Judy I. (1979). Reading Readiness for the Hearing Impaired, Academic Therapy. The importance of competence in both receptive and expressive language, selective perception, and a rich experiential background for reading readiness skills of hearing impaired children is empahsized. Descriptors: Aural Learning, Early Childhood Education, Elementary Education, Expressive Language

Cleave, Hayley (2009). Too Anxious to Speak? The Implications of Current Research into Selective Mutism for Educational Psychology Practice, Educational Psychology in Practice. Selective Mutism is a low incidence disorder but has considerable impact on the school system when it occurs. Over the last decade several research articles have been published which have challenged the understanding of the aetiology of Selective Mutism. Current perceptions about the aetiology of Selective Mutism are considered in order to inform the practice of educational psychologists (EPs). Research suggests a multifactorial aetiology with evidence of co-morbidity. Hypothesis led suggestions are made about assessment and intervention of Selective Mutism.   [More]  Descriptors: Children, Anxiety, Psychosomatic Disorders, Communication Problems

Fendler, Lynn; Tuckey, Steven F. (2006). Whose Literacy? Discursive Constructions of Life and Objectivity, Educational Philosophy and Theory. Drawing from literature in the social studies of science, this paper historicizes two pivotal concepts in science literacy: the definition of life and the assumption of objectivity. In this paper we suggest that an understanding of the historical, discursive production of scientific knowledge affects the meaning of scientific literacy in at least three ways. First, a discursive study of scientific knowledge has the epistemological consequence of avoiding the selective perception that occurs when facts are abstracted from the historical conditions of their emergence. Second, a discursive approach to scientific knowledge can also be an example of science-as-exploration. Third, literacy and discourse studies contribute insights that alter assumptions about pedagogical appropriateness in science education. The paper concludes by suggesting that when science literacy includes the historical production of scientific knowledge, it can thereby extend the possibilities for what can be thought, studied and imagined in the name of science education.   [More]  Descriptors: Scientific Literacy, Science Education, Science History, Scientific Enterprise

Klemmack, David L.; And Others (1975). Media Exposure and Interpersonal Perception in Family Planning Adoption, Sociology and Social Research. The influence of media awareness on family planning adoption is examined according to 3 models: selective perception, reinforcement, and cognitive dissonance.   [More]  Descriptors: Behavior Patterns, Community Influence, Contraception, Family Planning

Pashiardis, Petros (1995). Problem and Dilemma Identification in the Decision-Making Process, International Journal of Educational Reform. Examines decision making in educational organizations, focusing on problems associated with identifying and labeling issues. Factors influencing labeling include decision maker characteristics such as filtering ability, aspiration level, capabilities and experience, stress, "satisficing" proclivity, anchoring and adjustment, selective perception, illusion of control, regression and hindsight bias, misperception of chance, illusory correlation, and organizational influences. (72 references) Descriptors: Decision Making, Educational Administration, Elementary Secondary Education, Higher Education

Fidell, Linda S. (1973). Put Her Down on Drugs: Prescribed Drug Usage in Women. The medical interview was examined as a problem in two way communication, with selective perception and both patient and physician expectations operating. The potential influence of belief in the sex role stereotype on physician perception of the female patient and his prescribing of psychoactive drugs was examined. Descriptors: Attitudes, Drug Abuse, Females, Individual Needs

Bramlett-Solomon, Sharon; Liebler, Carol M. (1999). Enhancing Theory Courses with Racially Inclusive Research, Journalism and Mass Communication Educator. Offers a blueprint that instructors of mass media theory courses can adopt to expose students to racially inclusive research in order to encourage students to explore and employ relevant theories when probing media and race questions. Offers examples of inclusive media research, examining six prominent theories: selective-perception theory, socialization theory, cultivation theory, agenda-setting theory, framing theory, and cultural theory. Descriptors: Cultural Pluralism, Higher Education, Journalism Education, Journalism Research

Overland, Klara; Thorsen, Arlene Arstad; Storksen, Ingunn (2012). The Beliefs of Teachers and Daycare Staff regarding Children of Divorce: A Q Methodological Study, Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal of Research and Studies. This Q methodological study explores beliefs of daycare staff and teachers regarding young children's reactions related to divorce. The Q factor analysis resulted in two viewpoints. Participants on the viewpoint "Child problems" believe that children show various emotional and behavioral problems related to divorce, while those on the "Structure is working" viewpoint believe structure in daycare centers and parental cooperation help children to overcome divorce-related difficulties. Selective perception based on subjective experiences may have influenced these views. Practical implications are discussed. Q methodology and cognitive interviewing techniques seem efficient in exploring daycare staff beliefs.   [More]  Descriptors: Divorce, Q Methodology, Factor Analysis, Preschool Teachers

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Bibliography: Selective Retention (page 3 of 3)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized for the Alternative Facts website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Arthur Wellesley Foshay, Irving Morrisett, Tampa. Coll. of Education. University of South Florida, WALTER W. COOK, Warren W. Shivley, ROBERT A. PIERSON, Roger E. Wilk, Lynda Lee Kaid, and Roy Gale Mikalson.

Foshay, Arthur Wellesley, Ed.; Morrisett, Irving, Ed. (1978). Beyond the Scientific: A Comprehensive View of Consciousness. Eight papers which discuss rational and nonrational modes of knowing and consciousness and their relevance to educational practice are presented. Richard Jones in "Looking Back and Forth on Consciousness" considers two modes, the rational and the metaphoric, in a discussion of dreams. Alfred Kuhn discusses random variation and selective retention (RVSR) as operations of left and right brain. The combination of the two produce rationality. Maxine Greene focuses on imaginative literature as expressing an array of modes of consciousness. Arthur Wellesly Foshay in "Intuition and Curriculum" pleads for the legitimacy of intuition and offers several examples of how the intuitive leap may be encouraged in school. Ronald Lippit and Eva Schindler-Rainman in "Knowing, Feeling, Doing" call for a fully linked person. The three elements in the title are necessary for the education of the whole person. Robert Samples makes a sharp distinction between right and left hemisphere activities and explains the dominance of the linear, logical, rationalist mode of thinking in schools chiefly through the lack of trust engendered in the classrooms. Mark Phillips describes confluent education, which recognizes and employs all forces present in classroom activity at a given time. John Haas discusses the term synectics, which refers to the unity of the metaphoric and the analytic in the creative process, and uses examples drawn from actual experience. The implications of all the papers are that there are many modes of knowing of which the rational is one and if we are to function fully we ought to make full use of all modes.   [More]  Descriptors: Books, Cognitive Processes, Concept Formation, Creativity

University of South Florida, Tampa. Coll. of Education. (1974). Case Study: Focus on Personal/Professional Preparation in Physical Education. This paper describes a program featuring integrated course sequences and continuous teaching experience that prepares teachers who can create a variety of learning environments that provide meaningful movement experiences for grades K-12,. The 2-year program sequence includes the following elements: (a) selective admissions and retention procedure, (b) individual assessment, (c) seminar and field experience/internship, and (d) human kinetics theory and application. Close articulation of program elements is assured by team teaching and open communication between faculty and students. Immediate application of theory is possible in the concurrent field experience, and frequent evaluation by all involved provides feedback for continuing refinement of the program.   [More]  Descriptors: Elementary Education, Field Experience Programs, Kinetics, Physical Education

COOK, WALTER W.; AND OTHERS (1963). A STUDY OF FACTORS OPERATIVE IN THE SELECTIVE RETENTION OF STUDENTS IN TEACHER EDUCATION, PART I. THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO DISCOVER THE PERSONALITY AND EXPERIENCE FACTORS WHICH DISTINGUISH STUDENTS WHO ARE SUCCESSFUL IN PROFESSIONAL TEACHER TRAINING COURSES AND ACTUALLY ENTER TEACHING, FROM THE PERSONALITY AND EXPERIENCE FACTORS OF STUDENTS WHO DROP OUT ALONG THE WAY. INFORMATION WAS GATHERED FROM ALL STUDENTS WHO ENTER THE JUNIOR PROFESSIONAL SEQUENCE OF COURSES IN THE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION. THESE STUDENTS WERE DIVIDED INTO GROUPS ACCORDING TO THEIR MAJOR AREA. THE KINDS OF DATA WHICH WERE COLLECTED INCLUDED SUCH ITEMS AS BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION, ACADEMIC RECORDS, INTERVIEW REPORTS, AND TEST MEASURES OF ABILITIES AND INTERESTS. THERE WAS IMMEDIATE FOLLOWUP OF STUDENTS WHO DROPPED OUT AT VARIOUS POINTS DURING THE TRAINING PROGRAM, AND THE FINAL ANALYSES WERE DESIGNED TO DETECT THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THOSE WHO PERSISTED AND THOSE WHO LEFT. THE MOST SIGNIFICANT IMPLICATION FOR FURTHER RESEARCH WAS THE NEED TO CONTINUE THE PROCEDURES WHICH HAVE BEEN ESTABLISHED AND TO EXTEND DATA THAT HAVE BEEN GATHERED FOR THE INITIAL POPULATIONS OF STUDENTS. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Dropout Rate, Educational Background, Personality Assessment

Kaid, Lynda Lee (1975). The Impact of Political Television Commercials. For decades research on mass media in political campaigns has yielded little evidence of direct, significant effects. Most survey research on elections found adequate explanations for voting decisions while excluding the impact of mass media. Although the increasing use of expensive television advertising campaigns is evidence of the confidence of candidates and their advisors, researchers have remained unconvinced, although in recent years they have begun to examine political television commercials more closely. The number of surveys has remained small, however, and fraught with methodological difficulties. Recent topics of research include: levels of voter exposure; extent of selective exposure; voter recall of information; selective perception and retention of information;"image" versus "issue" spots; the effect of length; direct impact on voting decisions; and the functions that such spots perform for voters. Recommendations for future research include the following: make further efforts to isolate the impact of particular spots; use more realistic viewing situations; measure the cumulative impact of several different spots over time; study the interaction of spots with other information sources; and study the uses voters make of the information derived from spots. Descriptors: Advertising, Broadcast Television, Communication (Thought Transfer), Information Utilization

Shivley, Warren W. (1982). Let's Reevaluate our Instruments for Selective Retention in Teacher Education, College Student Journal. Investigated the relationship between success in student teaching and 13 instruments commonly completed before student teaching and whether the measures predict success in student teaching. The data indicated the measures were ineffective. Suggested alternatives to the instruments used are proposed.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Academic Aptitude, Attitude Measures, Education Majors

Mikalson, Roy Gale (1964). The Impact of 1961 Legislation Relating to Probationary Teachers on Instruction and Administrative Practices in California Public Junior Colleges. In 1961, the California Legislature stiffened the legal requirements for the dismissal of probationary teachers at the end of a school year. Surveying the literature, and polling selected junior college administrators and probationary teachers, the author sought to assess the impact of this change on the quality of junior college instruction. On the positive side, he found a greater emphasis on careful selection of new faculty, revised programs of evaluation of probationary teachers, and freer feelings of probationary teachers to teach without fear of arbitrary dismissal. On the negative side, he found boards and administrators reluctant to dismiss mediocre teachers, no increase in supervisory help, and a negative effect on faculty-administrator rapport on the possibility of a hearing. The effects of the change varied with the individual college and seemed to depend on the state of faculty-administrator rapport, the ability of the college to attract and hold competent teachers, community expectations, and the perceptions of the administrators on the possibility of releasing a teacher rated ineffective. The author concludes that administrators must not perceive the changes in the Education Code as providing "instant tenure"; otherwise selective retention will be precluded and the quality of instruction will diminish. Descriptors: Administrative Policy, Educational Legislation, Instructional Improvement, Probationary Period

Wilk, Roger E.; And Others (1969). A Study of Factors Operative in the Selective Retention of Students in Teacher Education. Part II. A longitudinal study (1956-62) of 4,948 education majors during their junior and senior years was conducted to identify biographical, academic, and psychometric factors characteristic of students who persist and student who do not persist in a teacher education curriculum. The data variables which were analyzed against the criterion of persistence were, in addition to the above-mentioned factors, from achievement test scores and postbaccalaureate questionnaires. Eight questions framed the collection and analysis of data. Results are of descriptive value, especially from questions regarding the characteristics of juniors entering the college of education, the number and location of students teaching after graduation, and the achievement levels of five standardized tests of juniors and seniors. Additional findings indicate the following: in determining differences between "persists" and "nonpersists," only overall grade point average contributed significantly, and information available at the time of admission is not an effective predictor; men and women who persisted had different patterns of scores, with high school rank being the most effective single variable; generally, persistence or nonpersistence could not be determined by achievement tests, even after adjustment was made for ability differences; and the pattern of significant gains in educational development differed but personality test scores did not differ among students grouped according to major fields.   [More]  Descriptors: Education Majors, Persistence, Research Needs, Teacher Persistence

PIERSON, ROBERT A. (1966). THE G.P.A. CRITERION AND SELECTIVE RETENTION IN TEACHER EDUCATION. TO DETERMINE WHETHER ARBITRARY GRADE-POINT AVERAGE CUT-OFF POINTS (E.G. 2.25) FOR ENTRANCE INTO TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMS ARE UNFAIR TO PRESENT-DAY STUDENTS, NINETY 1966 COLLEGE SOPHOMORES WITH FRESHMAN-YEAR GPA'S BETWEEN 2.00 AND 2.09 WERE COMPARED TO THE SAME NUMBER OF 1961 SOPHOMORES WITH FRESHMAN-YEAR GPA'S BETWEEN 2.25 AND 2.34 USING (1) POSITION IN HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATING CLASS AND (2) FRESHMAN SCAT AND ACT SCORES AS CRITERION MEASURES. IT WAS HYPOTHESIZED THAT THE 1966 SOPHOMORES WOULD HAVE HIGHER RANKS AND SCORES BECAUSE PRESENT-DAY SELECTION AND ADMISSION POLICIES MAY HAVE MADE THEM BETTER PREPARED THAN THEIR PREDECESSORS. CONTRARY TO EXPECTATIONS, IT WAS FOUND THAT THE 1961 STUDENTS RANKED HIGHER IN THEIR GRADUATING CLASSES AND HAD HIGHER FRESHMAN TEST SCORES, ALTHOUGH THE DIFFERENCES WERE NOT SIGNIFICANT. IT IS THOUGHT THAT THE DISCREPANCY MIGHT BE ACCOUNTED FOR BY THE FACT THAT GRADING POLICIES MAY HAVE REMAINED INVARIANT OR MAY HAVE BECOME SOMEWHAT MORE STRINGENT WITH RESPECT TO THE FRESHMAN AND SOPHOMORE POPULATION OF 1966.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Admission Criteria, Aptitude Tests, Class Average

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Bibliography: Selective Retention (page 2 of 3)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized for the Alternative Facts website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include John R. Dettre, Georgene M. Murphy, Marlene Bireley, J. Foster Watkins, G. Cleveland Wilhoit, Harold de Bock, Ruth King, Joseph W. Duncan, Katherine K. Wallman, and Joshua A. Fishman.

Watkins, J. Foster (1981). ACT Scores and Selective Admissions: An Exploratory Look at Some One-Time Data, Capstone Journal of Education. Raises questions about the wisdom of relying on any single measure, especially a norm-referenced one such as the ACT, for making selective admission, retention, and certification decisions in teacher education.   [More]  Descriptors: Admission Criteria, College Entrance Examinations, Higher Education, Norm Referenced Tests

Sweeney, Thomas J. (1968). Selective Retention Practices in Secondary School Counselor Education. In an effort to determine current practices in counselor education concerning secondary-school counselor selection, a survey was conducted in 1968, using a questionnaire focusing on three areas: (1) pre-admission selection, (2) selective retention during training, and (3) selective-endorsement upon completion of the program. Questionnaires were sent to two counselor training programs in each state. Activities considered regular parts of pre-admission selection include: (1) interviews by 46% of the respondants, (2) tests of academic potential beyond graduate school requirements (34%), (3) personality inventories (12%), and (4) miscellaneous other procedures (40%). Some 72% reported specific points of evaluation during training, and certain self-development opportunities were available: (1) individual counseling (65%), (2) group counseling (78%), (3) both (26%), (4) neither (11%), and (5) other opportunities (17%). Generally, candidates were advised of these opportunities early. Some 81% responded that endorsing graduates was an important function. Over 50% indicated involvement in research to improve selection practices over the currently used tools and guidelines.   [More]  Descriptors: Counselor Evaluation, Counselor Performance, Counselor Qualifications, Counselor Training

McClure, J., Ed.; And Others (1973). Performance Based Teacher Education: Selective Retention. This document, divided into four chapters, reports on the annual workshop activities of the North Central Association. Chapter 1 presents elements of the teacher education project and lists the participating institutions. Chapter 2 provides general information regarding sponsorship, personnel, special presentations, and workshop organization. Chapter 3 presents three theme group reports, which are entitled: (a) "Selection and Retention of Teachers Through the Use of Performance-Based Criteria in Teacher Education: Definitions, Rationale, Goals"; (b) "Pre-Service Implications of Performance-Based Teacher Education"; and (c) "Inservice: Relevant Growth for Teachers Throughout Their Careers." Chapter 4 contains 24 individual reports relating to the theme of performance-based teacher education.   [More]  Descriptors: Competency Based Teacher Education, Inservice Teacher Education, Preservice Teacher Education, Retention (Psychology)

Dettre, John R. (1970). Standards of Student Selection and Interaction, II. This paper focuses on two things: (1) the current status of the literature related to the standards for admissions, selective retention, and student involvement in program development and evaluation, and (2) identified areas in need of additional research in relation to these same three areas in the standards. Various topics included in the first part are: (1) admissions criteria, (2) collecting admissions information, (3) decision making in admissions, (4) student self selection, (5) instructional influence, (6) behavior modification, and (7) contributions of students. A total of 29 recommendations are given in the second section. They are by-products of the inferential and judgmental activities used in the first section. Since there have not been enough studies done to warrant placing a blind faith in the standards at this time, a real need for additional study does exist.   [More]  Descriptors: Admission Criteria, Educational Research, Independent Study, Literature Reviews

Wilhoit, G. Cleveland; de Bock, Harold (1976). Archie Bunker in a Foreign Culture: A Panel Study of Selectivity Processes in the Dutch Television Audience. A national sample of 503 Dutch people aged 15 and over who were accessible by telephone was used in this longitudinal study of reactions to a series of eight broadcasts of "All in the Family." Attitude scales were developed for three independent variables–ethnocentrism, lifestyle intolerance, and parental authoritarianism. Questionnaire items were also developed for three dependent variables–selective exposure, selective perception, and selective retention. Analyses concentrated on three questions: Do the Dutch perceive "All in the Family" as pertaining only to the American context, or is it seen as also pertinent to Dutch society? Is there selectivity in the Dutch exposure, perception, and retention that is related to ethnocentrism, lifestyle intolerance, and parental authoritarianism? What are the uses and gratifications received by the Dutch audience from "All in the Family"?   [More]  Descriptors: Adults, Bias, Cognitive Processes, Communication (Thought Transfer)

Murphy, Georgene M. (1985). Nonpromotion of Primary Grade Students: A Teacher's Guide. This teacher's guide reviews the literature on grade retention and promotion to help teachers make decisions concerning students in the primary grades. A brief introduction provides a statement of the problem; outlines the purpose, organization, and limitations of the study; and presents a glossary. Annotated citations for 34 studies are subsequently offered, and findings are summarized. The research was found to be inconclusive as to advantages or disadvantages of nonpromotion; however, cautions are issued against indiscriminate retention. Recommendations are made for selective retention, pupil identification, and retention decision procedures. Descriptors: Annotated Bibliographies, Elementary School Students, Glossaries, Grade Repetition

King, Ruth; Bireley, Marlene (1982). Undergraduate Selection/Retention in Wright State University's College of Education and Human Services. A sequence of selective/retention steps are described which are used to reduce the number of student teacher "wash outs" in the Wright State University (Ohio) school of education. (1) A 2.25 grade point average (out of 4.0 points) is required for admission to the school, and an entry level grammar/composition test, which identifies at the beginning of the sophomore year those students needing additional remediation, is given. Entry level sophomore students remain in the program for three quarters, with a mentor who serves as instructor, advisor, and observer. At the end of the first quarter, a mentoring conference provides feedback to the student regarding academic work, affective qualities, and professional attitude. A faculty member may request, at any time, a "concern conference" about a student on the basis of academic or professional concerns; a student who collects three unresolved concerns may be advised out of the program following appropriate due process procedures. A recheck on grade point average, appropriate test scores, and course prerequisites is conducted prior to student teaching. Rigorous application of minimal competency standards is maintained during the student teaching experience. Extension of time from 2 weeks to a full quarter is required of students who need additional time to attain standards. Accompanying appendices detail these procedures and the forms used in working with the students. Descriptors: Admission Criteria, Education Majors, Grade Point Average, Higher Education

Burdin, Joel L., Ed.; And Others (1971). Accreditation and Evaluation of Basic Teacher Education Programs: Research Problems and Prospects. The five papers collected in this document were delivered at the 1970 American Educational Research Association symposium sponsored by the Special Interest Group on Teacher Preparation Curriculum. All five focus on developing a research base for teacher education standards, in particular for the "Recommended Standards for Teacher Education" by the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education. John Herbert advocates accreditation criteria based on teacher behaviors and different standards for different types of programs. To build the required knowledge base, he would research, in part, the cut-off points and standards applied in practice by accrediting teams. S. C. T. Clarke summarizes curriculum standards and notes that the emphasis placed on certain standards rather than the standards themselves will cause change. In the third paper, Donald M. Medley offers ways of closing the research-practice gap, among them a centralized information exchange and a one-shot questionnaire which would solicit information on teacher education program characteristics and on the success of beginning teachers. John R. Dettre focuses on the current state of literature and research in the areas of admission, selective retention, and student involvement in program development and evaluation. The final paper, by R. L. R. Overing, is a review of studies which evaluate teacher education graduates according to behavioral objectives and pupil change. Bibliographic items total 211.   [More]  Descriptors: Accreditation (Institutions), Program Evaluation, Research Needs, Standards

Schivley, Warren W. (1983). Let's Reevaluate Our Instruments for Selective Retention, Clearing House. Concludes that neither the Minnesota Teacher Attitude Inventory (MTAI) nor the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) were valuable as predictors of success in elementary school student teaching. Descriptors: Educational Research, Elementary School Teachers, Evaluation Methods, Predictor Variables

Solomon, Joan (1998). Technology in the Elementary School: Blind Variation and Selective Retention, Research in Science Education. Argues that teaching technology without reference to the human need which calls for it gives students the wrong idea about the nature of technology and hides the importance of testing artifacts for operation in the relevant environment. Contains 40 references. Descriptors: Constructivism (Learning), Elementary Education, Foreign Countries, Science and Society

Kievit, Mary Bach (1970). Expectations for Learning Environments and Personality Factors of Students Compared to Drop-Outs from Two-Year Institutions. This study examines college environments and behavioral manifestations of personality needs. Measures developed by G. C. Stern for 4-year colleges are applied to 2-year institutions specifically with students enrolled in programs to prepare them for employment. A survey was made of: (1) all freshmen, at a community college and a technical institute, who were enrolled in four specific occupational curricula; (2) those students who continued in the curricula into a fourth term; and (3) those students who subsequently dropped out. Results were based on demographic characteristics, scholastic aptitude, and expectations for environmental press. The findings suggest: (1) within a narrow range of variation between environmental press in the community college and the technical institute, public images of the two schools were not sufficiently different to attract students with different expectations for environmental press or divergent personality needs; and (2) the findings on variations between personality needs of students who continue and those who drop out suggest a differential selective retention power based on variations within a narrow range of intellectual interests and motivation.   [More]  Descriptors: College Environment, Dropout Research, Educational Environment, Personality Development

Fishman, Joshua A., Ed. (2001). Can Threatened Languages Be Saved? Reversing Language Shift, Revisited: A 21st Century Perspective. Multilingual Matters 116. This edited volume considers the contemporary position of 18 threatened languages. Two important questions are examined in every case: (a) what is the current demographic and functional status of a threatened language? and (b) what is the best way to understand its future prospects? The view presented in this volume is that there are ways to save a language and that consignment to death and oblivion is deeply flawed and biased. Fishman's 1991 theory of how to achieve "good health and stability" in a language is re-examined, as are the intervening and current criticisms of that theory, and recommendations for the theory's selective retention and improvement are formulated. In addition to introductory and concluding chapters, chapters are organized under four geographic headings:"The Americas"; "Europe"; "Africa and Asia"; and "The Pacific." Topics covered include reversing language shift among Navajos, Basques, Quebecois, Catalans, Otomi, Quechua, Frisians, and Australian Aboriginals. Also discussed is the status of Spanish among New York's Puerto Ricans. Scholarly references are found at the conclusion of each chapter. A detailed subject index is also included. Descriptors: Applied Linguistics, Australian Aboriginal Languages, Basque, Cultural Maintenance

Duncan, Joseph W.; Wallman, Katherine K. (1978). The Genesis and Justification of Forms Clearance Procedures. The central reports clearance authority of the Federal Government is a legislatively sanctioned mechanism for applying constraints on the conduct of statistical and other data gathering activities by Federal Departments and agencies and other research parties funded by Federal government contracts. General recommendations for improving the overall clearance procedure include (1) redesign of the clearance process to eliminate overlap and duplication; (2) development and implementation of more effective methodologies for determining information requirements and for weighing the cost to the public against values expected from use of the data; (3) decentralization of the routine clearance workload, with a concentrated focus on policy development, oversight, and politically sensitive issues. There must be increased cooperation between the central statistical agency and the educational research community to ensure that the requirements for data reduction and better management of information resources lead to the enhancement of educational research and selective retention of well-designed, useful studies. Descriptors: Agency Cooperation, Coordination, Educational Research, Federal Government

Surlin, Stuart H.; Gordon, Thomas F. (1974). Selective Exposure and Retention of Political Advertising: A Regional Comparison. The results presented in this article are but a portion of the information gathered in a larger survey examining the relative roles of "selective exposure" to and "selective retention" of political advertising during the 1972 presidential election. Random samples in two metropolitan areas in different regions of the country (Atlanta, Ga., n=281; and Philadelphia, Pa., n=279) were surveyed by phone to test specific hypotheses. Several regional inter-city differences were noted: Philadelphians indicated greater general exposure to mass media political advertising, while Atlantans were more inclined to recall specific advertisements; respondents in both cities were highly likely to say that they were exposed to political advertising on television; and three of every four first recalled advertisements were seen on television. It was concluded that a negative correlation exists between a medium's propensity for exposure and the individual's selective retention of political information presented through that medium, and that a medium rated high for exposure mentions will be rated low on selective retention mentions, and vice versa.   [More]  Descriptors: Advertising, Higher Education, Information Dissemination, Mass Media

Burk, Nanci M. (1997). Using Personal Narratives as a Pedagogical Tool: Empowering Students through Stories. Creating an empowering and positive classroom environment requires focusing on the processes of developing trust in self and others, participation and communication in the classroom. Establishing a classroom that accommodates diverse students who have varied backgrounds, interests, and preferences poses a challenging situation for university teachers who must adapt their teaching methods to provide students with multiple opportunities to succeed. One such method worth examining is the use of storytelling or personal narratives for students in basic communication courses. Teachers who share personal narratives to promote understanding of communication concepts may help co-create a classroom culture in which students feel comfortable sharing personal stories that relate to the same concept. A narrative assignment, "Conflict Storytelling," illustrates specifically the communication concepts of perception, empathy, proximity, inference, point of view, and selective retention, which students can easily relate to their lives and personal experiences. Through use of such pedagogy in the communication classroom, teachers may orient students to different ways of knowing, learning, and making sense of communication concepts. (Contains a handout of the storytelling assignment and 29 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Class Activities, Classroom Techniques, Diversity (Student), Higher Education

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Bibliography: Selective Retention (page 1 of 3)

This annotated bibliography is curated specifically for the Alternative Facts website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Craig D. Jerald, Dean Keith Simonton, Gerald Kushel, Anne S. Miner, David N. Perkins, Peng Liu, John Dimmick, MDRC, Oxford Miami Univ, and Mark H. Bickhard.

Miami Univ., Oxford, OH. School of Education. (1971). Admission, Retention and Guidance of Teacher Candidates. This document contained a proposed set of guidelines for admission and selective retention of students in programs of teacher preparation at Miami University, Oxford, Ohio. The presentation was divided into three parts: a) a rationale, b) description of the plan, and c) a set of questions and answers. The rationale recommended the establishment of criteria, standards, and procedures for admission and selective retention of first-year and transfer students to the teacher education program. The outline of admission and selective retention requirements called for a decision by the student regarding his continuation in the program. This decision was based on self-evaluation and evaluation by a designated faculty panel. The first decision came during the freshman year; the second came in the sophomore year; the third preceded the student teaching program. The student, therefore, had the opportunity to evaluate his needs and successes throughout the program. This evaluation technique was also applied to the transfer students and the selective retention program. The questions posed in the final section of the proposal dealt with the supply and demand of teachers and effects of this on teacher training. Suggestions for evaluation of the proposal were made.   [More]  Descriptors: Admission Criteria, Evaluation Methods, Preservice Teacher Education, School Holding Power

Liu, Peng (2013). Evolutionary Dynamics of Digitized Organizational Routines, ProQuest LLC. This dissertation explores the effects of increased digitization on the evolutionary dynamics of organizational routines. Do routines become more flexible, or more rigid, as the mix of digital technologies and human actors changes? What are the mechanisms that govern the evolution of routines? The dissertation theorizes about the effects of increased digitization on path dependence and interdependence mechanisms, and therefore extends current theory on the evolutionary dynamics of organizational routines by taking into account the effects of three basic phenomena: digitization, path dependence and interdependence. In this dissertation, I use computer-based simulation, grounded with data collected in field interviews, to model the evolution of routines. More specifically, this dissertation models routines as networks of action that are subject to an evolutionary process of random variation and selective retention. To assess the evolution of routine, I introduce the idea of evolutionary "trajectory," which is defined as the product of the "magnitude" of change and the "direction" of change in the networks of action. The dissertation also addresses a foundational issue in the literature on organizational routines. Routines are generally believed to remain stable due to "path dependence." An alternative explanation is that routines may be stable due to "interdependence" among actions, which tends to constrain the sequence in which actions can occur. I have developed a simulation that allows me to test the relative importance of these factors, a question that has never been addressed. By addressing this fundamental issue, I provide a deeper, theory driven explanation of the effects of digitization. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.%5D   [More]  Descriptors: Organizational Culture, Technological Advancement, Technology Integration, Computer Simulation

Bickhard, Mark H. (1999). On the Cognition in Cognitive Development, Developmental Review. States that Demetriou and Raftopoulos's theory of cognitive developmental change based on the nature of representation is flawed. Argues against theme of representation as encoding as well as an alternative model of representation as interactivism. Concludes that other issues such as architectural support, variation and selective retention, comparison, connectionism, and wild constructivism should also be addressed. Descriptors: Brain, Cognitive Development, Developmental Psychology, Models

Simonton, Dean Keith (2012). Taking the U.S. Patent Office Criteria Seriously: A Quantitative Three-Criterion Creativity Definition and Its Implications, Creativity Research Journal. Although creativity has recently attracted considerable theoretical and empirical research, researchers have yet to reach a consensus on how best to define the phenomenon. To help establish a consensus, a definition is proposed that is based on the three criteria used by the United States Patent Office to evaluate applications for patent protection. The modified version uses the criteria of novelty, utility, and surprise. Moreover, creativity assessments based on these three criteria are quantitative and multiplicative rather than qualitative or additive. This three-criterion definition then leads to four implications regarding (a) the limitations to domain-specific expertise, (b) the varieties of comparable creativities, (c) the contrast between subjective and objective evaluations, and (d) the place of blind variation and selective retention in the creative process. These implications prove that adding the third criterion has critical consequences for understanding the phenomenon. Creativity is not only treated with superior sophistication, but also paradoxes that appear using the most common two-criterion definition readily disappear when the third criterion is included in the analysis. Hence, the conceptual differences between two- and three-criterion definitions are not trivial.   [More]  Descriptors: Creativity, Intellectual Property, Public Agencies, Criteria

Simonton, Dean Keith (2012). Creativity, Problem Solving, and Solution Set Sightedness: Radically Reformulating BVSR, Journal of Creative Behavior. Too often, psychological debates become polarized into dichotomous positions. Such polarization may have occurred with respect to Campbell's (1960) blind variation and selective retention (BVSR) theory of creativity. To resolve this unnecessary controversy, BVSR was radically reformulated with respect to creative problem solving. The reformulation began by defining (a) potential solution sets consisting of k possible solutions each described by their respective probability and utility values, (b) a set sightedness metric that gauges the extent to which the probabilities correspond to the utilities, and (c) a solution creativity index based on the joint improbability and utility of each solution. These definitions are then applied to representative cases in which simultaneous or sequential generate-and-test procedures scrutinize solution sets of variable size and with representative patterns of probabilities and utilities. The principal features of BVSR theory were then derived, including the implications of superfluity and backtracking. Critically, it was formally demonstrated that the most creative solutions must emerge from solution sets that score extremely low in sightedness. Although this preliminary revision has ample room for further development, the demonstration proves that BVSR's explanatory value does not depend on any specious association with Darwin's theory of evolution.   [More]  Descriptors: Evolution, Creativity, Probability, Problem Solving

MDRC (2015). The Influence of the College Match Program on Near-Peer Advisers. College Match Issue Focus. Educators, researchers, and policymakers across the political spectrum agree that the nation must send more of its young people to college and find ways to help them graduate–especially young people from low-income families. To that end, in 2010, MDRC and a group of partners developed College Match, an innovative school-based college advising program that was pilot-tested in select Chicago and New York City public schools. The MDRC-operated program placed "near-peer" advisers–trained advisers who are recent college graduates–in low-income high schools where they provided college advising to a group of moderate- and high-achieving students, guiding them toward selective colleges where retention and graduation rates are high and they had better odds of success. Here a group of advisers reflect on the influence of the program on their career trajectories. [Advisers contributing to this document include: Ebelio Mondragon, Jessica Salazar, Michele L. (Taylor) Howard, and Kelli Hammond Antonides.]   [More]  Descriptors: Public Schools, College Preparation, Educational Counseling, Comprehensive Guidance

Simonton, Dean Keith (1998). Donald Campbell's Model of the Creative Process: Creativity as Blind Variation and Selective Retention, Journal of Creative Behavior. This introductory article discusses a blind-variation and selective-retention model of the creative process developed by Donald Campbell. According to Campbell, creativity contains three conditions: a mechanism for introducing variation, a consistent selection process, and a mechanism for preserving and reproducing selected variations. Descriptors: Concept Formation, Creative Development, Creative Thinking, Creativity

Cziko, Gary A. (1998). From Blind to Creative: In Defense of Donald Campbell's Selectionist Theory of Human Creativity, Journal of Creative Behavior. Argues that while blind variation and selective retention (BVSR) may not be involved in all forms of human behavior and thought, Donald Campbell has made a compelling case that human creativity and invention involve BVSR. The complementary nature of prior and current BVSR in creative human endeavor is discussed. Descriptors: Concept Formation, Creative Development, Creative Thinking, Creativity

Jerald, Craig D. (2012). Movin' It "and" Improvin' It! Using Both Education Strategies to Increase Teaching Effectiveness, Center for American Progress. Fueled in part by the U.S. Department of Education's Race to the Top program, a massive effort to overhaul teacher evaluation is underway in states and districts across the country. The aim is to ensure that evaluations provide a better indication of "teaching effectiveness," or the extent to which teachers can and do contribute to students' learning, and then to act on that information to enhance teaching and learning. But as states and districts actually begin to adopt policies to measure teaching effectiveness, another kind of debate is now raging: How exactly should school systems use the results of their new teacher-evaluation systems? More broadly, once states and districts begin to measure effectiveness, what kinds of strategies should they adopt to "increase" the amount of measured effectiveness in the teacher workforce over time? Underneath the confusion about what the reforms are really about lie two very different types of strategies for boosting teaching effectiveness in the workforce. The first strategy can be called "movin' it" because it treats a teacher's effectiveness as fixed at any given point in time, then uses selective recruitment, retention, and "deselection" to attract and keep teachers with higher effectiveness while removing teachers with lower effectiveness. In contrast, "improvin' it" policies treat teachers' effectiveness as a mutable trait that can be improved with time. When reformers talk about providing all teachers with useful feedback following classroom observations or using the results of evaluation to individualize professional development for teachers, they are referring to "improvin' it" strategies. In reality, there is nothing about either strategy that precludes the other. Therefore, instead of treating them as "either/or" choices, smart school systems would combine "movin' it" and "improvin' it" policies to maximize increases in teaching effectiveness. In fact, evidence suggests that high-improving and high-performing schools manage to do just that.   [More]  Descriptors: Teacher Effectiveness, Teacher Recruitment, Teacher Persistence, Tenure

Miner, Anne S. (1990). Structural Evolution through Idiosyncratic Jobs: The Potential for Unplanned Learning, Organization Science. Describes an evolutionary model of organizational change through the selective retention of jobs. Idiosyncratic jobs, those created around particular people, serve as a mechanism for change. Discusses organizational processes for adaptation. (83 references) Descriptors: Innovation, Job Development, Models, Occupational Information

Simonton, Dean Keith (2015). On Praising Convergent Thinking: Creativity as Blind Variation and Selective Retention, Creativity Research Journal. Arthur Cropley (2006) emphasized the critical place that convergent thinking has in creativity. Although he briefly refers to the blind variation and selective retention (BVSR) theory of creativity, his discussion could not reflect the most recent theoretical and empirical developments in BVSR, especially the resulting combinatorial models. Therefore, in this article I first provide an overview of contemporary BVSR theory, including both a general combinatorial model and its specific manifestations (internal vs. external selection, simultaneous vs. sequential selection, exploration vs. elimination, and open vs. closed preselection). This overview then permits theoretical treatment of the connections between convergent thinking and BVSR. These connections entail the direct involvement of convergent thinking in BVSR, as well as the occasions in which sequential BVSR operates in a manner resembling convergent thinking. The article closes with a discussion of some misunderstandings regarding the function of domain-specific knowledge in BVSR creativity. This discussion includes the argument that hindsight bias often makes creativity appear far more knowledge based than it was at the time the creative ideas first emerged. This bias can make researchers overlook how BVSR mediates between expertise and creativity. Hence, care must be taken not to bypass BVSR in granting all due credit to convergent thinking.   [More]  Descriptors: Creativity, Convergent Thinking, Creative Thinking, Discovery Processes

Kushel, Gerald (1970). The Counselor's Image and the Chameleon, Sch Counselor. Transference, selective retention, and misperception-overstatement are factors considered in the guidance image problem. Suggests image prototypes for school counselors to project. Descriptors: Counseling, Counselor Characteristics, Counselor Role, Counselors

Perkins, David N. (1998). In the Country of the Blind: An Appreciation of Donald Campbell's Vision of Creative Thought, Journal of Creative Behavior. Reviews the perspective of Donald Campbell on creative thought and argues that the role of blind variation and selective retention in Darwinian evaluation and human invention is different. Proposes that a contrast can be drawn between "smart" and "not so smart" blind variation. Descriptors: Concept Formation, Creative Development, Creative Thinking, Creativity

Simonton, Dean Keith (2013). Creative Problem Solving as Sequential BVSR: Exploration (Total Ignorance) versus Elimination (Informed Guess), Thinking Skills and Creativity. Although the theory that creativity requires blind variation and selective retention (BVSR) is now more than a half-century old, only recently has BVSR theory undergone appreciable conceptual development, including formal three-parameter definitions of both creativity and sightedness. In this article, these new developments are for the first time extended to encompass sequential BVSR, that is, when ideas are generated and tested consecutively rather than simultaneously. Formulated in terms of creative problem solving, sequential BVSR is shown to have two forms: (a) "exploratory" in which the person decreases total ignorance and (b) "eliminatory" in which the person vets informed guesses. Only in the latter case does sightedness for both single potential solutions and the set of potential solutions necessarily increase with each generation-and-test trial. Exploratory BVSR is illustrated by Edison's search for a practical incandescent filament, whereas eliminatory BVSR is exemplified by Watson's discovery of the DNA base code. Hence, although epistemologically and psychologically distinct, both represent important forms of creative problem solving.   [More]  Descriptors: Creativity, Problem Solving, Cognitive Processes, Epistemology

Dimmick, John (1986). Sociocultural Evolution in the Communication Industries, Communication Research: An International Quarterly. Suggests that sociocultural evolution and the processes of variation and selective retention provide a theoretical perspective for understanding past and future changes in communication industries resulting from intrapopulation competition. Descriptors: Change, Communication (Thought Transfer), Competition, Mass Media

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Bibliography: Propaganda (page 66 of 66)

This bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Alternative Facts website. Some of the authors featured on this page include Jeff Orr, and J. Michael Sproule.

Orr, Jeff (1994). "The Valour and the Horror:" A Critical Thinking and Controversial Issue, Canadian Social Studies. Proposes ways in which the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's documentary series, "The Valour and the Horror," can be used to develop students' critical thinking skills. Asserts that the issues of historical accuracy provide excellent opportunities to discuss historiography, the role of the media in society, and human rights during wartime. Descriptors: Armed Forces, Bias, Broadcast Industry, Civil Liberties

Sproule, J. Michael (1987). Whose Ethics in the Classroom? An Historical Survey, Communication Education. Provides an historical survey of efforts by social groups to monitor and influence classroom instruction that treats the ethics of political and social practices, beginning with the rediscovery, after World War I, of the importance of ethical communication practices in democratic politics. Descriptors: Academic Freedom, Censorship, Classroom Communication, Communication Research

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Bibliography: Propaganda (page 65 of 66)

This bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Alternative Facts website. Some of the authors featured on this page include Desmond Morton, William Rodney, Peeter Tulviste, Barbara Osborn, Benjamin Rigberg, Ron Curtis, Arthur M. Schwartz, J. Francis Davis, Joseph M. Kirman, and Murry R. Nelson.

Rahman, Tariq (1995). The Siraiki Movement in Pakistan, Language Problems and Language Planning. Documents the rise of the Siraiki ethnonationalist movement in economically underdeveloped Southern Pakistani Punjab. Although the Siraiki intellectuals emphasize the differences of their language from Punjabi to mobilize public opinion against the injustice of their deprivation, the Punjabi elite view the Siraiki movement as a conspiracy to weaken the Punjab. (96 references) Descriptors: Cultural Awareness, Elitism, Ethnic Groups, Foreign Countries

Curtis, Ron (1976). Understanding the Media. The need has been established for classroom study of mass media form and content. As this need becomes more widely recognized, high quality, cost effective, and systematic educational materials must be developed. Teachers who possess characteristics and backgrounds amenable to media teaching must be trained in the use of these materials and in media teaching techniques. More research on the effectiveness of media study programs (such as that done in the Media Now course evaluation project) is needed. Descriptions of several media study programs presently in operation are included in the text.   [More]  Descriptors: Change Strategies, Communications, Educational Change, Educational Development

Rodney, William (1994). Clio, "Death by Moonlight," and the Goggle Box, Canadian Social Studies. Asserts that the writers and producers of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's documentary, "The Valour and the Horror," failed to assess Canadian Air Force actions in light of Allied war aims. Argues that the documentary series distorted the era and produced a false view of history. Gives specific examples of these claims. Descriptors: Armed Forces, Bias, Broadcast Industry, Documentaries

Nelson, Murry R.; Singleton, H. Wells (1978). Governmental Surveillance of Three Progressive Educators. Governmental interference with academic freedom is illustrated by F.B.I. surveillance of and unauthorized distribution of information about progressive educators John Dewey, George Counts, and Harold Rugg. These three educators attracted the attention of governmental agencies and special interest groups during the 1930s and 1940s because they advocated educational reform and participated in liberal movements such as the ACLU and the NAACP. All three were suspected of communist leanings because they departed from traditional educational approaches and urged students and community members to become actively involved in social reconstruction. In their educational writings and in their courses at Columbia University and the University of Chicago, these educators introduced students to controversial issues such as the depression, labor-management relations, the distribution of wealth, and lifestyles in socialist countries. By 1941, the F.B.I. had gathered nearly 400 pages of information on the three progressive educators in the form of reports by private and governmental agencies, letters, articles, and clippings. The F.B.I. method of accumulating data was to collect any type of readily available information about the men, put the information in a file, and add to the file in a random manner from time to time. This investigative process, apparently without clear objective, made use of much false, partially true, and unsubstantiated information. The conclusion is that the F.B.I. investigations into the activities and writings of Dewey, Rugg, and Counts were capricious, unmethodical, unconfidential, and deleterious to freedom of speech.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Freedom, Bias, Civil Liberties, Communism

Osborn, Barbara; Davis, J. Francis (1991). Images of Conflict: Learning from Media Coverage of the Persian Gulf War. A Media Literacy Workshop Kit. This workshop kit consists of: (1) 30-page "Leaders Guide and Handout Masters"; (2) 12-minute videotape, "Lines in the Sand"; (3) special 24-page issue of the journal "Media & Values" on the theme "The Media: in War and Peace"; and (4) an 8-page booklet on the basics of media literacy, "From Awareness to Action: Media Literacy for the '90s." The kit is designed for a two-part study of the role of media in society by using the coverage of the Persian Gulf War as a case study. By using background materials, specialized exercises, action suggestions, and analytical frameworks, this kit provides the tools viewers need to understand the media's continuing role in society and explore implications of that role for the citizen. The two sessions focus on: (1) "The Right to Know: How the Pentagon Managed the Media"; and (2) "Us Against Them: How the Media Create Enemies." Student materials, handouts, background readings, and follow up materials are included. Descriptors: Current Events, Deception, Foreign Countries, Mass Media

Filvaroff, Joan, Comp.; And Others (1983). Governing Texas–An Opportunity to Participate. An Introduction to Texas State Government Featuring Lessons Using Special Articles by Key Government Officials with Selected Newspaper Activities. [Reprint]. Designed for use in secondary school social studies classes, this guide provides activities for helping students understand some of the fundamental principles of government as well as its structure, politics, and effects on the individual. Information, articles, and cartoons from the Austin-American Statesman form the basis of the readings, along with background information from several texts and articles by public leaders, officials, and reporters. Forty-five lessons focus on levels of government, government and the citizen, reporting and interpreting government, the Texas legislature, special interest groups and lobbying, the executive branch, and the Texas judiciary. Some of the teaching strategies recommended include: brainstorming, gaming, mock trial and legislature sessions, simulations, pictorial analysis, distinguishing fact and opinion, cartoon interpretation, role playing, discussion, and writing activities. Emphasis is also placed on higher level skills such as application, analysis, and evaluation. For each lesson, objectives, materials needed, a step-by-step lesson plan, and reproducible student handouts are provided. Appendices include teacher and student evaluation forms and maps showing congressional districts within Texas. Although the guide focuses on government in Texas, it can be used as a model for developing similar guides in other states.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizen Participation, Citizenship Education, Constitutional Law, Court Litigation

Morton, Desmond (1994). As I See It: Horror, Valour, and the CBC, Canadian Social Studies. Asserts that the most significant issue related to the television documentary, "The Valour and the Horror," was not any suggested bias by the producers but the media elite's determination to control public opinion under the banner of free speech. Maintains that the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation refused to allow criticism by veterans organizations. Descriptors: Armed Forces, Bias, Broadcast Industry, Documentaries

Rigberg, Benjamin (1991). What Must Not Be Taught, Theory and Research in Social Education. Reviews nine U.S. history textbooks, evaluating their analyses of the Spanish-American War, World Wars I and II, and the Cold War. Documents their failure to link U.S. foreign policy to economic interests. Criticizes the texts' lack of an historical framework. Concludes students are taught neither historical truth nor critical analysis skills. Descriptors: Content Analysis, Controversial Issues (Course Content), Economic Factors, Foreign Policy

Tulviste, Peeter (1994). History Taught at School versus History Discovered at Home: The Case of Estonia, European Journal of Psychology of Education. Asserts that two conflicting versions of history were taught to Estonian children during Soviet rule. Maintains that, although the official version was taught at school, the unofficial one was discovered by each child with the help of parents or other adults. Descriptors: Communism, Deception, Elementary Secondary Education, Ethnic Groups

Borchers, Hans (1997). Hollywood as Reeducator: The Role of Feature Films in U.S. Policies Directed at Postwar Germany, Paedagogica Historica. Suggests that Hollywood may have been as effective as exchange programs and citizen training centers as an agency of reeducation. Mainstream U.S. films succeeded as a positive socializing force in spite of the low priority given to them by the military authorities. Includes a list of 32 officially sanctioned films. Descriptors: Behavior Change, Cross Cultural Studies, Cultural Context, Cultural Influences

Kirman, Joseph M. (1994). A Claim of Falsification of History, Canadian Social Studies. Presents excerpts from the draft Statement of Claim filed by Canadian World War II veterans against the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and others associated with the making of the documentary series, "The Valour and the Horror." Includes an overview and two examples of what the plaintiffs claimed were historical errors. Descriptors: Armed Forces, Bias, Broadcast Industry, Documentaries

Stricker, Frank (1992). Why History? Thinking about the Uses of the Past, History Teacher. Discusses reasons for studying history. Suggests that compelling arguments for historical study will affect students' attitudes throughout life. Evaluates common rationales for studying history. Includes history as fun, tradition, great ideas, human folly, escapism, and nationalist legitimation. Urges that students be taught history as facts that are susceptible to manipulation, and that interpretation is disputable. Descriptors: Course Content, Critical Thinking, Democratic Values, Ethnocentrism

Roy, R. H. (1994). Bulletproof History, Canadian Social Studies. Asserts that the writers and producers of the television documentary, "The Valour and the Horror," provided a false impression of an event to fit preconceived and erroneous interpretations of history. Points out specific examples of inaccurate historical presentations and provides contradictory historical interpretations. Descriptors: Armed Forces, Bias, Broadcast Industry, Documentaries

Schwartz, Arthur M. (1986). Coping with Classroom Bigotry: Politics and Morality of Canada's Keegstra Affair. In December 1982, James Keegstra was dismissed from his position as high school social studies teacher in a small Canadian town. Two and one-half years later Keegstra was convicted on the rarely heard criminal charge of willful promotion of hatred towards an identifiable group (Jews) through his classroom teaching. Courtroom testimony made it clear that two successive principals of the school and the former superintendent of the school district had sheltered Keegstra by ignoring or failing to act on parental complaints. The two principals appeared as defense witnesses on behalf of Keegstra who argued that the approved curriculum was biased and that the school was interfering with his right of free speech. The principals' testimony raises concern about the selection and training of school administration and the functions and dysfunctions of ignorance, morality, and short-term expedience in the management of public education. The positivist technicism widespread in graduate departments of educational administration facilitates the avoidance of issues involving difficult matters of morality and ethics. Those who teach school administration need to ask what they are doing to give students the knowledge and attitudes that will keep them from becoming barbarians. Fifty notes are appended. Descriptors: Administrator Education, Anti Semitism, Boards of Education, Court Litigation

Kirman, Joseph M. (1994). Excerpts from the January 1993 Senate Report: The Valour and the Horror, Canadian Social Studies. Provides an overview of the Canadian Senate report on the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's (CBC) documentary, "The Valour and the Horror." Includes quotes from official hearings regarding the historical accuracy of the documentary film. Concludes that the CBC was not controlled adequately by its board of directors. Descriptors: Armed Forces, Bias, Broadcast Industry, Documentaries

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Bibliography: Propaganda (page 64 of 66)

This bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Alternative Facts website. Some of the authors featured on this page include Beatrice Beach Szekely, Anne Messerly Cooper, Pat Arneson, GERD KORMAN, Roderic Gorney, Thomas V. Dickson, Lisa Pine, Gary Steele, Rose Nash, and Marc Depaepe.

KORMAN, GERD (1967). INDUSTRIALIZATION, IMMIGRANTS, AND AMERICANIZERS, THE VIEW FROM MILWAUKEE, 1866-1921. DURING THE LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY, ATTEMPTS WERE MADE IN MILWAUKEE AND ELSEWHERE IN THE NATION TO IMPROVE RELATIONS BETWEEN INDUSTRIAL EMPLOYERS AND THEIR IMMIGRANT WORKERS. THESE ATTEMPTS CONSISTED LARGELY OF COMPANY-SPONSORED RECREATIONAL AND WELFARE ACTIVITIES MARKED BY INFORMALITY AND PATERNALISM. AFTER 1900, HOWEVER, CAME MORE SYSTEMATIC SAFETY, HEALTH, AND WELFARE PROGRAMS BY SUCH COMPANIES AS ILLINOIS STEEL, ALLIS-CHALMERS, AND INTERNATIONAL HARVESTER. METHODS AND MATERIALS FOR SAFETY AND HEALTH EDUCATION WERE OFTEN DESIGNED TO COPE WITH THE MANY LANGUAGES AND THE ALLEGED CULTURAL AND MENTAL LIMITATIONS OF SEMISKILLED AND UNSKILLED WORKERS FROM EASTERN AND SOUTHERN EUROPE. IN ADDITION, LABOR MILITANCY, INDUSTRIAL CHANGE, AND THE OUTBREAK OF WORLD WAR I SPURRED THE CREATION OF ENGLISH CLASSES AND INTENSIVE AMERICANIZATION CAMPAIGNS IN INDUSTRY, ESPECIALLY IN THE UNITED STATES STEEL COMPANY AND THE FORD MOTOR COMPANY. (SOCIOECONOMIC AND OCCUPATIONAL PATTERNS AND CONDITIONS AMONG VARIOUS MILWAUKEE ETHNIC GROUPS DURING THE DECADES OF HEAVIEST IMMIGRATION ARE ALSO DOCUMENTED.) THE DOCUMENT INCLUDES A SUBJECT INDEX, AN EXTENSIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY, AND IS AVAILABLE FROM THE STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF WISCONSIN, MADISON. Descriptors: Citizenship, Educational Objectives, Employer Employee Relationship, Employment Patterns

Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Center for Curriculum Development in English. (1968). Unit 1204: The Evaluation of Persuasive Discourse. This unit for grade 12 is intended to provide an introduction to the criticism of persuasive discourse. After a brief discussion of the definition of criticism, the unit proceeds to the establishment of standards for evaluating persuasive discourse, standards involving Kenneth Burke's pentad: act, scene, agent, agency, and purpose. The unit then deals with three categories of discourse which can be evaluated–the single speech or article, the persuasive discourse of a person, and the persuasive discourse of a movement. To aid in the process of criticism itself, a format of questions is set up to require the students to place the speech in a meaningful context, to analyze the speech itself, and to assess the effects of the speech. Finally, this format is used in a sample analysis of Douglas MacArthur's "Address to Congress." Procedural notes for the teacher, lectures, and discussion questions are included.   [More]  Descriptors: Content Analysis, Critical Thinking, Curriculum Guides, English Curriculum

Gorney, Roderic; Steele, Gary (1976). The Mass Media of Entertainment and Human Survival. Urgently needed for human survival is a means of influencing large numbers of people to put into rapid action measures which could neutralize such menances as pollution, overpopulation, and violence. Though the cumulative effect of the mass media is not fully established, media entertainment may be the most influential institution in our society. To avoid the spector of censorship, the media would be best controlled through a systematic and open discussion of the social impact of media presentations conducted by media experts and by interested citizens. This action would result in full, advance disclosure of assumptions, attitudes, and values built into mass entertainment. Descriptors: Attitude Change, Behavior Change, Behavior Development, Broadcast Industry

Nash, Rose (1971). The Place of the English Language in the U.S.S.R. In comparing the teaching of English in the Soviet Union and in Puerto Rico, the author notes that English language instruction in the Soviet Union is characterized by well-trained teachers, good facilities, and an emphasis on practical phonetics, although writing skills are not up to contemporary standards. People are avid and enthusiastic students, but the program suffers from lack of contact with an English-speaking country. In Puerto Rico there is contact with an English-speaking country, but a lack of well-trained teachers and good facilities exists. There is also a difference in attitude toward learning English. The Soviet citizen studies English to enrich his life and is not afraid that he will lose his Russian culture. In Puerto Rico many students regard the study of English as a necessary evil that will soon be done away with, making it a waste of time.   [More]  Descriptors: Cultural Differences, Culture Conflict, Culture Contact, English (Second Language)

Cooper, Anne Messerly (1981). Affect of Arab News: Post-treaty Portrayal of Egypt and Israel in the Mass Media of Three Arab Countries. A study of 4,692 news stories from Egyptian, Algerian, and Tunisian electronic and print news media was conducted to see how state-controlled media reflected government policy changes following the Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty and the subsequent diplomatic break between Egypt and Arab League nations. The study found that the three controlled press systems used more positive and negative affect when referring to Israel and Egypt than did the noncontrolled systems, which exhibited largely neutral or mixed affect. The patterns of bias that emerged from the study suggested that government-controlled Arab media do not slavishly follow government policy, and that the media of individual Arab countries exhibit striking differences. For example, Tunisian news treatment was straightforward, presenting the majority of stories without bias, Algerian treatment colored the majority of references to Israel and Egypt, and Egypt's penchant for bias fell somewhere in between. Finally, all Arab media exhibited certain patterns of affect: Arab-to-Arab, Arab-to-Israel, and Arab-to-other. The negative affect with which Arab media portrayed Israel seemed intransigent and thorough-going.   [More]  Descriptors: Arabs, Attitude Change, Bias, Change Agents

Curtis, Ron (1975). Media Competency. The need to teach media competency in the schools in a systematic way has been largely unrecognized. The Media Now course of study provides an example of the type of instruction needed to teach the knowledge and skills necessary for informed media consumption and skilled media production. The course, which has been thoroughly tested and validated in the classroom, is built around performance objectives, learning by doing, and individualized instruction, and concentrates on the film, radio, and television media.   [More]  Descriptors: Change Strategies, Communications, Educational Change, Educational Innovation

Sprague, Gregory A. (1978). "Spiegeldorf": Nazi Appeals in Weimar Germany. The paper discusses rationales for simulation gaming and describes "Spiegeldorf," a socio-historical game which simulates socioeconomic conditions in early 1930 Germany and Nazi party tactics used to gain mass support. Objectives are to identify characteristic Nazi tactics and points of political ideology, describe German social classes and their fears and frustrations, analyze ways Nazism appealed to many Germans, and increase student interest in the subject and enjoyment in playing the game. Each student plays the role of a Nazi party organizer, whose goal is to convert as many people as possible. Play proceeds through choosing one of five tactics and receiving outcome cards and conversion points. With the appointment of Hitler as Chancellor of Germany, each student adds up the number of converts and ascertains the final outcome. Time allotment is 90 minutes. Materials include a game board, information sheets, conversion checklists, outcome, event, and influence cards, and a debriefing guide. Discussion analyzes the cause-and-effect relationships affecting the payoff through exploration of student feelings, explanation of strategies, and examination of concepts and principles. Evaluation criteria were historical accuracy, positive student attitudes, and an increase in student knowledge. Use of subject authorities ensured accuracy, while attitudes and knowledge were measured through observation, a questionnaire, and a posttest. Sample game materials and questionnaire results are appended. Descriptors: Class Activities, Educational Games, Educational Objectives, European History

Pine, Lisa (1996). The Dissemination of Nazi Ideology and Family Values through School Textbooks, History of Education. Examines and analyzes a number of textbooks used during the National Socialist regime in Germany. In accordance with a centralized, totalitarian effort the textbooks overwhelmingly represented Nazi ideology especially in their focus on eugenics, family roles, and the importance of the community. Descriptors: Family (Sociological Unit), Family Life, Fascism, Foreign Countries

Arneson, Pat (1987). The Discourse of Presidents Ronald Reagan and Daniel Ortega: Peace in Nicaragua without Concession. Seeking to understand American and Nicaraguan perspectives of the Nicaraguan revolution, a study examined the rhetorical strategies used by Presidents Reagan and Ortega in their speeches. Ten public addresses made by each president in 1985-1986, pertaining to funding for Nicaraguan counterrevolutionary forces, were charted and examined for prevalent themes. The themes were then grouped together by the ideas represented, and the groups were clustered to represent a broader topic of consideration. A discourse analysis based on Kenneth Burke's ideas on myth criticism investigated the mythic structure of each leader's rhetoric. In addition, an agon analysis of the rhetorical texts examined the philosophical perspectives of the two presidents. Analyses indicated that President Ortega's discourse featured the pentadic element "purpose," which corresponds to the philosophical term of mysticism, while President Reagan's discourse featured the pentadic element "agency" which corresponds to pragmatism. These philosophical perspectives are components of each other and as such serve to define each other. Just as a means is implicit in an end for Daniel Ortega's mysticism, purpose is implicit in agency for Ronald Reagan's pragmatism. Findings suggest that the political drama of international policy rhetoric is a viable and necessary area for future study. (Forty notes are attached.)   [More]  Descriptors: Communication Research, Comparative Analysis, Conflict Resolution, Cultural Context

Depaepe, Marc (1997). Differences and Similarities in the Development of Educational Psychology in Germany and the United States before 1945, Paedagogica Historica. Attributes the divergence between U.S. and German approaches to educational psychology prior to World War II to the German emphasis on "Gestaltpsychologie." This approach focused on hermeneutics and philosophy rather than behaviorism. The emphasis on a total, interconnected philosophical approach was later corrupted by the Nazis into eugenics. Descriptors: Behaviorism, Comparative Education, Cross Cultural Studies, Cultural Context

Wiley, Liz (1979). The Pause–That Sells. Capsule I, II, and III. Teacher's Guide [and] Student Materials. This document provides teaching guidelines, objectives, and student activities for a three-part television advertising unit intended for use in a fourth grade consumer economics program. Major objectives of the unit are to help students look critically at television commercials. Each part of the unit requires from four to six hours of classroom time. Capsules may be used independently. The first part focuses on the use of adjectives and slogans by advertisers. Activities involve students in analyzing television and magazine ads, creating original commercials, applying television advertising words and slogans to everyday situations, creating collages from magazine advertisements, and filling in worksheets. The teacher's guide presents objectives, worksheets, activity directions, tests, answer keys, and materials lists. The second part of the unit introduces seven advertising approaches (basic ad, concern for public good, appeal to senses, expert advice, youth appeal, humor, and advice from a famous person) and offers activities which encourage students to identify approaches of a wide variety of television commercials and magazine advertisements. The thlrd part of the unit helps students make wise consumer decisions. Activities involve students in creating original commercials and in analyzing the slogan and adjective content of shampoo advertisements. Descriptors: Advertising, Consumer Education, Economics Education, Elementary Education

Dickson, Thomas V. (1988). The Role of the Cuban Press in International Political Communication: "Granma Weekly Review" and Castro's U.S. Policy. This paper reviews political symbols aimed at the United States found in "Granma Weekly Review" and in Fidel Castro's speeches to see if they have changed in a predicted manner over an 18-year period and whether changes in symbol content of "Granma" and Castro's speeches correspond. The paper first explains the functions of the Cuban media, and then recounts the history and status of U.S.-Cuban relations. Next, the paper examines Castro's attitude toward the United States. The paper then analyzes the 100 most-used symbols referring to the United States in "Granma" and finds similar symbol usage in Castro's speeches during years researchers thought to be periods of closer relations between the United States and Cuba. However, researchers found that the frequency of symbol usage in"Granma" was not similar to that found in Castro's speeches. The paper suggests that the message Castro presents in his speeches is a complex one–the message he is sending to the world community through interviews and other statements is inconsistent with the aggressive language contained in his speeches where symbol usage reflects overt Cuban policy. The paper finds that before 1974, "Granma" and Castro's speeches were similar in their use of aggressive symbols, but since then the use of aggressive symbols in "Granma" has been a better indicator of Cuban policy. Seven tables of data, nine figures of data matrix, and 67 notes are included.   [More]  Descriptors: Aggression, Content Analysis, Diplomatic History, Discourse Analysis

Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Center for Curriculum Development in English. (1968). Unit 1102: The Language of Persuasion. The purpose of this 11th-grade unit on language is to acquaint students with persuasion because it is one of the basic functions of discourse and a principal method of achieving change in a complex and democratic society. In this unit, students are provided with opportunities for recognizing, evaluating, and using persuasive discourse. The unit moves inductively from example to generalization and is organized around three categories for the analysis of persuasion–(1) the writer or speaker as persuasive agent, hero, or model, (2) the discourse itself as a tool of persuasion, with emphasis on abstraction levels and logical and psychological methods of language manipulation, and (3) the audience and the context of persuasion–the historical and geographical context, the sociological context of group values, and such psychological motives as subsistence, social approval, mastery, and habit. Materials in the unit include lectures, procedural notes, discussion questions, suggested activities, speaking-writing assignments, a list of resource materials, and a bibliography on the rudiments of persuasion. (See TE 001 328 and TE 001 329 for 10th-grade units on discourse.)   [More]  Descriptors: Audiences, Communication (Thought Transfer), Curriculum Guides, English Instruction

Mayer, Elizabeth M. (). Hammer and Compass: Introducing East Germany. An Anthology with Interpretations. This anthology introduces students of German to the life of the people of East Germany. The three-part text describes interrelated cultural and political activities which are characteristic of the republic. Part One explores basic communistic philosophy, "a new myth", particularly through commentary on Walter Ulbricht's "Universe, Earth, and Man." Part Two shows how the mythic principles are applied in: (1) literature for youth, (2) films, (3) political songs, (4) beginnings of the republic, (5) hope for a peaceful future, (6) daily work, (7) life and play, and (8) the "blues". The party stand toward West Germany is expressed in the last section. Some 55, selected, German tests are integrated into the study. [Hard copy not available due to marginal legibility of original document.]   [More]  Descriptors: Anthologies, Communism, Cultural Activities, Cultural Images

Szekely, Beatrice Beach; And Others (1978). Education and the Mass Media, Soviet Education. Discusses the strong educational role of mass media in the Soviet Union. Articles cover "Controlling Individual Development and Behavior,""The Educational Potential of the Mass Media,""Some Problems of Ideological Work and the Tasks of Psychology," plus discussion of books, television, the press, films, and the All-Union Knowledge Society.   [More]  Descriptors: Books, Communism, Educational Objectives, Essays

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