Bibliography: Propaganda (page 66 of 66)

This bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Alternative Facts website. Some of the authors featured on this page include Jeff Orr, and J. Michael Sproule.

Orr, Jeff (1994). "The Valour and the Horror:" A Critical Thinking and Controversial Issue, Canadian Social Studies. Proposes ways in which the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's documentary series, "The Valour and the Horror," can be used to develop students' critical thinking skills. Asserts that the issues of historical accuracy provide excellent opportunities to discuss historiography, the role of the media in society, and human rights during wartime. Descriptors: Armed Forces, Bias, Broadcast Industry, Civil Liberties

Sproule, J. Michael (1987). Whose Ethics in the Classroom? An Historical Survey, Communication Education. Provides an historical survey of efforts by social groups to monitor and influence classroom instruction that treats the ethics of political and social practices, beginning with the rediscovery, after World War I, of the importance of ethical communication practices in democratic politics. Descriptors: Academic Freedom, Censorship, Classroom Communication, Communication Research

Bibliography: Propaganda (page 65 of 66)

This bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Alternative Facts website. Some of the authors featured on this page include Desmond Morton, William Rodney, Peeter Tulviste, Barbara Osborn, Benjamin Rigberg, Ron Curtis, Arthur M. Schwartz, J. Francis Davis, Joseph M. Kirman, and Murry R. Nelson.

Rahman, Tariq (1995). The Siraiki Movement in Pakistan, Language Problems and Language Planning. Documents the rise of the Siraiki ethnonationalist movement in economically underdeveloped Southern Pakistani Punjab. Although the Siraiki intellectuals emphasize the differences of their language from Punjabi to mobilize public opinion against the injustice of their deprivation, the Punjabi elite view the Siraiki movement as a conspiracy to weaken the Punjab. (96 references) Descriptors: Cultural Awareness, Elitism, Ethnic Groups, Foreign Countries

Curtis, Ron (1976). Understanding the Media. The need has been established for classroom study of mass media form and content. As this need becomes more widely recognized, high quality, cost effective, and systematic educational materials must be developed. Teachers who possess characteristics and backgrounds amenable to media teaching must be trained in the use of these materials and in media teaching techniques. More research on the effectiveness of media study programs (such as that done in the Media Now course evaluation project) is needed. Descriptions of several media study programs presently in operation are included in the text.   [More]  Descriptors: Change Strategies, Communications, Educational Change, Educational Development

Rodney, William (1994). Clio, "Death by Moonlight," and the Goggle Box, Canadian Social Studies. Asserts that the writers and producers of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's documentary, "The Valour and the Horror," failed to assess Canadian Air Force actions in light of Allied war aims. Argues that the documentary series distorted the era and produced a false view of history. Gives specific examples of these claims. Descriptors: Armed Forces, Bias, Broadcast Industry, Documentaries

Nelson, Murry R.; Singleton, H. Wells (1978). Governmental Surveillance of Three Progressive Educators. Governmental interference with academic freedom is illustrated by F.B.I. surveillance of and unauthorized distribution of information about progressive educators John Dewey, George Counts, and Harold Rugg. These three educators attracted the attention of governmental agencies and special interest groups during the 1930s and 1940s because they advocated educational reform and participated in liberal movements such as the ACLU and the NAACP. All three were suspected of communist leanings because they departed from traditional educational approaches and urged students and community members to become actively involved in social reconstruction. In their educational writings and in their courses at Columbia University and the University of Chicago, these educators introduced students to controversial issues such as the depression, labor-management relations, the distribution of wealth, and lifestyles in socialist countries. By 1941, the F.B.I. had gathered nearly 400 pages of information on the three progressive educators in the form of reports by private and governmental agencies, letters, articles, and clippings. The F.B.I. method of accumulating data was to collect any type of readily available information about the men, put the information in a file, and add to the file in a random manner from time to time. This investigative process, apparently without clear objective, made use of much false, partially true, and unsubstantiated information. The conclusion is that the F.B.I. investigations into the activities and writings of Dewey, Rugg, and Counts were capricious, unmethodical, unconfidential, and deleterious to freedom of speech.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Freedom, Bias, Civil Liberties, Communism

Osborn, Barbara; Davis, J. Francis (1991). Images of Conflict: Learning from Media Coverage of the Persian Gulf War. A Media Literacy Workshop Kit. This workshop kit consists of: (1) 30-page "Leaders Guide and Handout Masters"; (2) 12-minute videotape, "Lines in the Sand"; (3) special 24-page issue of the journal "Media & Values" on the theme "The Media: in War and Peace"; and (4) an 8-page booklet on the basics of media literacy, "From Awareness to Action: Media Literacy for the '90s." The kit is designed for a two-part study of the role of media in society by using the coverage of the Persian Gulf War as a case study. By using background materials, specialized exercises, action suggestions, and analytical frameworks, this kit provides the tools viewers need to understand the media's continuing role in society and explore implications of that role for the citizen. The two sessions focus on: (1) "The Right to Know: How the Pentagon Managed the Media"; and (2) "Us Against Them: How the Media Create Enemies." Student materials, handouts, background readings, and follow up materials are included. Descriptors: Current Events, Deception, Foreign Countries, Mass Media

Filvaroff, Joan, Comp.; And Others (1983). Governing Texas–An Opportunity to Participate. An Introduction to Texas State Government Featuring Lessons Using Special Articles by Key Government Officials with Selected Newspaper Activities. [Reprint]. Designed for use in secondary school social studies classes, this guide provides activities for helping students understand some of the fundamental principles of government as well as its structure, politics, and effects on the individual. Information, articles, and cartoons from the Austin-American Statesman form the basis of the readings, along with background information from several texts and articles by public leaders, officials, and reporters. Forty-five lessons focus on levels of government, government and the citizen, reporting and interpreting government, the Texas legislature, special interest groups and lobbying, the executive branch, and the Texas judiciary. Some of the teaching strategies recommended include: brainstorming, gaming, mock trial and legislature sessions, simulations, pictorial analysis, distinguishing fact and opinion, cartoon interpretation, role playing, discussion, and writing activities. Emphasis is also placed on higher level skills such as application, analysis, and evaluation. For each lesson, objectives, materials needed, a step-by-step lesson plan, and reproducible student handouts are provided. Appendices include teacher and student evaluation forms and maps showing congressional districts within Texas. Although the guide focuses on government in Texas, it can be used as a model for developing similar guides in other states.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizen Participation, Citizenship Education, Constitutional Law, Court Litigation

Morton, Desmond (1994). As I See It: Horror, Valour, and the CBC, Canadian Social Studies. Asserts that the most significant issue related to the television documentary, "The Valour and the Horror," was not any suggested bias by the producers but the media elite's determination to control public opinion under the banner of free speech. Maintains that the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation refused to allow criticism by veterans organizations. Descriptors: Armed Forces, Bias, Broadcast Industry, Documentaries

Rigberg, Benjamin (1991). What Must Not Be Taught, Theory and Research in Social Education. Reviews nine U.S. history textbooks, evaluating their analyses of the Spanish-American War, World Wars I and II, and the Cold War. Documents their failure to link U.S. foreign policy to economic interests. Criticizes the texts' lack of an historical framework. Concludes students are taught neither historical truth nor critical analysis skills. Descriptors: Content Analysis, Controversial Issues (Course Content), Economic Factors, Foreign Policy

Tulviste, Peeter (1994). History Taught at School versus History Discovered at Home: The Case of Estonia, European Journal of Psychology of Education. Asserts that two conflicting versions of history were taught to Estonian children during Soviet rule. Maintains that, although the official version was taught at school, the unofficial one was discovered by each child with the help of parents or other adults. Descriptors: Communism, Deception, Elementary Secondary Education, Ethnic Groups

Borchers, Hans (1997). Hollywood as Reeducator: The Role of Feature Films in U.S. Policies Directed at Postwar Germany, Paedagogica Historica. Suggests that Hollywood may have been as effective as exchange programs and citizen training centers as an agency of reeducation. Mainstream U.S. films succeeded as a positive socializing force in spite of the low priority given to them by the military authorities. Includes a list of 32 officially sanctioned films. Descriptors: Behavior Change, Cross Cultural Studies, Cultural Context, Cultural Influences

Kirman, Joseph M. (1994). A Claim of Falsification of History, Canadian Social Studies. Presents excerpts from the draft Statement of Claim filed by Canadian World War II veterans against the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and others associated with the making of the documentary series, "The Valour and the Horror." Includes an overview and two examples of what the plaintiffs claimed were historical errors. Descriptors: Armed Forces, Bias, Broadcast Industry, Documentaries

Stricker, Frank (1992). Why History? Thinking about the Uses of the Past, History Teacher. Discusses reasons for studying history. Suggests that compelling arguments for historical study will affect students' attitudes throughout life. Evaluates common rationales for studying history. Includes history as fun, tradition, great ideas, human folly, escapism, and nationalist legitimation. Urges that students be taught history as facts that are susceptible to manipulation, and that interpretation is disputable. Descriptors: Course Content, Critical Thinking, Democratic Values, Ethnocentrism

Roy, R. H. (1994). Bulletproof History, Canadian Social Studies. Asserts that the writers and producers of the television documentary, "The Valour and the Horror," provided a false impression of an event to fit preconceived and erroneous interpretations of history. Points out specific examples of inaccurate historical presentations and provides contradictory historical interpretations. Descriptors: Armed Forces, Bias, Broadcast Industry, Documentaries

Schwartz, Arthur M. (1986). Coping with Classroom Bigotry: Politics and Morality of Canada's Keegstra Affair. In December 1982, James Keegstra was dismissed from his position as high school social studies teacher in a small Canadian town. Two and one-half years later Keegstra was convicted on the rarely heard criminal charge of willful promotion of hatred towards an identifiable group (Jews) through his classroom teaching. Courtroom testimony made it clear that two successive principals of the school and the former superintendent of the school district had sheltered Keegstra by ignoring or failing to act on parental complaints. The two principals appeared as defense witnesses on behalf of Keegstra who argued that the approved curriculum was biased and that the school was interfering with his right of free speech. The principals' testimony raises concern about the selection and training of school administration and the functions and dysfunctions of ignorance, morality, and short-term expedience in the management of public education. The positivist technicism widespread in graduate departments of educational administration facilitates the avoidance of issues involving difficult matters of morality and ethics. Those who teach school administration need to ask what they are doing to give students the knowledge and attitudes that will keep them from becoming barbarians. Fifty notes are appended. Descriptors: Administrator Education, Anti Semitism, Boards of Education, Court Litigation

Kirman, Joseph M. (1994). Excerpts from the January 1993 Senate Report: The Valour and the Horror, Canadian Social Studies. Provides an overview of the Canadian Senate report on the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's (CBC) documentary, "The Valour and the Horror." Includes quotes from official hearings regarding the historical accuracy of the documentary film. Concludes that the CBC was not controlled adequately by its board of directors. Descriptors: Armed Forces, Bias, Broadcast Industry, Documentaries

Bibliography: Propaganda (page 64 of 66)

This bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Alternative Facts website. Some of the authors featured on this page include Beatrice Beach Szekely, Anne Messerly Cooper, Pat Arneson, GERD KORMAN, Roderic Gorney, Thomas V. Dickson, Lisa Pine, Gary Steele, Rose Nash, and Marc Depaepe.

KORMAN, GERD (1967). INDUSTRIALIZATION, IMMIGRANTS, AND AMERICANIZERS, THE VIEW FROM MILWAUKEE, 1866-1921. DURING THE LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY, ATTEMPTS WERE MADE IN MILWAUKEE AND ELSEWHERE IN THE NATION TO IMPROVE RELATIONS BETWEEN INDUSTRIAL EMPLOYERS AND THEIR IMMIGRANT WORKERS. THESE ATTEMPTS CONSISTED LARGELY OF COMPANY-SPONSORED RECREATIONAL AND WELFARE ACTIVITIES MARKED BY INFORMALITY AND PATERNALISM. AFTER 1900, HOWEVER, CAME MORE SYSTEMATIC SAFETY, HEALTH, AND WELFARE PROGRAMS BY SUCH COMPANIES AS ILLINOIS STEEL, ALLIS-CHALMERS, AND INTERNATIONAL HARVESTER. METHODS AND MATERIALS FOR SAFETY AND HEALTH EDUCATION WERE OFTEN DESIGNED TO COPE WITH THE MANY LANGUAGES AND THE ALLEGED CULTURAL AND MENTAL LIMITATIONS OF SEMISKILLED AND UNSKILLED WORKERS FROM EASTERN AND SOUTHERN EUROPE. IN ADDITION, LABOR MILITANCY, INDUSTRIAL CHANGE, AND THE OUTBREAK OF WORLD WAR I SPURRED THE CREATION OF ENGLISH CLASSES AND INTENSIVE AMERICANIZATION CAMPAIGNS IN INDUSTRY, ESPECIALLY IN THE UNITED STATES STEEL COMPANY AND THE FORD MOTOR COMPANY. (SOCIOECONOMIC AND OCCUPATIONAL PATTERNS AND CONDITIONS AMONG VARIOUS MILWAUKEE ETHNIC GROUPS DURING THE DECADES OF HEAVIEST IMMIGRATION ARE ALSO DOCUMENTED.) THE DOCUMENT INCLUDES A SUBJECT INDEX, AN EXTENSIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY, AND IS AVAILABLE FROM THE STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF WISCONSIN, MADISON. Descriptors: Citizenship, Educational Objectives, Employer Employee Relationship, Employment Patterns

Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Center for Curriculum Development in English. (1968). Unit 1204: The Evaluation of Persuasive Discourse. This unit for grade 12 is intended to provide an introduction to the criticism of persuasive discourse. After a brief discussion of the definition of criticism, the unit proceeds to the establishment of standards for evaluating persuasive discourse, standards involving Kenneth Burke's pentad: act, scene, agent, agency, and purpose. The unit then deals with three categories of discourse which can be evaluated–the single speech or article, the persuasive discourse of a person, and the persuasive discourse of a movement. To aid in the process of criticism itself, a format of questions is set up to require the students to place the speech in a meaningful context, to analyze the speech itself, and to assess the effects of the speech. Finally, this format is used in a sample analysis of Douglas MacArthur's "Address to Congress." Procedural notes for the teacher, lectures, and discussion questions are included.   [More]  Descriptors: Content Analysis, Critical Thinking, Curriculum Guides, English Curriculum

Gorney, Roderic; Steele, Gary (1976). The Mass Media of Entertainment and Human Survival. Urgently needed for human survival is a means of influencing large numbers of people to put into rapid action measures which could neutralize such menances as pollution, overpopulation, and violence. Though the cumulative effect of the mass media is not fully established, media entertainment may be the most influential institution in our society. To avoid the spector of censorship, the media would be best controlled through a systematic and open discussion of the social impact of media presentations conducted by media experts and by interested citizens. This action would result in full, advance disclosure of assumptions, attitudes, and values built into mass entertainment. Descriptors: Attitude Change, Behavior Change, Behavior Development, Broadcast Industry

Nash, Rose (1971). The Place of the English Language in the U.S.S.R. In comparing the teaching of English in the Soviet Union and in Puerto Rico, the author notes that English language instruction in the Soviet Union is characterized by well-trained teachers, good facilities, and an emphasis on practical phonetics, although writing skills are not up to contemporary standards. People are avid and enthusiastic students, but the program suffers from lack of contact with an English-speaking country. In Puerto Rico there is contact with an English-speaking country, but a lack of well-trained teachers and good facilities exists. There is also a difference in attitude toward learning English. The Soviet citizen studies English to enrich his life and is not afraid that he will lose his Russian culture. In Puerto Rico many students regard the study of English as a necessary evil that will soon be done away with, making it a waste of time.   [More]  Descriptors: Cultural Differences, Culture Conflict, Culture Contact, English (Second Language)

Cooper, Anne Messerly (1981). Affect of Arab News: Post-treaty Portrayal of Egypt and Israel in the Mass Media of Three Arab Countries. A study of 4,692 news stories from Egyptian, Algerian, and Tunisian electronic and print news media was conducted to see how state-controlled media reflected government policy changes following the Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty and the subsequent diplomatic break between Egypt and Arab League nations. The study found that the three controlled press systems used more positive and negative affect when referring to Israel and Egypt than did the noncontrolled systems, which exhibited largely neutral or mixed affect. The patterns of bias that emerged from the study suggested that government-controlled Arab media do not slavishly follow government policy, and that the media of individual Arab countries exhibit striking differences. For example, Tunisian news treatment was straightforward, presenting the majority of stories without bias, Algerian treatment colored the majority of references to Israel and Egypt, and Egypt's penchant for bias fell somewhere in between. Finally, all Arab media exhibited certain patterns of affect: Arab-to-Arab, Arab-to-Israel, and Arab-to-other. The negative affect with which Arab media portrayed Israel seemed intransigent and thorough-going.   [More]  Descriptors: Arabs, Attitude Change, Bias, Change Agents

Curtis, Ron (1975). Media Competency. The need to teach media competency in the schools in a systematic way has been largely unrecognized. The Media Now course of study provides an example of the type of instruction needed to teach the knowledge and skills necessary for informed media consumption and skilled media production. The course, which has been thoroughly tested and validated in the classroom, is built around performance objectives, learning by doing, and individualized instruction, and concentrates on the film, radio, and television media.   [More]  Descriptors: Change Strategies, Communications, Educational Change, Educational Innovation

Sprague, Gregory A. (1978). "Spiegeldorf": Nazi Appeals in Weimar Germany. The paper discusses rationales for simulation gaming and describes "Spiegeldorf," a socio-historical game which simulates socioeconomic conditions in early 1930 Germany and Nazi party tactics used to gain mass support. Objectives are to identify characteristic Nazi tactics and points of political ideology, describe German social classes and their fears and frustrations, analyze ways Nazism appealed to many Germans, and increase student interest in the subject and enjoyment in playing the game. Each student plays the role of a Nazi party organizer, whose goal is to convert as many people as possible. Play proceeds through choosing one of five tactics and receiving outcome cards and conversion points. With the appointment of Hitler as Chancellor of Germany, each student adds up the number of converts and ascertains the final outcome. Time allotment is 90 minutes. Materials include a game board, information sheets, conversion checklists, outcome, event, and influence cards, and a debriefing guide. Discussion analyzes the cause-and-effect relationships affecting the payoff through exploration of student feelings, explanation of strategies, and examination of concepts and principles. Evaluation criteria were historical accuracy, positive student attitudes, and an increase in student knowledge. Use of subject authorities ensured accuracy, while attitudes and knowledge were measured through observation, a questionnaire, and a posttest. Sample game materials and questionnaire results are appended. Descriptors: Class Activities, Educational Games, Educational Objectives, European History

Pine, Lisa (1996). The Dissemination of Nazi Ideology and Family Values through School Textbooks, History of Education. Examines and analyzes a number of textbooks used during the National Socialist regime in Germany. In accordance with a centralized, totalitarian effort the textbooks overwhelmingly represented Nazi ideology especially in their focus on eugenics, family roles, and the importance of the community. Descriptors: Family (Sociological Unit), Family Life, Fascism, Foreign Countries

Arneson, Pat (1987). The Discourse of Presidents Ronald Reagan and Daniel Ortega: Peace in Nicaragua without Concession. Seeking to understand American and Nicaraguan perspectives of the Nicaraguan revolution, a study examined the rhetorical strategies used by Presidents Reagan and Ortega in their speeches. Ten public addresses made by each president in 1985-1986, pertaining to funding for Nicaraguan counterrevolutionary forces, were charted and examined for prevalent themes. The themes were then grouped together by the ideas represented, and the groups were clustered to represent a broader topic of consideration. A discourse analysis based on Kenneth Burke's ideas on myth criticism investigated the mythic structure of each leader's rhetoric. In addition, an agon analysis of the rhetorical texts examined the philosophical perspectives of the two presidents. Analyses indicated that President Ortega's discourse featured the pentadic element "purpose," which corresponds to the philosophical term of mysticism, while President Reagan's discourse featured the pentadic element "agency" which corresponds to pragmatism. These philosophical perspectives are components of each other and as such serve to define each other. Just as a means is implicit in an end for Daniel Ortega's mysticism, purpose is implicit in agency for Ronald Reagan's pragmatism. Findings suggest that the political drama of international policy rhetoric is a viable and necessary area for future study. (Forty notes are attached.)   [More]  Descriptors: Communication Research, Comparative Analysis, Conflict Resolution, Cultural Context

Depaepe, Marc (1997). Differences and Similarities in the Development of Educational Psychology in Germany and the United States before 1945, Paedagogica Historica. Attributes the divergence between U.S. and German approaches to educational psychology prior to World War II to the German emphasis on "Gestaltpsychologie." This approach focused on hermeneutics and philosophy rather than behaviorism. The emphasis on a total, interconnected philosophical approach was later corrupted by the Nazis into eugenics. Descriptors: Behaviorism, Comparative Education, Cross Cultural Studies, Cultural Context

Wiley, Liz (1979). The Pause–That Sells. Capsule I, II, and III. Teacher's Guide [and] Student Materials. This document provides teaching guidelines, objectives, and student activities for a three-part television advertising unit intended for use in a fourth grade consumer economics program. Major objectives of the unit are to help students look critically at television commercials. Each part of the unit requires from four to six hours of classroom time. Capsules may be used independently. The first part focuses on the use of adjectives and slogans by advertisers. Activities involve students in analyzing television and magazine ads, creating original commercials, applying television advertising words and slogans to everyday situations, creating collages from magazine advertisements, and filling in worksheets. The teacher's guide presents objectives, worksheets, activity directions, tests, answer keys, and materials lists. The second part of the unit introduces seven advertising approaches (basic ad, concern for public good, appeal to senses, expert advice, youth appeal, humor, and advice from a famous person) and offers activities which encourage students to identify approaches of a wide variety of television commercials and magazine advertisements. The thlrd part of the unit helps students make wise consumer decisions. Activities involve students in creating original commercials and in analyzing the slogan and adjective content of shampoo advertisements. Descriptors: Advertising, Consumer Education, Economics Education, Elementary Education

Dickson, Thomas V. (1988). The Role of the Cuban Press in International Political Communication: "Granma Weekly Review" and Castro's U.S. Policy. This paper reviews political symbols aimed at the United States found in "Granma Weekly Review" and in Fidel Castro's speeches to see if they have changed in a predicted manner over an 18-year period and whether changes in symbol content of "Granma" and Castro's speeches correspond. The paper first explains the functions of the Cuban media, and then recounts the history and status of U.S.-Cuban relations. Next, the paper examines Castro's attitude toward the United States. The paper then analyzes the 100 most-used symbols referring to the United States in "Granma" and finds similar symbol usage in Castro's speeches during years researchers thought to be periods of closer relations between the United States and Cuba. However, researchers found that the frequency of symbol usage in"Granma" was not similar to that found in Castro's speeches. The paper suggests that the message Castro presents in his speeches is a complex one–the message he is sending to the world community through interviews and other statements is inconsistent with the aggressive language contained in his speeches where symbol usage reflects overt Cuban policy. The paper finds that before 1974, "Granma" and Castro's speeches were similar in their use of aggressive symbols, but since then the use of aggressive symbols in "Granma" has been a better indicator of Cuban policy. Seven tables of data, nine figures of data matrix, and 67 notes are included.   [More]  Descriptors: Aggression, Content Analysis, Diplomatic History, Discourse Analysis

Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Center for Curriculum Development in English. (1968). Unit 1102: The Language of Persuasion. The purpose of this 11th-grade unit on language is to acquaint students with persuasion because it is one of the basic functions of discourse and a principal method of achieving change in a complex and democratic society. In this unit, students are provided with opportunities for recognizing, evaluating, and using persuasive discourse. The unit moves inductively from example to generalization and is organized around three categories for the analysis of persuasion–(1) the writer or speaker as persuasive agent, hero, or model, (2) the discourse itself as a tool of persuasion, with emphasis on abstraction levels and logical and psychological methods of language manipulation, and (3) the audience and the context of persuasion–the historical and geographical context, the sociological context of group values, and such psychological motives as subsistence, social approval, mastery, and habit. Materials in the unit include lectures, procedural notes, discussion questions, suggested activities, speaking-writing assignments, a list of resource materials, and a bibliography on the rudiments of persuasion. (See TE 001 328 and TE 001 329 for 10th-grade units on discourse.)   [More]  Descriptors: Audiences, Communication (Thought Transfer), Curriculum Guides, English Instruction

Mayer, Elizabeth M. (). Hammer and Compass: Introducing East Germany. An Anthology with Interpretations. This anthology introduces students of German to the life of the people of East Germany. The three-part text describes interrelated cultural and political activities which are characteristic of the republic. Part One explores basic communistic philosophy, "a new myth", particularly through commentary on Walter Ulbricht's "Universe, Earth, and Man." Part Two shows how the mythic principles are applied in: (1) literature for youth, (2) films, (3) political songs, (4) beginnings of the republic, (5) hope for a peaceful future, (6) daily work, (7) life and play, and (8) the "blues". The party stand toward West Germany is expressed in the last section. Some 55, selected, German tests are integrated into the study. [Hard copy not available due to marginal legibility of original document.]   [More]  Descriptors: Anthologies, Communism, Cultural Activities, Cultural Images

Szekely, Beatrice Beach; And Others (1978). Education and the Mass Media, Soviet Education. Discusses the strong educational role of mass media in the Soviet Union. Articles cover "Controlling Individual Development and Behavior,""The Educational Potential of the Mass Media,""Some Problems of Ideological Work and the Tasks of Psychology," plus discussion of books, television, the press, films, and the All-Union Knowledge Society.   [More]  Descriptors: Books, Communism, Educational Objectives, Essays

Bibliography: Propaganda (page 63 of 66)

This bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Alternative Facts website. Some of the authors featured on this page include Michael J. Emme, Washington Department of Education, F.W. JESSUP, Jack M. McLeod, Mary Ellen Barnes, Magnus O. Bassey, Frank Glew, ELLEN PROPPER MICKIEWICZ, Mark F. Goldberg, and Corono Corono-Norco Unified School District.

MICKIEWICZ, ELLEN PROPPER (1967). SOVIET POLITICAL SCHOOLS, THE COMMUNIST PARTY ADULT INSTRUCTION SYSTEM. A STUDY WAS MADE OF SOVIET ADULT POLITICAL EDUCATION MAINLY AS IT APPLIES TO RUSSIAN URBAN AREAS, WHERE THE SYSTEM IS MOST HIGHLY DEVELOPED. THIS SYSTEM, AN AGENCY FOR TRANSMITTING POLITICAL DOCTRINE, FORMS A PART OF THE VAST NETWORK OF FORMAL POLITICAL COMMUNICATION, WHICH INCLUDES THE MASS MEDIA, AGITATION, AND COMMUNIST PARTY LEADERSHIP TRAINING SCHOOLS. UNDER KHRUSCHEV, THE SYSTEM BECAME THE MOST IMPORTANT COMPONENT OF POLITICAL ACTIVITY. AN EXAMINATION OF THE HIERARCHY OF POLITICAL SCHOOLS, CIRCLES, AND THE EVENING UNIVERSITY OF MARXISM-LENINISM PROVIDES INSIGHT INTO THE ORGANIZATION, ADMINISTRATION, AND CHARACTER OF THE SYSTEM. IT IS CONCLUDED THAT, DESPITE FAULTS IN SUCH AREAS AS TEACHER AND STUDENT RECRUITMENT, INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS, AND SUPERVISORY AND TEACHING METHODS, ADULT POLITICAL INSTRUCTION WILL REMAIN A MAJOR FACTOR IN SOVIET POLITICAL COMMUNICATION. A SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY IS INCLUDED. THIS DOCUMENT IS AVAILABLE FROM THE YALE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 149 YORK STREET, NEW HAVEN, CONNECTICUT O6511. 196 PAGES. Descriptors: Adult Education, Adult Educators, Adult Programs, Bibliographies

Marshall, Max L. (1969). The 'Right-to-Read' Controversy. Freedom of Information Center Report No. 199. The growing amount of activity by pressure groups, as well as professional statements like those of the American Library Association and the American Association of Library Teachers, reflect an increased concern with legal, quasi-legal or extra-legal censorship. The National Organization for Decent Literature, a Catholic-Church sponsored censorship group, publishes an evaluation of materials, and while they do not intend their lists for boycott or coercion, they admit that that has occurred. The activities of Citizens for Decent Literature (now the most active and successful of the "decency movement" groups) parallel those of the New Jersey Committee for the Right to Read and the National Council for Freedom to Read. Each of these groups has (1) attempted to influence the public through speakers and newsletters, (2) provided some legal assistance, and (3) surveyed psychiatrists as to the effects of pornography, particularly on the young. Of these two forces, the activities of the "decency movement" have enjoyed broader, more vocal public support. (Examples of court decisions and local news concerning censorship are cited throughout the report.)   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Freedom, Censorship, Child Development, Civil Liberties

McLeod, Jack M.; And Others (1987). Communication and Energy Conservation, Journal of Environmental Education. Reports on the results of a survey of homeowners in two Wisconsin communities which examined the relationship of media use to a set of cognitive, attitudinal, and behavioral components of energy conservation. Suggests that conservation campaigns take into account communication patterns and energy use of specific groups of consumers. Descriptors: Communications, Energy Conservation, Energy Education, Environmental Education

Coulby, David (1997). European Curricula, Xenophobia and Warfare, Comparative Education. Examines school and university curricula in Europe and the extent of their influence on xenophobia. Considers the pluralistic nature of the European population. Discusses the role of curriculum selection and language policy in state efforts to promote nationalism. Assesses the role of curricular systems in the actual encouragement of warfare, using Serbia as an example. Contains 33 references. Descriptors: Educational Policy, Elementary Secondary Education, Ethnocentrism, Foreign Countries

Glew, Frank (1998). From Both Sides, Pathways: The Ontario Journal of Outdoor Education. Ontario Agri-Food Education's curriculum unit, "From Both Sides," applies a cooperative-learning method of conflict resolution to environmental issues. Two groups of students are assigned polar views on an issue such as pesticide use. Five steps involve preparing and presenting a position, refuting opposing positions, reversing perspectives, and creating synthesis. Related teacher workshops and resources are listed. Descriptors: Conflict Resolution, Controversial Issues (Course Content), Cooperative Learning, Educational Resources

Barnes, Mary Ellen; And Others (1992). Selling Addiction: A Workshop Kit on Tobacco and Alcohol Advertising. A Media Literacy Workshop Kit. This kit consists of: (1) a leader's guide; (2) an 18-minute videotape containing three 6-minute discussion starter segments analyzing typical commercials and advertising techniques; (3) a special issue of "Media Values" magazine on the theme "Fatal Attraction: The Selling of Addiction"; (4) an 8-page booklet "Awareness to Action: Media Literacy for the '90s"; (5) a 30-minute video "Consumer Seduction: From Romance to Reality." This packet is designed for use in awareness workshops of how advertising encourages the use and abuse of the two legal drugs, alcohol and tobacco. Constructed for use in two 2-hour sessions, in two consecutive weeks, the activities allow time for ideas from the workshop to be "tried out" at home. In the workshop process, participants identify and develop strategies for breaking the media/addiction link. The two sessions include: (1) "How They Get You Hooked"; and (2) "How They Keep You Hooked." Readings, handouts and follow-up suggestions are included in the packet. Descriptors: Advertising, Alcohol Education, Alcoholism, Content Analysis

Webb, Nick (1997). Legotalk in the Research Park. Commentary, Studies in Art Education. Utilizes Uwe Poerksen's concept of "plastic words" to examine and criticize the preeminence given to research in art education. "Plastic words" refers to vague technical jargon that suggests meaning without actually providing it (e.g., development, process, goal-setting). Argues that this usage inherently corrupts and diverts any productive activity. Descriptors: Art Education, Educational Quality, Educational Trends, Higher Education

Goldberg, Mark F.; And Others (1967). Listening to Understand and Speaking to be Understood: Curriculum Units For The Average Non-College Bound Ninth or Tenth Year Student. The two teaching units in this document present listening and speaking as dynamic skills and emphasize learning through discovery and induction. "Listening to Understand" encourages the student to participate primarily as a member of a group rather than as an individual. Classroom exercises are listed for teaching students efficient listening, the nature of sound, the effect of environmental contexts on sound, the function of word order, changes in language meaning, the techniques used in propoganda and commercials, and the functions of music. "Speaking to be Understood" encourages the student to participate as an individual and offers more opportunity for inferential learning. Methods of teaching basic communication, language learning and dialect, semantics, voice and speech improvement, and oral literature are presented.   [More]  Descriptors: Communication Skills, Communication (Thought Transfer), English Instruction, Language Skills

Randolph-Robinson, Brenda (1984). The Depiction of South Africa in U.S. Materials for Children, Interracial Books for Children Bulletin. The three articles in this issue provide (1) an examination of 19 current textbooks revealing most have misleading, inaccurate, or racist contents; (2) results of a study reviewing more than 40 children's books and finding that even the newest are generally inadequate, and older titles still in circulation are blatantly biased; and (3) a description and list of recommended audio-visual materials. The first and second of these articles were written by Brenda Randolph-Robinson; the third was written by Marylee Crofts. Also provided are suggestions concerning a variety of resources with which educators can disseminate accurate information about South Africa. Descriptors: Audiovisual Aids, Blacks, Book Reviews, Childrens Literature

Bassey, Magnus O. (1991). Missionary Rivalry and Educational Expansion in Southern Nigeria, 1885-1932, Journal of Negro Education. Argues that, although education was an important objective of the missions in Africa, the rapid expansion of education in southern Nigeria between 1885 and 1932 was actually the accidental outcome of missionary and Catholic Church rivalry, rather than the result of an altruistic policy to expand educational opportunities for Africans. Descriptors: Access to Education, African History, Black Education, Catholic Educators

Maxwell, Rhoda, Ed. (1982). Television and the Teaching of English. Recognizing that students spend more time before the television set than in school, this monograph evaluates television as a potential resource in the teaching of English. The nine articles in the collection (1) discuss the effect of massive television viewing on children in and out of the classroom; (2) examine the students' need to apply critical thinking skills to their television viewing; (3) describe activities and materials designed to develop these cognitive skills in students at all levels; and (4) list various books and organizations offering further information on television and the schools. The articles suggest that rather than being a liability, television, if intelligently used, can serve as a highly motivating tool in teaching both critical thinking skills and literature. Descriptors: Audiences, Childrens Television, Commercial Television, Critical Thinking

COLES, E.K. TOWNSEND; JESSUP, F.W. (1967). INTERNATIONAL AND INTER-RACIAL UNDERSTANDING, THE CONTRIBUTION OF ADULT EDUCATION. THE REQUISITE LEVEL OF INTERNATIONAL AND INTERRACIAL UNDERSTANDING WILL NOT BE ACHIEVED WITHOUT A GREAT EXPANSION OF ADULT EDUCATION. EDUCATION FOR INTERNATIONAL AND RACIAL UNDERSTANDING MAY SEEK TO COMMUNICATE RELEVANT KNOWLEDGE, TO INCULCATE WHOLESOME ATTITUDES, AND TO PROVIDE PERTINENT EXPERIENCE. INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING MAY BE PROMOTED BY (1) DIRECT TEACHING OF SUCH SUBJECTS AS FOREIGN LANGUAGES, ANTHROPOLOGY, GEOGRAPHY, AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS, (2) GROUP AND SOCIAL ACTIVITIES, SUCH AS STUDY TOURS, RESIDENTIAL COURSES, AND EXCHANGE PROGRAMS, (3) SUCH INFORMATIONAL SOURCES AS LIBRARIES, NEWSPAPERS, MUSEUMS, AND RADIO AND TELEVISION, AND (4) ACTIVITIES OF INSTITUTIONS AND ORGANIZATIONS WHICH SEEK TO INFLUENCE ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR, SUCH AS THE UNITED NATIONS ASSOCIATION, THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING UNION, AND CHRISTIAN CHURCHES. RACE RELATIONS, AS A FIELD OF STUDY, SHOULD RECEIVE MORE SPECIALIST CONSIDERATION AND SHOULD BE MORE WIDELY INTRODUCED INTO ADULT CLASSES. THE ADULT EDUCATOR MAY PROVIDE ACADEMIC STUDY OF THE SUBJECT, OR EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCES WHICH HELP INDIVIDUALS TO LIVE IN HARMONY IN A "RACIALLY" MIXED SOCIETY. (APPENDIXES INCLUDE EXAMPLES OF SIX COURSES AND COMMUNITY ACTION PROGRAMS.) THIS DOCUMENT IS AVAILABLE FROM THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADULT EDUCATION, 35 QUEEN ANNE STREET, LONDON W.1, ENGLAND. Descriptors: Adult Education, Attitude Change, Educational Methods, Educational Resources

Emme, Michael J., Ed.; And Others (1994). Journal of Social Theory in Art Education, 1994, Journal of Social Theory in Art Education. Articles in this journal examine the way art and art education affect the individual and the formation of culture. This volume includes: (1) "The Deep Creek School: Technology, Ecology and the Body as Pedagogical Alternatives in Art Education" (Daniel L. Collins; Charles R. Garoian); (2) "The Green Quilt: An Example of Collective Eco-Action in Art Education" (Doug Blandy; Kristin G. Congdon; Laurie Hicks; Elizabeth Hoffman; and Don Krug); (3) "An Editor's Note: Critical Theory, Art and Education" (Michael J. Emme); (4) "The Gallery" (David Amdur; Robert Bersson; Gene Cooper; Drent Howenstein; Laurie Lundquist; Meryl Meisler; Juanita Miller; Gretchen Riemer; Kai Staats); (5) "Valuing Difference: Luce Irigaray and Feminist Pedagogy" (Yvonne Gaudelius); (6) "Behind, the Road is Blocked: Art Education and Nostalgia" (Paul Duncum); (7) "The Committee on Public Information and the Mobilization of Public Opinion in the United States During World War I: The Effects on Education and Artists" (Clayton Funk); (8) "Art, Education, Work, and Leisure: Tangles in the Lifelong Learning Network" (Lara M. Lackey); (9) "'Truth' That Sells: Broadcast News Media in Video Art and Art Education" (Mary Wyrick). Book reviews look at works by authors: Terry Barrett (1994), "Criticizing Art: Understanding the Contemporary" (John H. White, Jr.); Leslie Weisman (1992), "Discrimination by Design: A Feminist Critique of the Man-Made Environment" (Joanne K. Guilfoil); and Robert Hughes (1993), "Culture of Complaint: The Fraying of America" (Patricia Amburgy). Descriptors: Aesthetic Values, Art, Art Education, Artists

Corono-Norco Unified School District, Corono, CA. (1984). Communication Skills 8 (Non-Leveled Semester Class for All Eighth Graders). Persuasion Unit. THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: Prior to the persuasion unit, students have spent several weeks in class utilizing library research techniques, public speaking skills, and their writing processes. The unit has been devised to give students practical experience using critical thinking and decision-making skills, persuasive language, writing and speaking abilities, and critiquing techniques. Students first brainstorm as a class for ideas on possible issues with which they are concerned (e.g., national security, abortion, drug abuse), each choosing five possible topics for their own research. One day in the library helps students peruse available materials for their possible issues. We then discuss how to state, defend, and argue an opinion fairly. Returning to the library, they limit their topics to one, decide which side of the issue they will take, and find at least two sources of information. After taking notes, they make a skeletal outline, slotting in facts where appropriate. The students write rough drafts of their persuasive papers after deciding on a specific audience (e.g., the President or an anti-abortion group). I read papers anonymously in class and students critique the form, arguments, and persuasiveness of each other's papers. Students rewrite their papers for a grade; they are later given an option to rewrite their papers for a higher grade. Finally, the class role-plays the specified audiences while students read their papers as speeches. After this experience, students are given a chance to use "unfair" persuasive arguments (bandwagon, testimonial, name-calling, card stacking, and glittering generality)–(see "Scholastic Voice," November 12, 1982, page 17)–by writing and performing commercials singly, in pairs, or in trios. In class, students brainstorm for products' names, write out dialogues, prepare props, and practice their commercials. Then commercials are videotaped and played back to the class while students critique commercials verbally and in writing, commenting on what students have done effectively and how commercials could be even better. [This document was selected by the Association of California School Aministrators (ACSA) Task Force on Public Confidence as descriptive of a promising practice or exemplary project worthy of highlighting for the California educational community.] Descriptors: Advertising, Communication Skills, Critical Thinking, Decision Making Skills

Department of Education, Washington, DC. (1988). America's Schools: Everybody's Business. A Report to the President. This brief pamphlet describes and promotes educational partnerships that have been established over the past 5 years between schools and the private sector. The sponsoring partners described include banks, fast food restaurants, insurance companies, bakeries, law firms, dry cleaners, police departments, professional basketball teams, publishing companies, automobile manufacturers, civic and service clubs, and wealthy private individuals.   [More]  Descriptors: Advertising, Career Education, Cooperative Programs, Corporate Education

Bibliography: Propaganda (page 62 of 66)

This bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Alternative Facts website. Some of the authors featured on this page include Robert L. Nwankwo, H. A. I. Goonetileke, John McMurty, Wynell B. Schamel, JINDRA KULICH, Robin W. Winks, Penelope L. Richardson, Daniel Dieterich, Jose Barreiro, and James E. Haefner.

Winks, Robin W. (1995). Lying to Ourselves, Humanities. Discusses the historical validity of "The Hitler Diaries" and other historical forgeries. Maintains that forgeries and other hoaxes will continue to be part of human history. Questions why many people seem to need "historical revelations." Descriptors: Autobiographies, Credibility, Cultural Traits, Deception

Francke, Warren T. (1978). The Mass Communication "Theories" of the Muckrakers. While muckrakers such as Upton Sinclair, Ernest Poole, Thomas Lawson, and others chose individual approaches for their investigative reporting to the public, they shared some common assumptions about mass communication that influenced the operative impact of their views. In addition to adhering to a simplistic belief in the power of bare facts, these writers calculated the receptivity of their audiences, searched for the prime conditions to present their messages, and measured reader response according to indexes they devised themselves. Effective strategies included sarcasm in praising those who voted for dishonest politicians, pretended innocence in conveying startling facts, a tombstone photograph for a patent medicine fraud expose, and emotion-packed descriptions and insinuations. The muckraker studied public opinion, frequently commenting on its power and abuses, on how to predict it and how to measure it; the ultimate goal in investigative reporting was effecting a change in American society. Response was solicited directly, through requests for letters of complaint to the company or government agency responsible for the problem and through the endorsements of readers by increased circulation of the magazine or newspaper that printed the report. Descriptors: Attitude Change, Audiences, Change Strategies, Communication (Thought Transfer)

Dieterich, Daniel, Ed. (1976). Teaching About Doublespeak. The majority of the 24 essays in this book describe successful units, classes, or courses on the misuse of public language, while others suggest specific techniques for studying doublespeak or discuss theoretical frameworks for approaching the study of doublespeak. The first section of the book deals with the theory behind the study of doublespeak, and the second section contains material suitable for classroom use at more than one level. The last three sections include material for the study of doublespeak at each of three educational levels–elementary, secondary, and college. The essays will provide practical help for teachers guiding students in learning to deal with the doublespeak they encounter in advertising, governmental and political announcements, and other messages transmitted through the mass media. Descriptors: Communication (Thought Transfer), Critical Thinking, Elementary Secondary Education, Higher Education

Robinson, Ian (1973). The Survival of English: Essays in Criticism of Language. This critical examination of the condition of the English language used in Britian today raises questions about the language with which society expresses its concerns. It analyzes the language used in contemporary England for religion, politics, serious journalism, love, and literature. Included is an account of the committee-language of the New English Bible and the experimental liturgies, pointing out ways in which ideas are altered by language. The language of politicians who sell themselves and their policies to an electorate of consumers is analyzed, as is the language of "The Times," which serves as a symbol of the decline of the nation at large. An extensive section of the book is devoted to a discussion of the rise in pornographic materials that accompanies a decline in literature and language which expresses love. The seven critical essays contained in this volume include: "Introductory: Language and Life,""Religious English,""English and the Art of the Possible,""The Vulgarization of The Times,""Notes on the Language of Love: 1, the Definition of Pornography,""Notes on the Language of Love: 2, Where Have All the Demons Gone?" and "Anarchy and Criticism." Descriptors: English, English Literature, Essays, Higher Education

Richardson, Penelope L. (1979). Lifelong Learning and Politics, Convergence: An International Journal of Adult Education. States that community colleges are in a good position to be centers of lifelong education and that adult educators must engage in politics in order to promote learning opportunities for adults. Suggests legislative, administrative, judicial, and electoral strategies for adult educators to use in influencing policymakers to support lifelong education.   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Education, Adult Educators, College Role, Community Colleges

McMurty, John (1997). The Global-Market Doctrine: A Study in Fundamentalist Theology. The Iconoclast, Canadian Social Studies. Presents an interesting metaphorical critique of the current enthusiasm for the global market and the free market system. Delineates 10 defining principles of a fundamentalist theological doctrine and then suggests replacing the term "global market" with "Supreme Ruler." Criticizes free market capitalism as being occasionally irrational and contradictory. Descriptors: Capitalism, Criticism, Economic Factors, Economic Impact

Durrant, Lynne H.; And Others (1994). This Bud's Not for You: Adolescents' Perceptions of Beer and Cigarette Magazine Advertisements, Health Educator. To determine whether new (1990s) cigarette and beer magazine advertisements target young adolescents by using younger-looking models than in the 1960s, sixth and seventh graders viewed advertisements and estimated models' ages. Most students perceived the 1990s models to be under 25 and the 1960s models to be over 25 years of age. Descriptors: Adolescents, Advertising, Drinking, Intermediate Grades

Nwankwo, Robert L. (1973). The Mass Media and Political Culture in Africa. Editorials in the "West African Pilot", an English-language newspaper published in Lagos, for the years 1945, 1957, 1960, and 1963 (years of crucial importance to Nigeria) were studied to determine the effects of modernity, tradition, fluctuating socioeconomic conditions, and particularly political influences exerted on the press. Each editorial was coded according to its contextual, societal, socio-concept, and evaluative orientation. Most of the editorials treated national/regional issues, politics, and individual persons and groups, and reflected an "official" version of political and social conditions. Assuming the "Pilot" to be representative of the African press, results of this study show that the medium is characterized more by feeling, sensation, and intuition than by critical thinking.   [More]  Descriptors: Developing Nations, Field Studies, Government Role, Information Dissemination

Haverkamp, Beth; Schamel, Wynell B. (1994). Fire Prevention Posters: The Story of Smokey Bear. Teaching with Documents, Social Education. Contends that, despite increasingly sophisticated means of communication, posters remain a powerful cornerstone of many government advertising campaigns. Describes the beginnings and evolution of Smokey Bear from a World War II homefront poster to an ongoing advertising success. Descriptors: Advertising, Class Activities, Educational Strategies, Elementary Secondary Education

Goonetileke, H. A. I., Comp.; And Others (1978). Mass Communication in Sri Lanka: An Annotated Bibliography. Asian Mass Communication Bibliography Series 9. Published and unpublished materials dealing with the multidisciplinary field of mass communication in Sri Lanka are listed in this bibliography. The 362 entries are grouped into 20 sections: bibliography and reference material; communication theory and research methods; general communication; media development and characteristics; newspapers; print media; broadcast media; film; audiovisual media; traditional media (dance, drama, mime, storytelling, and puppetry as means of communication); news agencies; mass communication law; communication in development; communication teaching and training; mass media in formal education; advertising, marketing, public relations, and management; government communication; social contexts of the media; communication technology; and mass communication periodicals. An author index is included. Descriptors: Annotated Bibliographies, Audiovisual Communications, Communication (Thought Transfer), Communications

Barreiro, Jose (1990). View from the Shore: Toward an Indian Voice in 1992, Northeast Indian Quarterly. Reviews plans in Spain and the Americas for observances of the 1992 Columbus Quincentenary. Reflects on Indian responses to these observances and resistance to the notion of America's "discovery." Includes testimonies from Indian voices: N. Scott Momaday, Suzan Shown Harjo, Beverly Singer, Ladonna Harris, Rayna Green, and Tim Coulter. Descriptors: American Indian History, American Indians, Cultural Images, Culture Conflict

KULICH, JINDRA (1967). THE ROLE AND TRAINING OF ADULT EDUCATORS IN CZECHOSLOVAKIA. THE ORGANIZATION, MANAGEMENT, FORM, AND CONTENT OF THE UNIQUE STANDARD NATIONAL TRAINING SYSTEM FOR ADULT EDUCATORS IN CZECHOSLOVAKIA AND THE ROLE OF THE ADULT EDUCATOR IN THE COMMUNIST STATE ARE EXAMINED IN THIS STUDY. FULL-TIME ADULT EDUCATORS ARE TRAINED AT BOTH THE UNIVERSITY AND SECONDARY TECHNICAL LEVELS. THREE UNIVERSITIES AND THREE SECONDARY LIBRARIANSHIP SCHOOLS HAVE FULL DEPARTMENTS OF ADULT EDUCATION OFFERING FULL-TIME AND EXTRA-MURAL PROGRAMS IN GENERAL AND ADULT EDUCATION AND RELATED FIELDS. QUALIFICATIONS FOR FULL-TIME ADULT EDUCATORS ARE PRESCRIBED BY THE CENTRAL PLANNING AUTHORITIES BUT ACTUAL QUALIFICATIONS OFTEN DO NOT CORRESPOND TO THE REQUIRED STANDARD. VOLUNTEERS ARE TRAINED IN A STANDARD BASIC ADULT EDUCATION COURSE AND ADVANCED COURSES HAVE BEEN ESTABLISHED ON AN EXPERIMENTAL BASIS. THE PREPARATION OF YOUNG INTELLIGENTSIA TO SERVE AS VOLUNTEERS IS EMPHASIZED. THE DEVELOPMENT OF RESEARCH IN ADULT EDUCATION SUFFERED A SERIOUS SETBACK BETWEEN 1950-1956 BUT SINCE 1958 HAS BEEN REVITALIZED. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS INDICATE INCREASING PROFESSIONALISM IN THE FIELD. THIS MASTERS THESIS IS PUBLISHED BY, AND IS AVAILABLE FROM, THE PUBLICATIONS CENTRE, UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, VANCOUVER 8, B.C., FOR $2.50. 138 PAGES. Descriptors: Administrators, Adult Educators, Communism, Comparative Education

Goldsen, Rose K. (1972). Clearing the Air; or How Fares the First Amendment–is it Alive and Well?. Intended for non-professional groups trying to make inputs into the political system but having limited access to the mass media, this manual reviews and criticizes the current status of power in the communications industry, especially in regard to ownership and control of the flow of information. Government/media relations are discussed, particularly the laws pertaining to the use of broadcast media. The emphasis of the manual is on the variety of actions groups can take to gain access to media channels, through advertising, talk shows, panel shows, and invitations to make editorial comments. In addition to a descriptive bibliography the manual also provides Federal Communications Commission (FCC) licensing information and listings of citizens groups lobbying for public rights in broadcasting. Descriptors: Broadcast Industry, Citizen Participation, Community Action, Equal Protection

Haefner, James E.; And Others (1975). The Measurement of Advertising Impact on Children. This study examined the impact on children of two deceptive and two non-deceptive 60-second color commericals inserted in a 25-minute film. The ads were rated as deceptive or non-deceptive by attorneys at the Federal Trade Commission. A total of 102 students aged 11 to 13 and 34 students aged 7 viewed the film with the ads inserted. Pre- and post-questionnaires were administered to all students before and after the film session to determine any changes in acceptance of beliefs contained in the commericials, in attitudes, or in behavioral intentions. The posttest included recall items to indicate whether children attended to the commericals. The pretest for the older children also included items designed to measure family communications. Results indicated high recall of brand for all age groups and little if any relationship between program liking and reaction to the commercials. The children were influenced to change their levels of acceptance of the beliefs contained in the commercials; this effect was weakest in children who came from families which stressed questioning in family communications. Younger children showed shifts in beliefs produced by both deceptive and non-deceptive ads, but older children were persuaded only by one deceptive commercial. No direct impact was found on brand attitudes or on intentions.   [More]  Descriptors: Age Differences, Attention, Attitude Change, Behavior Change

Hawkes, Mark (1995). Educational Technology Dissemination: Its Impact on Learning, Instruction, and Educational Policy. The Council of Great Lakes Governors and GTE North, Inc. developed a partnership titled "Pioneering Partners for Educational Technology" to disseminate innovative educational technologies developed by classroom teachers in eight states of the Great Lakes region. To accomplish this, Pioneering Partners provides a Partnership Summer Summit at which participants' skills in disseminating innovative educational technologies are developed. Evaluation of the initiative focused on providing the Council of Great Lakes Governors and GTE with information regarding the effectiveness of steps taken to spread the use of educational technology. Also, Pioneering Partners seeks to inform policy makers on decisions they face, in order to increase the likelihood that laws favoring technology in schools will be legislated. Most frequently disseminated technologies involved classroom computers; telecommunications technologies; computer labs; and video, laptop, and calculator technologies. The greatest factor in facilitating dissemination was Pioneering Partners materials and support, and the belief that something of value could be done. Rural educators especially indicated that lack of financial resources and technology know-how were the greatest inhibitions to dissemination efforts. Evaluation also assessed the highest level of technology use at adopting sites, and the initiative's influence on local and state education policy. Recommendations include developing a strategy to close the resource gap for rural schools, encouraging quality applications of technology to math and science instruction, using telecommunications as a reporting and evaluation tool, requiring clearly defined goals for student learning, providing scholarly literature to validate educators' experiences in the project and to promote a common language, and providing more support to ensure that dissemination achieves the lasting effect of technology adoption. An appendix contains eight figures.   [More]  Descriptors: Adoption (Ideas), Computer Uses in Education, Corporate Support, Educational Policy

Bibliography: Propaganda (page 61 of 66)

This bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Alternative Facts website. Some of the authors featured on this page include SISTER MARY CONSTANTINE, David L. Amor, Steve M. Barkin, James R. Bennett, Jerome Cramer, Hugh Morgan, Fred S. Siebert, Carolyn Baker, Mike Wallace, and B. Lee Cooper.

Amor, David L. (1988). State/Media Relations in Developing Nations: The Case of the Republic of Kenya. Using as an example the relations between the state and the mass media in Kenya in the 1960s and 1970s, this paper asserts that in regard to state/media relations, a theoretical middle course exists between the two most common perspectives, the structuralist-functionalists/chroniclers of history and the Marxists. The paper claims that this middle course illuminates variations in the character of state interventions with respect to the mass media, variations both over time and among institutions. The paper proposes that (1) it is the state's relations with "all" the major classes in a particular social formation and the particular configuration of those classes that determine the state's interests in controlling the media, not simply its relation to a dominant or ruling class; and (2) both the class character of the persons/organizations originating mass-mediated messages and the class character of their intended audiences independently contribute to determining the degree of severity of state interventions. The paper sets forth the outlines of a theoretical argument grounding these propositions, identifies a series of specific hypotheses, and tests them against the evidence of the aforementioned particular case, Kenya. The paper finds that the described patterns of state/media relations offer general support for the specific expectations suggested by the theoretical framework, although they by no means provide an unambiguous confirmation. One hundred and one notes are included, and 48 references are appended. Descriptors: Developing Nations, Foreign Countries, Government (Administrative Body), Government Role

Baker, Carolyn; And Others (1975). Who's Talking? Who's Listening? Communicating in N.Y.C. This booklet was developed by New York City junior high school teachers to help other teachers and students to explore various facets of communications and mass media. Media forms examined in a series of loosely structured lesson plans include telephone, television, radio, the postal service, newspapers, magazines, books, printing, and new communications systems being developed for the future. In addition, an extensive set of lessons and suggested activities is presented on the topic of advertising. The importance of all levels of communications and advertising is stressed throughout the booklet. Questions and activities are directed toward clarifying the students' relationship to the world through communication. Descriptors: Broadcast Industry, Communications, Curriculum Guides, Instructional Materials

Barkin, Steve M. (1981). Television Planning in the 1952 Eisenhower Campaign. This report of a study of the activities of a secret planning board, formed to promote the nomination of Dwight Eisenhower through the intensive use of television, concludes that the significance of television planning in the 1952 Eisenhower campaign had less to do with the outcome of the election than with the first massive use of television with politics on a national stage. A discussion of the formation and strategies of the nine-man planning board makes up the major portion of the paper, while the remainder of the report focuses on the role of the Republican National Committee in utilizing the media to accentuate the "warmth of personality" of both Eisenhower and vice-presidental candidate Richard Nixon. Descriptors: Change Agents, Change Strategies, History, News Media

Cirino, Robert (1977). We're Being More Than Entertained. This book is designed to develop the analytical and creative abilities that will enable an individual to discover and to counter the underlying biases in mass media entertainment. Chapters discuss the mass media's conflicts of interest, the establishment of personal values and viewpoints, the classification of political viewpoints, four basic political viewpoints (socialist, liberal, libertarian, and conservative), and issues as they are perceived by these four groups. Specific application of the suggested critical techniques is provided for television drama ("Kojak" and "All My Children"), special-interest programing (the "Los Angeles Times" sports page and "Playboy"), host shows ("Let's Make a Deal" and radio programs that play the top 40), and information entertainment (radio news, Paul Conrad's cartoons, and live coverage by national networks). Each section provides individual and group activities intended to promote awareness of media bias. Additional discussion is directed toward the goal of viewing biased media productions in terms of an overall whole and to establishing an alternative broadcasting system. Descriptors: Bias, Broadcast Industry, Credibility, Higher Education

MARY CONSTANTINE, SISTER, S.S.J. (1968). AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS OF HIGH SCHOOL ENGLISH TEACHERS ENROLLED IN A METHODS COURSE. INTERIM REPORT. A STUDY AT LOYOLA UNIVERSITY (CHICAGO), SPONSORED BY THE ILLINOIS STATE-WIDE CURRICULUM STUDY CENTER IN THE PREPARATION OF SECONDARY SCHOOL ENGLISH TEACHERS (ISCPET), TESTED THE HYPOTHESIS THAT "PERSONS ASPIRING TO BECOME TEACHERS OF ENGLISH IN HIGH SCHOOL CAN BE ALERTED AND TRAINED IN SOME OF THE VARIED, SPECIFIC, SEPARABLE, AND MEASURABLE SKILLS WHICH ARE NEEDED FOR CRITICAL THINKING AND WHICH ARE RELEVANT TO A HIGH SCHOOL ENGLISH PROGRAM, AND THAT THIS TRAINING SHOULD HAVE AN EFFECT UPON THE TEACHERS' ABILITIES TO THINK CRITICALLY." BOTH AN EXPERIMENTAL GROUP (FALL, 1965) AND A CONTROL GROUP (WINTER, 1966) WERE EXPOSED TO THE USUAL CONTENT OF THE ENGLISH METHODS COURSE, EXCEPT THAT THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUP RECEIVED INSTRUCTION RELATIVE TO CRITICAL-THINKING. THIS LATTER GROUP ALSO STUDIED THE OPERATIONS OF THE MIND AS DEFINED BY GUILFORD, THE NEED FOR A "COGNITIVE" RATHER THAN A "STIMULUS-RESPONSE" BIAS IN TEACHING, AND POSSIBLE METHODS USED WITHIN A HIGH SCHOOL ENGLISH PROGRAM TO DEVELOP SKILLS OF CRITICAL THINKING. THE PROGRAM WAS EVALUATED BY PRE- AND POST-TESTS USING THE "WATSON-GLASER CRITICAL THINKING APPRAISAL" AND AN ADAPTATION OF THE "DRESSEL-MAYHEW TEST." THE DIFFERENCES IN PERFORMANCE OF THE EXPERIMENTAL OVER THE CONTROL GROUP WERE POSITIVE BUT STATISTICALLY NONSIGNIFICANT. POSITION PAPERS AND QUESTIONNAIRES COMPLETED BY STUDENTS IN BOTH GROUPS REVEALED THAT THOSE EXPOSED TO THE EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM HAD BECOME MORE AWARE AND APPRECIATIVE OF THE VALUE OF TEACHING FOR CRITICAL THINKING THAN HAD STUDENTS IN THE CONTROL GROUP. (THIS DOCUMENT IS ALSO AVAILABLE (LIMITED SUPPLY, FREE) FROM ISCPET, 1210 WEST CALIFORNIA, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, URBANA, ILL. 61801.) SEE ALSO TE 000 470.   [More]  Descriptors: Audiovisual Aids, Cognitive Processes, Comprehension, Critical Reading

Williams, Thomas E.; Morgan, Hugh (1979). Franklin Delano Roosevelt's Successful Selling of the Destroyer Deal. One of the most evident examples of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's mastery of the press and his manipulation of public opinion was the 1940 arrangement of the transfer of 50 United States naval destroyers to Great Britain while that nation was at war with Germany and Italy and while noninterventionist sentiment was quite strong in the United States. Factors important in Roosevelt's success include his overemphasis of the importance of British bases and his defense plans with Canada, his instigation of public discussion of the plan without his name attached, and his neutralization of the deal as a political issue by keeping his Republican opponent semiinformed through an intermediary. Although Roosevelt's relations with press columnists were antagonistic, he was friendly with and trusted by the Washington press corps. The key to the public relations aspect of the deal was keeping the destroyer issue separate from the bases issue so the merits of a complete deal could not be debated as a whole before the deed was accomplished. Roosevelt provided pieces of a puzzle, not allowing them to come together until the public was fully prepared. Descriptors: Communication (Thought Transfer), European History, Federal Government, Information Dissemination

Roberts, Nancy L. (1979). Riveting for Victory: Women in Magazine Ads in World War II. An examination of the portrayal of women in popular magazine advertising from 1942 to 1945 suggests that the mass media played a major role in calling women out of the home and into the factory and machine shop to assist in the war effort. Discouraged from working during the Depression years when jobs were scarce, in the 1940s women were eagerly invited to join the labor force to help mobilize for global war. With "Rosie the Riveter" as their national heroine, wartime magazines proclaimed women's capability to perform almost every kind of theretofore "male" task. With the closing of war industries and the return of job-hungry soldiers, however, the magazines began to tell women to go home. In the late 1940s, popular magazines featured aproned housewives once again content in a completely domestic role.   [More]  Descriptors: Advertising, Communication (Thought Transfer), Employed Women, Females

Wallace, Mike (1994). The Contribution of the Mass Media to the Education Policy Process. This paper presents findings of a study that conceptualized how the mass media in England are involved in the education policy process, and identified major influences on media production and its link with education policy. The project is being conducted by the National Development Centre for Educational Management and Policy from October 1993 to May 1995. Methodology involves interviews with media professionals and representatives of other groups; content analysis of national media coverage of educational issues; and case studies of progressive education in British schools. It is argued that political debate, especially the antagonistic discourse over progressive versus traditional teaching methods, is a dialectical process of myth making and myth bashing. Media and political myths vary across several dimensions–the degree of simplification, the extent to which certain aspects are omitted, and the level of generalization. In a context of multiple education reform, the policy formation process may be viewed as a continuous dialectic between interest groups who are situated in four mutually influential contexts: the context of influence; the context of text production; the context of practice; and the media context. This paper discounts the theory of relative autonomy and asserts that the media and state are closely linked, and serve to legitimate capitalism. Some key areas for further inquiry are highlighted. One figure is included. Contains 21 references.   [More]  Descriptors: Critical Theory, Educational Policy, Elementary Secondary Education, Foreign Countries

Cooper, B. Lee (1992). Popular Songs, Military Conflicts, and Public Perceptions of the United States at War, Social Education. Examines the images of war represented by popular recordings. Divides the century into four periods based on wars: 1914-38, 1939-63, 1964-89, and 1990-91. Reports that the popular image of the United States at war as represented in music has been positive for all periods except Vietnam, although each period had its share of protest. Lists resources and recordings. Descriptors: Instructional Materials, Popular Culture, Propaganda, Public Opinion

Howie, Marguerite Rogers; Hanna, Kathleen (1976). Effects of Communication and Transportation on Utilization of Agency Services by Rural Poor People in South Carolina. South Carolina State College Research Bulletin No. 5, January 1976. Use of five agencies offering adult education, vocational rehabilitation, food stamps, employment, and health services in Orangeburg County by rural poor people in Bowman, Elloree, and North was studied over a two-year period. The study examined whether communication, transportation, or both increased agency use. In Bowman, information about the agencies was offered; transportation to and from the agencies was offered in Elloree; and in North, both were offered. Flyers from the agencies and specific releases presenting data in capsulate, simplified form were distributed to churches, civic and social organizations, and community centers in Bowman and North. Videotape film schedules were posted in businesses and public places where people congregated. Transportation notices, posters, and announcements were distributed at strategic places in Elloree and North. A sample randomly selected from predominantly black neighborhoods in Bowman and North was also interviewed. It was found that transportation produced no effects while communication produced a significant, patterned effect for two of the five agencies. The additional survey revealed a marked discrepancy between agency use figures and reported use of agency services, and a dissatisfaction with the distribution of agency services.   [More]  Descriptors: Agencies, Attitudes, Black Community, Communication (Thought Transfer)

Olson, Lester C. (1981). FDR's 'Four Freedoms' Campaign: The Rhetorical Contribution of Norman Rockwell's Posters. Rhetorical criticism focusing on Norman Rockwell's paintings of the "Four Freedoms" provides reasons for the paintings' effectiveness within the context of Franklin Roosevelt's campaign to educate Americans about participation in World War II. The epideictic icons in Rockwell's paintings promoted identifications that constitute the tenets of a conjoined religious and political perspective. Rockwell's method of establishing these identifications had at least three salient characteristics: (1) he based the identifications upon institutionalized American values that represented focal points for American unity; (2) he utilized images that traditionally were intimately associated with people and scenes within the institutions in order to establish identification with respect to those institutions; and (3) within these images, Rockwell provided productive ambiguities that enabled him to fuse symbols from different people and scenes, thereby broadening the range of symbols with which the viewer could identify. Descriptors: Art Products, Communication Skills, Democratic Values, Identification (Psychology)

McWilliams, John C. (1991). Drug Use in American History, OAH Magazine of History. Discusses drug use in U.S. history. Argues that a "get-tough" approach did not work in the past and will not work in the future. Suggests that history can provide a scholarly assessment of drugs, foster understanding of drugs in contemporary society, and enable students to evaluate drug policies more objectively. Descriptors: Alcohol Abuse, Cocaine, Drug Abuse, Drug Education

Cramer, Jerome (1982). Your Kids Are the Target When the Klan Comes Calling, American School Board Journal. Describes Ku Klux Klan recruiting and literature dissemination activities in schools and communities and two particularly difficult conflicts caused by Klan activities in Meriden (Connecticut) and East Baton Rouge (Louisiana). Explains the legal issues involved and possible board and administrator responses to such activities and conflicts.   [More]  Descriptors: Administrator Role, After School Programs, Board of Education Policy, Compliance (Legal)

Bennett, James R. (1978). How to Defend Ourselves Against Corporate Image and Ideology Advertising. Since teachers have been encouraged to give attention to advertising, product advertising has been the subject of study, but because of the large amount of money spent on them, two other aspects of advertising need special attention: corporate-sponsored image (which deals with characteristics and image of the company rather than with products or services) and ideology advertising (the propagation of ideas and controversial social issues in a manner that supports the interests of the sponsor while downgrading the sponsor's opponents). The student should use such tools as classical rhetorical awareness of the speaker, knowledge of informal fallacies, and Hugh Rank's "Intensify/Downplay" approach. Study of a corporate-sponsored film would include questions such as: Who paid for it?  What are the explicit and implicit purposes? How truthful are the claims and assertions? How does it intensify the sponsor's own good and its opponents' bad? What does it conceal that might alter our opinion of the claims? What are the formal and informal fallacies in the message? and What verbal and nonverbal devices are employed to persuade? These tools and questions, or slightly modified ones, can be applied to study such advertising as the corporation film put out by Chesebrough-Pond Corporation, "Family," and the ideology advertisement published by Chromalloy American Corporation. Descriptors: Advertising, Business Education, Critical Thinking, English Instruction

Siebert, Fred S.; And Others (1976). Four Theories of the Press. A systematic understanding of the press requires an understanding of the social and political structures within which the press operates. This book discusses four theories that have determined the kind of press the Western world has had: authoritarian, libertarian, socially responsible, and Soviet communist. Each chapter discusses press development, functions, ownership, and control under one of the four theories, indicating the essential differences between theories. A bibliography is included. Descriptors: Authoritarianism, Capitalism, Communism, Freedom of Speech

Bibliography: Propaganda (page 60 of 66)

This bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Alternative Facts website. Some of the authors featured on this page include Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication., Judy Griffith, Edmund Farrell, Robert L. Stevenson, Cindy Vertin, John Edward Tapia, Bangkok (Thailand). East Asia and Pakistan Regional Office. United Nations Children's Fund, Douglas B. Engwall, R. Jeffrey Ringer, and Owen V. Johnson.

Acton, Karen; Griffith, Judy (1980). Critical Judgment. Activity Guide. Designed for a minimum amount of teacher supervision, this guide consists of introductory practice and evaluative activities for teaching secondary school students about critical judgment. A sample grade ladder and calendar help students self-schedule and keep track of their grade and points. The activity unit is preceded by a teacher rationale, unit objectives, and related vocabulary terms. The activity guide provides 15 student worksheets on topics such as misinterpreting observations, understanding the language of advertising, making generalizations, understanding prejudice, making choices, considering authority and context, and making inferences. The theme throughout the unit is that students must become aware of the difference between statements of fact and statements of opinion so that they may recognize the basis upon which judgements are made. This document is part of a collection of materials from the Iowa Area Education Agency 7 Teacher Center project. Descriptors: Advertising, Controversial Issues (Course Content), Critical Thinking, Decision Making

Johnson, Owen V. (1980). The East European Press and Three-Mile Island. This report of the investigation into East European newspaper treatment of the accident at Pennsylvania's Three Mile Island nuclear power plant in the spring of 1979 focuses on the Czech and Slovak media, particularly on the Slovak Communist Party's daily newspaper, "Pravda." The response of the media of other East European countries to energy questions is also summarized. Attention is given to political, cultural, and historical patterns and traditions, and a note on dissident treatment of the nuclear power issue is included. The following observations emerged from the study: (1) there were significant distinctions among the reports of different media; (2) sources for gathering news were often only the governmental press agencies; (3) the social, political, and economic contexts of a news story were often decisive factors in how the story was written; and (4) with the possible exception of Yugoslavia, the media of Eastern Europe seemed to lack diversity. Descriptors: Credibility, Foreign Countries, Information Sources, Journalism

Dianna, Michael A. (1983). Buy, Buy, Buy. How to Recognize Advertising Appeals. A compilation of activities and instructional ideas on advertising helps intermediate or junior high school teachers incorporate simple consumer education concepts into the social studies curriculum. Material is divided into three sections. An outline defines 16 advertising techniques including eye appeal, youth appeal, snob appeal, celebrity endorsement, and expert endorsement. A list provides activities to help students realize the effects of advertising. Examples include compiling an advertising scrapbook, creating imaginary products, analyzing magazine ads, and answering a market survey. A final list contains activities for evaluating television and radio commercials. Descriptors: Advertising, Consumer Education, Consumer Protection, Economics Education

Stevenson, Robert L.; And Others (1987). Soviet Media in the Age of Glasnost. A study analyzed the content of "Pravda," the major newspaper of the Soviet Communist Party and "Vremya," the main evening news program of Soviet television for changes that could be attributed to Soviet General Secretary Gorbachev's policy of "glasnost" (openness). The "Pravda" sample consisted of 18 editions drawn systematically from the first nine weeks of 1987, while the "Vremya" sample was limited to two weeks in January and the first two weeks of the regular World View service which began in February. Results indicated that the news broadcasts were more internationally attuned than "Pravda" and more reflective of "glasnost." The language of "Vremya" and "Pravda" was dull and burdened with ideological excess. Non-exceptional events–texts of speeches, greetings and toasts that fall under the category of protocol news–seemed the staple of Soviet reporting. Surprisingly, Western Europe was covered far more extensively than the Eastern Bloc. Based on these findings, researchers arrived at three tentative conclusions: (1) although there is some open and critical reporting, "Pravda" and "Vremya" remain more like they were in 1967 than like today's Western media; (2) the Soviet Union has shifted its attention from Eastern Europe to its competitors in the West, especially the United States; and (3) there is almost an obsession with equivalence between the two superpowers. These data indicated that talk of "glasnost" in Soviet journalism is clearly an overstatement. (Tables of data and three pages of references are included.) Descriptors: Communism, Content Analysis, Cultural Differences, Foreign Countries

Goldstein, Marc B.; Engwall, Douglas B. (1989). What Should We Mean by Drug-Free Schools: Policy Implications. Over the past decade, a significant shift occurred in the language used by the Reagan administration in the fight against youthful drug abuse. This shift reflects a change both in the "moral climate" regarding drug use as well as a reconception of the appropriate way to confront the issue–the "just say no" philosophy. This paper first provides a sociological overview of the emergence of adolescent drug use as a major social problem. Next, through an examination of government-sponsored literature on drug use produced over the past 10 years, it documents the changes in conceptual focus that have occurred during this time, and it considers some of the potentially adverse consequences of these changes. Finally, a redefinition of the notion of "drug-free school" is proposed.    [More]  Descriptors: Drug Abuse, Drug Education, Educational Policy, Elementary Secondary Education

Pratkanis, Anthony R.; And Others (1983). Consumer-Product and Socio-Political Messages for Use in Studies of Persuasion. Developed as part of a research program directed at obtaining reliable persuasive effects, the two sets of persuasive messages provided in this report–consumer messages and sociopolitical messages–discuss fictitious brands of consumer products and various sociopolitical issues. The consumer messages were developed for the following 12 products: automobiles, cereals, electric fans, electronic calculators, furniture polish, house paint, movie cameras, portable electric heaters, portable radios, screwdrivers, television sets, and 10-speed bikes. Each message presents a brand name, a paragraph about product attributes, and brand evaluations. The 72 attribute paragraphs (6 per product) are based on articles that appeared in "Consumer Reports." The brand evaluations consist of one or two sentences that assign a value of either poor, below average, average, above average, or excellent to a brand on one of the product attributes. The 20 sociopolitical messages consist of arguments in support of one side of an issue along with cues that attribute the message to either a trustworthy or an untrustworthy source. Each message has a sociopolitical question as a title, and the body of the message consists of two paragraphs. The persuasive messages, which constitute the body of the document, are presented as apprendixes to the brief explanatory report. References are included.   [More]  Descriptors: Communication Research, Consumer Protection, Evaluation Criteria, Persuasive Discourse

Vertin, Cindy (1978). Advertisements: There's A Lot More Than Meets the Eye. Teacher's Guide [and] Student Material. This individualized unit of study was developed by teachers to teach intermediate and junior high school students about advertising. Specific objectives are to teach students to identify the different sources and types of advertisements, to recognize the three main purposes of advertisements, and to analyze the purchasing powers behind the basic advertisement. The Teacher's Guide contains special instructions for the teacher, a concise bibliography, pre- and posttests, and all student worksheets. The student booklet contains concise background information and specific directions which the student must follow to complete the unit. Students are expected to keep a folder or notebook of the varied activities in which they participate. Students collect ads from different sources and make a bulletin board display; list the advantages and disadvantages of a display ad and a classified ad; write or draw an original advertisement that has one of the three purposes of advertisement; find two ads which inform, two ads which persuade, and two ads which offer a public service; and conduct a survey of edible products of different brands by use of a taste test. Optional activities involve students in reading books and viewing filmstrips. Descriptors: Advertising, Consumer Education, Consumer Protection, Individualized Instruction

Farrell, Edmund (1973). Where's the Good Word?, English Journal. Discusses the misuse of language by business, military, and political interests, suggesting that teachers must lead the fight against unsound logic and corrupted language as presented to the public through the mass media. Descriptors: Communication (Thought Transfer), English, Language Usage, Mass Media

Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication. (1990). Proceedings of the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (73rd, Minneapolis, Minnesota, August 1-4, 1990). Part VII: Foreign and International Media Studies. The foreign and international studies section of the proceedings includes the following 11 papers: "The Role of Culture in Development Communication Research and the Use of Ethnography in Development Communication Project Planning" (Jeff Merron); "A Catechism for Censorship: The Development of Circular Number 1000 in World War I France" (Ross F. Collins); "Conflictive News Coverage and Public Salience of Foreign Nations" (Michael B. Salwen and Frances Matera); "Political Commentary in Cuban Broadcasting, 1959-1960" (Michael B. Salwen); "Cultivation Analysis: The Case of Violence in the World of Korean Television Drama" (Jong G. Kang and Shin S. Kang); "Expanding News Flow in the South Pacific" (Robert L. Stevenson); "King Wachirawut of Thailand (1910-1925): A Pioneering Use of Media to Promote Nationalism" (Stephen L. W. Greene); "Portrayal of the United States in the Newspapers of the People's Republic of China" (Roy E. Blackwood); "A Comparative Study of Communication and Social Integration in Development" (Paul Siu-nam Lee); "A New Voice against Apartheid: South Africa's Alternative Press" (Gordon S. Jackson); and "The South African Press and the State of Emergency: An Assessment" (Gordon S. Jackson). Descriptors: Apartheid, Censorship, Communication Research, Development Communication

United Nations Children's Fund, Bangkok (Thailand). East Asia and Pakistan Regional Office. (1985). Planning a Breast-Feeding Promotion Campaign. EAPRO Handbooks on Communication and Training No. 3. The development of the communication component of a program promoting breast feeding to a variety of audiences through a variety of media is the focus of this paper. The introduction discusses groups, in addition to pregnant and lactating mothers, who should be involved and receive information. The paper then (1) identifies audiences–including women in the fertile age-group (15-44) and secondary audiences–who influence mothers' attitudes and breast-feeding practice; (2) provides an analysis of audience beliefs and behavior; (3) describes people important in promoting breastfeeding, such as midwives and women who have had good experiences with breastfeeding; and (4) tells how to change the behavior and beliefs of public officials, the medical establishment, and the mass media. A communication matrix for a breast-feeding promotion campaign and a table to be used for planning and implementing a communication program are appended. Descriptors: Audiences, Communication (Thought Transfer), Foreign Countries, Information Dissemination

Ringer, R. Jeffrey (1986). The Language of Fund-Raising Direct Mail: Differences between Letters for National and Local Constituencies. A study examined differences in the language of direct mail advertising used by political campaigns at different levels–national state, and local. Seventeen direct mail fund-raising political campaign letters were content analyzed with Wiseman and Schenck-Hamlin's typology of compliance-gaining techniques, language style and readability. The letters came from national campaigns with a national constituency, campaigns for a national office with a local constituency, and campaigns for local offices with local constituencies. Analysis revealed the following differences between national and local letters: (1) while national letters were emotional and personal in style, local letters were shorter and more general and attempted to maintain a professional, almost removed, style; (2) the national letters were the easiest in terms of readability whereas the local letters were the most difficult; (3) and the national letters contained the most compliance-gaining appeals, as well as explanation and warning appeals, while the local letters concentrated on explanation appeals. These differences probably exist because national letters are most likely written by professionals while local letters are most likely written by volunteers who have little experience with direct mail. Local campaigns may be more hesitant, however, to use the emotion-laden, harsh style of national letters because of their proximity to their constituency. (References, charts, and Wiseman and Schenck-Hamlin Typology are appended.)   [More]  Descriptors: Advertising, Elections, Language Styles, Local Issues

Shears, Nicholas C. (1988). Political Criticism and the Media in the Age of Glasnost. "Glasnost" or openness, to many Western observers, is a sign of democratization and a loosening of central control in almost all aspects of Soviet life. However, an analysis of excerpts from "Pravda" shows no evidence of any breaks with Leninist theory or revision in the roles of the government and masses and instead suggests that "glasnost" fosters criticism of mid-level officials but preserves the autonomy of top party leaders, and their control of the press. One reason for "glasnost's" apparent failure to permit broader popular criticism is that such dissent and use of the press are heretical to Leninist theory, and Lenin's decrees on the use of the press in political socialization have been dutifully heeded. The document states that the success of such socialization, and Lenin's contempt for the competence of the masses, militates against a loosening of central control. Yet it is precisely decentralization and "glasnost" that are essential to Mikhail Gorbachev's efforts to invigorate Soviet economic and political life. Gorbachev has said that with no political opposition in the Soviet regime, "glasnost" must function as the monitor of government. It is held that the main problem is opposition from within the party, and this problem cannot be overstated, given the Soviet political elite's tradition of rule by consensus. (Forty-three notes are included, and 35 references are appended.) Descriptors: Communism, Foreign Countries, Freedom of Speech, Government Role

Henry, Kathleen (1988). Using Radio To Promote Family Planning in Sub-Saharan Africa. Family planning programs in sub-Saharan Africa (42 countries and 450 million population), the fastest growing and poorest region in the world, need effective communications campaigns to educate people about the benefits of contraception, help change attitudes about fertility control and family size, and provide information about available contraceptive methods and family planning services. Radio, an important medium in areas where a strong oral tradition and low literacy exist, is the most effective way to reach people in sub-Saharan African because of its credibility, portability, immediacy, flexibility, imaginative potential, and relatively inexpensive production costs. For family planning communications, radio's limitations include the difficulty of transmitting a complicated idea over the air, and the communicator's lack of control over the medium. Therefore, family planning communicators should use radio as part of a multi-media campaign, in conjunction with personal communication, and should use culturally acceptable messages presented in an interesting way. Family planning programs in other areas of the world–including Columbia's PROFAMILIA, the Jamaica Family Planning Association, and the Johns Hopkins University/Population Communications Service–have used radio programming with varying success. However, innovative approaches based on strong audience research can be used successfully to promote family planning in sub-Saharan Africa, despite cultural barriers and a generally unreceptive audience. (Twenty-seven references are attached.) Descriptors: Advertising, African Culture, Audience Analysis, Cultural Awareness

Tapia, John Edward (1997). Circuit Chautauqua: From Rural Education to Popular Entertainment in Early Twentieth Century America. In 1874, Methodist minister John Vincent began a Sunday school retreat on the shores of Lake Chautauqua, New York, the mission of which was education. Initial offerings such as Bible reading, biblical geography, and public oration were supplemented with general education and entertainment activities. In the late 19th century, the Chautauqua Movement became a popular form of adult education and entertainment in the United States. Using noted lyceum (community-lecture) speakers, such as Teddy Roosevelt and William Jennings Bryan, and local talent, the movement spread throughout the country and was particularly popular in the rural areas of the Midwest. This book provides an overview of early lyceum programs and of adult education in 19th-century America, followed by an examination of the growth of the circuit Chautauqua into big business, from its standardization and commercialization to the specific jobs involved in the program. The Chautauqua lecturer, musical features, dramatic arts, and children's activities are described. Its role in supporting U.S. involvement in World War I and its popularity during the 1920s are detailed, as is its demise, brought on by the Great Depression and the rise of the film industry. Developed during a generation that experienced massive social and economic changes, circuit Chautauqua educated people about these changes and helped them deal with the transformation. It also fostered the acceptance of modern forms of mass media such as film and radio. An appendix contains a summary of 20 years of Redpath Chautauqua programs. (Contains a bibliography with 75 references, photographs, and an index.) Descriptors: Adult Education, Change Agents, Community Education, Informal Education

Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication. (1997). Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (80th, Chicago, Illinois, July 30-August 2, 1997): Advertising. The Advertising section of the Proceedings contains the following 13 papers: "Offering a Creative Track in the Advertising Major: A Case History" (Beth E. Barnes and Carla V. Lloyd); "Messages of Individualism in French, Spanish, and American Television Advertising" (Ronald E. Taylor and Joyce Wolburg); "Frequency Levels and Activity Level Portrayals of the Mature Market: A Content Analysis of Magazine Advertising" (Cecelia Baldwin and Girard Burke); "Campaign Up in Flames: Negative Advertising Backfires and Damages a Young Democrat" (Maggie Jones Patterson, Anitra Budd, and Kristin L. Veatch); "Developing Integrated Marketing Communications Message Delivery Strategies: Challenges and Opportunities Associated with the Brand Contact Concept" (Denise E. DeLorme and Glen J. Nowak);"Animation and Priming Effects in Online Advertising" (S. Shyam Sundar, George Otto, Lisa Pisciotta, and Karen Schlag); "Protecting the Children: A Comparative Analysis of French and American Advertising Self-Regulation" (Ronald E. Taylor and Anne Cunningham); "Applying Integrated Marketing Communications Strategy to Strategic Market Planning: Implications for the Role of Communications in Building and Maintaining Brand Equity" (Saravudh Anantachart); "An Investigation of Three Cultural Values in American Advertising: The Role of the Individual, the Depiction of Time, and the Configuration of Space" (Joyce M. Wolburg and Ronald E. Taylor); "Get Hooked on Collecting: A Qualitative Exploration of the Relationship between the Hallmark Brand and Hallmark Collectors" (Jan Slater); "Calvin Klein's 'Kiddie Porn' Campaign, What's the Fuss? A Q-Sort of Student Attitudes toward Objectionable Advertising" (Robert L. Gustafson and Johan C. Yssel); "A Study of the Underrepresentation of Women in Advertising Agency Creative Departments" (Larry Weisberg and Brett Robbs); and "Preparing Campaigns Students for Groupwork" (Fred Beard). Individual papers contain references.   [More]  Descriptors: Advertising, Comparative Analysis, Females, Internet

Bibliography: Propaganda (page 59 of 66)

This bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Alternative Facts website. Some of the authors featured on this page include Albert E. Holliday, Joyce Flory, David H. Weaver, Walton H. Owens, John C. Smyth, Philip Zimbardo, EDWARD B. JENKINSON, Calder M. Pickett, Judith Hackman, and Harold Brodsky.

Gordon, George N. (1971). Persuasion: The Theory and Practice of Manipulative Communication. Drawing together both the history of persuasion as an historical facet of civilization and current practice, and speculation concerning its many manifestation in modern life, this book attempts to review persuasive communication–interpersonal, social, and mass-oriented–from the influences of society to the influences of the mass media. The first chapters make up a general introduction to the study of the intentional aspects of communication and the history of persuasion. Part two considers logical perspectives–those aspects of persuasion which are mainly historical and analytical in thrust, centering upon how and when persuasion occurs in society and how it is employed in major cultural institutions. The third part centers on psychological perspectives and is largely concerned with discrete processes that persuade people to modify dispositions and change actions. An attempt is made to explain why these modifications may or may not occur according to current psychological theory. Part four examines some contemporary beliefs, ideas, and myths concerning persuasion relevant to matters that are of social, political, and cultural concern to Western civilization. Part five discusses how "futurism" as persuasion may constrict free will and the ramifications for survival in our belief that we are not persuasible. Descriptors: Attitude Change, Communication (Thought Transfer), Cultural Influences, Futures (of Society)

Hackman, Judith; And Others (1972). Survey of the Mass Media: Curriculum Guide for Stow Senior High School 1971-1972. An outline guide for a survey of major mass media–newspapers, magazines, radio, television, movies, books, and advertising–is presented. The course intends to help students develop critical judgement of the media by improving viewing, reading, and listening skills. The objectives include: (1) presentation of the characteristics of each major medium, (2) demonstration of the factors shaping the offerings of each medium, (3) examination of the self-regulatory guides of each medium to determine if these are sufficient to insure quality and service, (4) identification of devices used by any or all of these media to measure or to mold public opinion, and (5) formation of criteria to judge what one receives through all media. The outline includes assignments, study projects, and bibliographies for each medium, a comprehensive bibliography for all of the media surveyed, and a list of additional suggested projects. Descriptors: Critical Reading, Cultural Awareness, Curriculum Guides, Journalism

Flory, Joyce (1976). Strategies for Teaching Advertising: A Summary. This paper offers techniques and strategies which high school and college teachers of speech communication can use for teaching units and/or courses in advertising. One such technique is role playing, which can involve the corporate chairperson, the executive coordinator, and chairpersons for magazine advertising, outdoor advertising, broadcast advertising, and direct mail. The paper also explores facets of advertising which instructors should cover, such as the application of principles of organization communication, technical aspects of advertising, evaluation of specific techniques, audiences, legal perspectives, the development of criteria for evaluation of advertising, and the formulation of recommendations for change. A bibliography of resources on the technical aspects of advertising is included. Descriptors: Advertising, Business Communication, Higher Education, Information Dissemination

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development. (1970). American Civilization in Historic Perspective, Part I. A Guide for Teaching Social Studies, Grade 11. This teaching guide offers illustrative and reference materials that are both narrative and graphic on the three topics of Mass Media, Conflicting Ideologies, and Social Control. The objective is to furnish primary materials on these topics not easily available to teachers. Emphasis is on organizing the selections as short cases or studies. Related understandings are grouped together to emphasize this approach. The inductive method encourages students to examine the presentations objectively, analyze and interpret them in terms of the medium, and consider the historic development of the issues. Section 1, Mass Media, presents a study of the Power of the Press: A Case Study of the Tweed Ring, and the Mass Media Today, including the Agnew address and related material on network censorship. In section 2, Conflicting Ideologies, variations in the role and attitude of the pacifist in different periods of U.S. history and conflicting views regarding the influence of Communism in American life are given. The purpose of section 3, Social Control, is to develop some understanding of the limitations which must be observed, even in time of crisis, when hysteria urges the forgetting of those values of individual rights and human dignity which are implicit in democracy. The Japanese-Americans in World War II are examined. Descriptors: Case Studies, Communism, Grade 11, Historiography

Brodsky, Harold (1994). Collecting Maps That Lie, Journal of Geography. Asserts that all maps lie in two ways: (1) by concealing part of the whole truth or (2) by falsifying some part of the truth. Discusses how this topic can be used in geography instruction. Includes a description of class assignments and figures illustrating how maps and written directions include inaccuracies and deliberate lies. Descriptors: Cartography, Classroom Techniques, Deception, Educational Strategies

Pickett, Calder M. (1976). Firebrands of the Revolution. Prepared as commentary for a slide/tape presentation, this document briefly examines the role of the press in the American Revolution. It discusses propagandist activities led by such agitators as Samuel Adams, newspaper reports of the day that dealt with events of the revolution, and the work of incendiary writers and journalists, including Philip Freneau and Thomas Paine. The document lists the slides used in the presentation and indicates which songs were recorded for use at specified points in the commentary. Descriptors: Audiovisual Aids, Authors, Journalism, Music

Holliday, Albert E. (1983). Mobilizing the Media: Practical Ways to Work Effectively with Newspapers, Radio, and Television Stations, Journal of Educational Communication. Because of an increasing proportion of nonparents in communities, schools must learn to use newspapers, radio, and television to build community support for education. A hypothetical case shows how education officials can mount an aggressive communication program using staff volunteers to work with the public media. Descriptors: Advertising, Elementary Secondary Education, Information Dissemination, Institutional Advancement

Zimbardo, Philip; Ebbesen, Ebbe B. (1970). Influencing Attitudes and Changing Behavior: A Basic Introduction to Relevant Methodology, Theory, and Applications. Revised Edition. In this introductory text to the field of attitude change, the emphasis is on one of the end products of research in social psychology–manipulation and control of attitudes and related behaviors. The text first defines the concept of attitude, then identifies ideas from the areas of history, literature, law, religion, and the social sciences that explore concepts of attitude change. It examines the experiment as a source of general information and reviews some representative studies. A critical analysis of the conceptualization, methodology, and interpretation of attitude change research is given, along with an examination of the role of theory in explaining the results of experiments. In considering practical applications of principles of attitude and behavior change, the text details such real life examples as psychological warfare, prejudice, police interrogation, consumer motivation, and supersalesmanship. Five appended essays deal with: techniques of attitude measurement, experiment as a source of information, sources of invalidity in experimental designs, an efficient method for outlining experiments, and the student as an agent of political and social reform. Descriptors: Attitude Change, Behavior Change, Behavior Theories, Behavioral Science Research

Monroe, Alan D. (1975). Public Opinion in America. The purposes of this book are to summarize and analyze the nature of public opinion in contemporary America and to examine the implications of that nature for the possibility of a functioning democracy. Material in the four sections covers the following topics: "The Study of Public Opinion: Political Theory and Methodology"–opinions and democratic theory, and the measurement of public opinion; "Opinion Formation: Micro-Politics"–the psychology of opinions, political socialization, the sociology of public opinion, political culture, opinion manipulation, and individual opinion formation; "Public Opinion in Contemporary America: Macro-Politics"–belief systems of the American public, recent presidential elections and their implications, public opinion and Vietnam, ideology and the social issue, and the dynamics of public opinion; and "Public Opinion and Public Policy: Linkage Politics"–elections, political parties, and public officials. An index concludes the book. Descriptors: American Culture, Elections, Political Attitudes, Political Influences

Wilhoit, G. Cleveland; Weaver, David H. (1978). U.S. Senatorial News Coverage from 1953 to 1975: A Study of the 83rd, 89th, 91st and 93rd Congresses. Senators of the Eighty-third Congress were studied to ascertain what factors were most highly correlated with press coverage for each individual senator. This information was then correlated with an earlier study of the Eighty-ninth, Ninety-first, and Ninety-third Congresses to see what differences might exist which could indicate the development of a "new breed" of publicity-minded senators commanding a power base through national constituencies created by media coverage. Few differences were found between the earlier study of the more recent Congresses and the study of the Eighty-third Congress. While senators with a high institutional opportunity (a combination of seniority, prestigious committee leadership assignments, and state size) have an advantage over less powerful colleagues which shows up more in the Eighty-third Congress than in the later ones, nevertheless, senate activity (measured by number of Congressional Record entries and bills and resolutions sponsored) is a more powerful predictor of press coverage than institutional opportunity in all four Congresses. Senators with power bases created in part by media coverage are not a recent phenomenon and are at least as evident in the Eighty-third Congress as in the Ninety-third Congress.   [More]  Descriptors: Legislators, Media Research, News Media, News Reporting

Hager, David R. (1973). "Virginia and the President Need Him" vs. "Your Own Senator…His Own Man:" A Case Study of the Use of Media as a Campaign Instrument. The purpose of this paper is to examine the role played by the media in the 1972 U.S. Senate election in Virginia during the Scott and Spong campaigns. Its primary interest is the use of television, particularly the intense blitz by the Scott organization, which is viewed as a significant variable in the Scott victory. The case study seeks to provide insight into the uses and effects of media saturation in a state-wide election. It is accompanied by a presentation of the television materials utilized in the respective campaigns. The conclusions concerning the role of the media in the campaign are: the media were a significant variable in the outcome of the Scott-Spong election contest; the mass media, especially television, served as a catalyst that activated the potential of other campaign factors, such as the political shift in the state and the public displeasure over forced busing; the use of strategy, placement, and exposure of materials is more determinative of election success than production quality; and as a result of the campaign, the extensive use of the mass media, especially television, has become a prominent aspect of political activity in Virginia.   [More]  Descriptors: Commercial Television, Communications, Mass Media, Media Research

HAYAKAWA, S.I. (1964). LANGUAGE IN THOUGHT AND ACTION. A SEMANTIC DISCUSSION OF LANGUAGE IN GENERAL AND OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN PARTICULAR, THIS VOLUME IS DIVIDED INTO TWO BOOKS–"THE FUNCTIONS OF LANGUAGE" AND "LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT." BOOK 1 DISCUSSES LANGUAGE AND SURVIVAL, SYMBOLS, REPORTS, INFERENCES, JUDGMENTS, CONTEXTS, INFORMATIVE AND AFFECTIVE CONNOTATION, ART AND TENSION, AND THE "LANGUAGES" OF SOCIAL COHESION, SOCIAL CONTROL, AND AFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION. BOOK 2 IS CONCERNED WITH ABSTRACTION AND DEFINITION, CLASSIFICATION, POETRY, ADVERTISING, CULTURAL LAG, AND TWO-VALUED, MULTI-VALUED, AND EXTENSIONAL ORIENTATIONS TOWARD LANGUAGE MEANING. CHAPTERS CONCLUDE WITH "APPLICATIONS" DESIGNED TO FURTHER CLARIFY THE AUTHOR'S POINT OF VIEW AND TO CHECK THE VALIDITY OF IT IN SPECIFIC EXERCISES AND INVESTIGATIONS. A SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF BOOKS ON LANGUAGE IS APPENDED. THIS VOLUME IS PUBLISHED BY HARCOURT, BRACE, AND WORLD, INC., NEW YORK, $5.50 (PAPERBACK, $3.95). Descriptors: Advertising, Biological Influences, Classification, Critical Thinking

Smyth, John C. (1997). Education, Communication and Language, Environmentalist. Discusses ways in which educators and environmental conservation organizations may be at odds over environmental education. Concludes that the quality of communication should be judged on the effectiveness and accuracy with which messages pass between participants and not on its capacity to herd people along a particular path. Descriptors: Agenda Setting, Bias, Communication (Thought Transfer), Conservation (Environment)

JENKINSON, EDWARD B., ED. (1965). TEACHER'S GUIDE TO HIGH SCHOOL JOURNALISM. IN AN EFFORT TO TRAIN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS TO BECOME INTELLIGENT READERS, LISTENERS, AND VIEWERS OF MASS MEDIA, THE INDIANA STATE DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION PUBLISHED A GUIDE FOR TEACHERS OF JOURNALISM. PART I ESTABLISHES GUIDELINES FOR A FIRST SEMESTER COURSE IN JOURNALISM AND CONTAINS CHAPTERS ON (1) EXPLORING MASS MEDIA, A DISCUSSION OF THE TYPES OF MEDIA, THE MANY ASPECTS OF FREEDOM OF THE PRESS, AND ADVERTISING AND ITS PLACE WITHIN MASS MEDIA, (2) NEWSWRITING, (3) THE FEATURE STORY, (4) EDITORIALS AND OTHER OPINION MATTER, (5) ADVERTISING IN SCHOOL PUBLICATIONS, AND (6) COPYREADING, HEADLINE WRITING, AND PROOFREADING. CHAPTERS INCLUDE BIBLIOGRAPHIES FOR TEACHERS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR RELATED STUDENT ACTIVITIES AND PROJECTS. PART II, A HANDBOOK FOR ADVISORS OF SCHOOL PUBLICATIONS, CONTAINS SECTIONS ON (1) PRODUCING THE HIGH SCHOOL NEWSPAPER, (2) PRODUCING THE MIMEOGRAPHED NEWSPAPER, (3) PRODUCING THE YEARBOOK, (4) FINANCING SCHOOL PUBLICATIONS, (5) OPERATING THE SCHOOL NEWS BUREAU, AND (6) OPPORTUNITIES IN THE MASS MEDIA. THIS GUIDE IS AVAILABLE FROM NCTE, 508 SOUTH SIXTH ST., CHAMPAIGN, ILL. 61820 (ORDER NO. 48503, $1.50), AND THE INDIANA HIGH SCHOOL PRESS ASSN., FRANKLIN COLLEGE, FRANKLIN, IND. 46131 ($2.00). Descriptors: Curriculum Guides, English Instruction, High School Students, Journalism

Owens, Walton H. (1979). Expanding Pedagogical Boundaries in Political Science: Teaching the Practical Art of Television Electioneering, Teaching Political Science. Describes a project preparing students to make political advertisements for television, including details for necessary hardware, script preparation, formatting, time management, and coordination with the television studio. Includes description of each role and broadcasting jargon. Descriptors: Audiovisual Communications, Citizenship, Higher Education, Political Science

Bibliography: Propaganda (page 58 of 66)

This bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Alternative Facts website. Some of the authors featured on this page include Maureen Harmonay, W. Lance Bennett, David Isaacson, Maria Palazon, Pamela Espeland, Harvey Gotliffe, Steven R. Goldzwig, Kathleen Reid, Bernardo A. Carvalho, and Jonni Kincher.

Reid, Kathleen (1993). A Rhetorical Approach to Non-Discursive Messages in Information Campaigns. Public information campaigns serve a primary role in contemporary American society to promote more active citizen involvement. When the U.S. government seeks to influence its citizens, it can use mass media to help produce systematic social change, particularly visual communication derived from rhetoric. Rhetorical criticism includes non-discursive forms of communication, or communication through visual forms, that engage attention, transmit information, and evoke audience responses. The McGruff "Take a Bite Out of Crime" public information campaign is examined to present a methodology for assessing the content of the visual messages, and meaning and patterns are derived from this specific campaign. Insight is provided into the development of the campaign by outlining the various visual and verbal rhetoric found within the public service advertisements (PSAs) and how they reinforce or detract from the goals for the McGruff effort. Overall, the McGruff PSAs appear to have communicated with their audiences in a fresh and memorable way. Specific aspects of the campaign that aided in raising awareness, reinforcing existing behaviors, and developing motivation among viewers relied on two important elements: (1) emphasis on the individual and his or her community; and (2) audience identification with McGruff. (Contains 24 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Advertising, Audience Response, Information Dissemination, Mass Media Role

Thompson, Mark E. (1978). Technology as a Craft of Deceit. This essay briefly presents the evolution of technology and the resulting warnings that many prominent writers have offered in defense of an analytic inquiry into man's interaction with technology. Various ways in which technology has been used to manipulate people are described, e.g., Vietnam, Watergate, the CIA, the Tuskegee Study, Subliminal Seduction, and Nuclear Weapons. The reader is warned that sophisticated technology needs to be carefully controlled, and society should not become too dependent on it. Descriptors: Economic Progress, Futures (of Society), Humanization, Industrialization

Coleman, Catherine E. B. (1998). Advertising: Art as Society's Mirror, Art Education. Provides a historical overview of U.S. print advertising from the 1890s to the 1990s. Demonstrates how advertisers adapt their messages and target audiences to the changes each era brings. Conveys that advertising reflects society by giving an image of an era as it aims to persuade. Offers six teaching activities. Descriptors: Advertising, Art, Art Education, Class Activities

Carvalho, Bernardo A. (1977). The CIA and the Press. The involvement of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with both United States and foreign news media has been recorded in numerous publications. This report reviews the important aspects of the CIA-press relationships as they have appeared in print and discusses the implications of these relationsihps for the credibility of the press. Media reaction to these disclosures is considered and the ethical dimensions of the CIA-press involvement analyzed. The report includes a summary of the measures taken by Congressional subcommittees concerning this subject. Descriptors: Credibility, Federal Government, Foreign Countries, Freedom of Speech

Harmonay, Maureen (1975). Two for the See Saw. Broadcast Responsibility and Children's Rights, Journal of Current Social Issues. Suggests that the commercial broadcasting system is an anomaly in a nation which pledges allegiance to child welfare since it permits even more advertising to young viewers than it sanctions for their parents.   [More]  Descriptors: Broadcast Industry, Child Advocacy, Child Welfare, Childhood Needs

Kincher, Jonni; Espeland, Pamela, Ed. (1992). The First Honest Book about Lies. Readers learn how to discern the truth from lies through a series of activities, games, and experiments. This book invites young students to look at lies in a fair and balanced way. Different types of lies are examined and the purposes they serve and discussed. Problem solving activities are given. The book is organized in nine chapters, including: (1) "Truth is Stranger than Fiction: Where Does the Truth Lie?"; (2) "Sniffing Out the Truth: How Your Senses Can Deceive You"; (3) "Be True to Yourself: Lies You Tell Yourself"; (4) "Social Lies: Are We Lying, or Just Being Polite?"; (5) "Myth-Matics: How Numbers Can be Used to Deceive"; (6) "There are No Cats in America: Historical "Facts" and Myths Cultural and Personal"; (7) "Adver-Lies: How Advertisers Shape Your Opinions and Actions"; (8) "All Hat and No Cattle: Public Relations and Media Lies"; and (9) "You Are an Agent of Truth: How to Live in a World of Lies." An answer guide is provided for the included problems, questions and quizzes. The book concludes with a bibliography, index, and author vita. Descriptors: Advertising, Elementary Education, Ethical Instruction, Ethics

Mehl, Marc (1978). Chinese and American Textbook Business–Totally Different the Finding, College Store Journal. Members of the second United States booksellers delegation to the People's Republic of China observed that textbooks in China carry political messages; the state and teachers are involved in the publishing process; texts are written by committees; and textbooks are almost always paperbacks and not available as a retail item.   [More]  Descriptors: Authors, Foreign Countries, Government Role, Higher Education

Dieterich, Daniel; Isaacson, David (1973). ERIC/RCS Report: Doublespeak, English Journal. Discusses the language of deceit," the misuse of language in the service of public persuasion, and describes several ERIC documents dealing with this subject.   [More]  Descriptors: Annotated Bibliographies, Communication (Thought Transfer), Educational Resources, Instructional Materials

Gotliffe, Harvey (1985). A Critical Analysis of Paid-For Communications in the 1984 U.S. Senatorial Campaign in Michigan. In recent years, television spot advertising has become an important part of political campaigns because it allows candidates to select the most favorable content, medium, time, and audience available to them. In the 1984 United States Senate campaign in Michigan, both the incumbent, Democrat Carl Levin, and the challenger, Republican Jack Lousma, ran political spots that attempted to present their own attributes favorably and to accent their opponent's weaknesses. Lousma, because of a hotly contested Republican primary, was on the defensive and tried to erase his image of being an inexperienced outsider. Lousma wavered until mid-October, when he became more direct and more effective. Levin was portrayed from the beginning as an experienced, effective leader. Because of this, he did win the 1984 election and a six-year term in Congress. Descriptors: Advertising, Audience Analysis, Federal Government, Legislators

Gardner, David M. (1975). Deception in Advertising: A Receiver Oriented Approach to Understanding. The purpose of this paper is to examine deception in advertising from a behavioral perspective, and to attempt to formulate a definition that can guide both research and governmental regulation. Whether or not an advertisement is said to be "deceptive" depends on the definition of deception being used. The position advocated here is that the focus of any definition must be the receiver of the message. Based on the analysis of veridical preception, a definition of deception in advertising is offered. An approach to measuring deception is also offered. The techniques are all seen as screening techniques, although by their regular use, advertisers should improve the ability of their advertisements to reach their stated objectives as well as reduce the amount of deception.    [More]  Descriptors: Advertising, Communication (Thought Transfer), Definitions, Government Role

Stark, Rebecca (1987). Creative Ventures: The Media. The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and to encourage students to examine their feelings and values as influenced by the media. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil behaviors described in Williams' Model: fluent thinking; flexible thinking; original thinking; elaborative thinking; risk-taking; complexity; curiosity and imagination. The 57 activities are interdisciplinary in nature and include such topics as TV or movie characters as role models, newspaper slogans, criticism of commercials, eye witness accounts, game shows, and censorship. A final section provides suggestions for follow-up activities. Descriptors: Creative Thinking, Elementary Education, Interdisciplinary Approach, Mass Media

Friedman, Jane; And Others (1984). Managing the Media Maze: A Resource Guide for Child Care Advocates. This pamphlet aims to help child care agencies and centers mount a campaign to counteract negative media coverage about child care. To plan an approach to the media, it is suggested that the child care organization designate a media person, develop a budget, target the audience, develop a message and vehicle, compile a media book with information about local media, cultivate media contacts, and establish a timetable. Specific skills for working with the media are also discussed; these include creating a media packet for the organization and preparing public service announcements, community calendar announcements, free speech messages, and press releases. Suggestions are also given for getting on radio and television, preparing for interviews and talkshows, getting positive results from encounters with the media, and evaluating the success of efforts to use the media. The conclusion stresses the need to coordinate positive media attention with organization of child advocates to improve the field of child care. A list of organizations and books for finding out more about the media are attached along with samples of a press release and a public service announcement. Descriptors: Audiences, Day Care, Day Care Centers, Mass Instruction

Bennett, W. Lance (1985). Communication and Social Responsibility, Quarterly Journal of Speech. Proposes a code for a new communication consciousness that would keep language sensitive and accountable to human experience. Focuses on mass political communication and the tendency toward systematic negative communication inherent in news pronouncements. Descriptors: Communication (Thought Transfer), Communication Problems, Discourse Analysis, Language Usage

Goldzwig, Steven R. (1989). A Social Movement Perspective on Demagoguery: Achieving Symbolic Realignment, Communication Studies. Argues that negative assumptions about demagogues have precluded an adequate understanding of demagogic discourse and its functionality and appropriateness in certain rhetorical situations. Discusses the social movement perspective which employs a "social construction of reality" approach, and analyzes the discourse of Louis Farrakhan using a "symbolic realignment" emphasis. Descriptors: Black Leadership, Communication Research, Definitions, Discourse Modes

Palazon, Maria (2000). The Media and Transformative Learning. The media constitute important sources and resources for development of critical thought about the media themselves and the reality they represent. The first theories of the media were based on the concept of unidirectional communication. Later, factors such as the increasing interest in audiences and development of cultural studies caused media-audience interaction to be viewed as a two-way process. Through media literacy, educators can foster critical understanding that the media are not self-explanatory reflections of external reality but rather symbolic systems that must be read actively. The media's relation to transformative learning stems from the fact that they require audiences to perform a series of decoding exercises and from the fact that their message, words, and images, which represent different realities, encourage critical reflection and active learning. The mediated messages conveyed by the media become important resources both to question an external representation of reality and the audience's internal assumptions about the given representation. Nevertheless, because the media also represent a great handicap for learners who lack the possibility of interaction with the producer of the message, adult educators teaching media literacy must complement decoding exercises with media literacy activities within the formal educational setting. (Contains 20 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Education, Adult Learning, Agenda Setting, Audience Response

Bibliography: Propaganda (page 57 of 66)

This bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Alternative Facts website. Some of the authors featured on this page include Phyllis M. Cunningham, Michael R. Real, Jack Cassidy, J. Michael Sproule, English Journal, Herbert Waltzer, Gail Paulus Sorenson, George Burson, Howard Elterman, and David G. Altman.

Robb, Laura S. (1988). Understanding Complex Issues: "The Island of the Skog" Revisited, Language Arts. Discuses the use of "The Island of the Skog" with an eighth-grade humanities class to deepen students' awareness of the problems leaders face and to aid students in the development of group interaction, leadership, and decision-making skills. Descriptors: Decision Making, Grade 8, Groups, Humanities Instruction

Elterman, Howard (1988). The Vietnam War and the Media, Social Education. Surveys the author's contribution to the Center for Social Studies Education curriculum on the Vietnam War. Focuses on "How the War Was Reported," a unit which raises four questions concerning the responsibilities of the government and the press for keeping the public informed. Encourages use of the curriculum in teaching about the Vietnam War. Descriptors: Information Dissemination, Instructional Materials, Mass Media, Press Opinion

Sorenson, Gail Paulus (1985). Indoctrination and the Purposes of American Education: A 1930s Debate, Issues in Education. Discusses the history of debate about the roles of indoctrination versus free inquiry in the classroom in American education. Many present-day theorists may discover what educators of the 1930s found: that there is no contradiction between transmitting democratic values while opposing censorship and indoctrination. Descriptors: Censorship, Curriculum Development, Democracy, Educational History

Coe, Rick (1987). Doublespeak Update, English Quarterly. Provides new examples of doublespeak (use of language with the intent to obscure or deceive) from the Canadian Sampler and suggests that language arts teachers and teachers of writing can help reduce instances of doublespeak by teaching students to see through doublespeak and to write clearly. Descriptors: Communication Skills, Deception, Language Attitudes, Language Role

Bloom, Paul N.; And Others (1997). Sports Promotion and Teen Smoking and Drinking: An Exploratory Study, American Journal of Health Behavior. Surveys of adolescents examined the link between sports promotion and advertising of alcohol and tobacco and teen smoking and drinking behaviors. Data analysis found an association between exposure to sporting events and cigarette use and beer consumption. Watching stock car racing was related to cigarette use; football and basketball to beer use. Descriptors: Adolescents, Advertising, Alcohol Abuse, Athletics

Altman, David G.; And Others (1987). How an Unhealthy Product Is Sold: Cigarette Advertising in Magazines, 1960-1985, Journal of Communication. Suggests that an emphasis on erotic images in women's magazines and on images of adventure, risk, and recreation in youth magazines tailored cigarette ads to the implicit and explicit desires of consumers, allaying their fears about the health effects of smoking. Descriptors: Advertising, Commercial Art, Communication Research, Consumer Economics

Waltzer, Herbert (1988). Corporate Advocacy Advertising and Political Influence, Public Relations Review. Offers an operational definition and typology of advocacy and image advertising as complementary forms of institutional advertising. Examines two of the more important forms of advocacy advertising–paid print editorials appearing on the "op-ed" page of the "New York Times" and the "advertorials" in two principal professional journals of the press. Descriptors: Advertising, Business Communication, Editorials, Mass Media

Cassidy, Jack (1978). Putting the "First R" in Social Studies, Teacher. Student success in social studies is solidly based on the ability to read to obtain information. Despite this, time is rarely devoted to actual teaching of reading within the block of time allocated for social studies. Here is a program, Project C.A.R.E. (Content Area Reading Enrichment) designed to reinforce basic reading skills in any content area.   [More]  Descriptors: Basic Reading, Elementary Education, Learning Activities, Propaganda

House, Verne W.; Cunningham, Phyllis M. (1990). Point-Counterpoint: Should Educators Educate or Advocate?, Adult Learning. House argues that education, especially about public policy issues, should objectively present and teach facts, not values. Cunningham argues that there is no neutrality; educators must be advocates for learners, understanding the hidden curricula of learning situations. Descriptors: Adult Education, Adult Educators, Advocacy, Controversial Issues (Course Content)

Burson, George (1992). Analyzing Political Television Advertisements, OAH Magazine of History. Presents a lesson plan to help students understand that political advertisements often mislead, lie, or appeal to emotion. Suggests that the lesson will enable students to examine political advertisements analytically. Includes a worksheet to be used by students to analyze individual political advertisements. Descriptors: Advertising, Critical Thinking, Elementary Secondary Education, History Instruction

Sproule, J. Michael (1987). Ideology and Critical Thinking: The Historical Connection, Journal of the American Forensic Association. Explores the social and intellectual factors that account for the separation of ideology from works on rational argument. States that by attending to the ideological aspects of critical thinking, educators will more effectively prepare students to face the contemporary realities of social controversy. Descriptors: Critical Thinking, Educational History, Educational Objectives, Higher Education

Christians, Clifford G.; Real, Michael R. (1979). Jacques Ellul's Contributions to Critical Media Theory, Journal of Communication. Examines the contributions of Jacques Ellul to the area of communication research through his principle of "la technique," which offers a primary focus for theoretical considerations of modern communications media and their role in human society.   [More]  Descriptors: Analytical Criticism, Communication Research, Information Theory, Literature Reviews

English Journal (1988). The Round Table: Political Rhetoric. Presents eight teachers' methods for helping students analyze political rhetoric in an election year. Descriptors: Critical Thinking, Discourse Analysis, Elections, English Instruction

Miller, Bruce (1997). Why Teach Evolution?, Reports of the National Center for Science Education. Presents a letter written in response to a videotape presented to a teacher by a student; the videotape denounced evolution on religious grounds. The letter explains some of the biases of the video to the class and the importance of learning about an issue before taking a stand against it. Descriptors: Agenda Setting, Bias, Controversial Issues (Course Content), Creationism

Kondrashkov, N. (1972). The Use of the Mass Media in the Legal Upbringing of the Population, Soviet Education.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizenship Responsibility, Crime, Law Enforcement, Laws