KPFA: After Arrest, NAACP Pres. Calls For More Civil Disobedience to Oppose Sessions as Attorney General

After Arrest, NAACP Pres. Calls For More Civil Disobedience to Oppose Sessions as Attorney General; NAACP President on Dylann Roof's Lack of Regret for Massacre: "It's About the State of America"; Glenn Greenwald on "Dearth of Evidence" Linking Russia to WikiLeaks Release of DNC Emails; Glenn Greenwald: Mainstream U.S. Media is Culpable for Disseminating Fake … Continued
Flashpoints

Link: kpfa.org/episode/democracy-now-january-5-2017/

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KPFA: The Morning Show – March 24, 2005

7:00 amFake news and other media matters. David Miller, Professor of Sociology, Strathclyde University, Glasgow Scotland; John Stauber, Exec. Director, Center for Media and Democracy; Debra Burger, President of the California Nurses Association, nurse for more than 30 years. 7:30 amSupreme and other court news: Supremes considers whether police may be held liable for failing … Continued
Democracy Now

Link: kpfa.org/episode/14161/

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KPFA: Democracy Now! – March 28, 2011

Obama Administration Relents and Grants Visa to Leading Afghan Antiwar Campaigner Malalai Joya into U.S.; "Stop These Massacres": Ex-Afghan Parliamentarian Malayia Joya Calls for End to U.S. Occupation of Afghanistan; "This is Economic Treason;" 500,000 March in London Protesting Public Spending Cuts and Corporate Tax Dodgers; Will Syria Lift Decades-Old Emergency Law? Street Protests & … Continued
Making Contact

Link: kpfa.org/episode/68555/

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Bibliography: Selective Perception (page 4 of 4)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized for the Alternative Facts website.  

Hughey, Jim D. (1986). A Communication Configuration of AIDS. A study focused on the way that image, knowledge, behavioral intent, and communicative responsiveness are configured for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The classic model of the adoption process expects that knowledge about a subject will lead to a favorable evaluation of it, which in turn will lead to a decision to act. But the decision to help a sick person with a mysterious disease is difficult. Fifty-three students enrolled in two sections of a basic speech communication course responded to a survey measuring image, knowledge, and behavioral intent about three diseases: AIDS, Toxic Shock Syndrome, and Legionnaire's Disease. Results suggest that the communication configuration of AIDS is different from the configuration of other diseases in the respect that as knowledge about AIDS increases, the stigma of AIDS increases. If this is so, then the task of moderating hysteria and panic through an educational campaign will fail. Under these circumstances, it might be appropriate to aim at getting individuals involved in help projects prior to educational efforts, so that through the act of helping, selective attention and perception may work to promote a more favorable image of and a tolerance for the facts about AIDS. (Tables and figures are appended.)   [More]  Descriptors: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, College Students, Disease Control, Health Education

Shepp, Bryan E.; And Others (1987). The Development of Selective Attention: Holistic Perception versus Resource Allocation, Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. Investigates multiple trends in perceptual development of kindergarten, second grade, and fifth grade children who performed a speeded card sorting task with spatially integrated versus spatially separated dimensions. Results strongly support the hypothesis that there are developmental differences in perceived structure as well as ability to allocate attentional resources. Descriptors: Age Differences, Attention, Classification, Elementary Education

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Bibliography: Selective Perception (page 3 of 4)

This bibliography is selected and organized by the Alternative Facts website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Allen Munro, Albert D. Talbott, Bob Bohlken, Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, John J. Steffen, Herbert J. Gans, Ann Gonzalez, Richard F. Reckman, C. Jay Frasier, and William C. Hill.

Stewart, Robert A.; And Others (1985). Locus of Control as a Mediator of College Students' Reactions to Teacher Compliance Attempts. A study was conducted to determine the effects of student locus of control on perceptions of and resistance to teacher influence attempts. Subjects, 302 college students, were provided with 22 sets of Behavior Alteration Messages and were instructed to rate on a 1-5 scale "how frequently your teacher uses statements of each type to get you to change your behavior in the classroom." Higher scores indicated greater frequency. To measure likelihood of resistance, students were asked to rate on the same scale how likely they would be to resist statements of each type if their teachers were to use them to change students' behavior in the classroom. Analyses of results suggests that locus of control is a significant predictor of students' selective perceptions of teacher Behavior Alteration Technique (BAT) for 14 of the 22 BATs analyzed. Externally oriented students, those who rely on outside forces to govern their behaviors, more often interpret teachers as more powerful people than do internally oriented students. Further research is needed to answer questions that arose as a result of this study. Descriptors: Behavior Change, Behavior Modification, Behavioral Science Research, Classroom Communication

Frasier, C. Jay (1993). Magic in the Classroom: Using Conjuring To Teach Selectivity and General Semantics. Communication teachers can use magic in the classroom to teach the selective nature of the communication process and principles of general semantics. Since magic "works" due to perceptual limitations, selective perception can be illustrated through various magic effects. Magical effects where the secret is apparent to everyone in the class except for one member can show the students that an individual's perception is limited and selective. Several principles of general semantics, including "nonallness" and "nonidentity," can similarly be illustrated through the use of select magic effects. The three best ways that teachers can learn magic that can be used in the classroom are from books, from video tapes, and from personal instruction. Some teachers might desire to start performing magic in their classes but hesitate to do so. Magic is a novel, fun, and interesting way to gain students' attention, to keep their attention focused on the subject matter of the class, and to teach them something in the process. (Contains 37 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Class Activities, Communication (Thought Transfer), Higher Education, Instructional Innovation

Bohlken, Bob (1995). Learning To Listen through Experiences: Developing Listening Competencies. Intended for college-level instructors, this paper aims to establish behavioral objectives for listening or listening competencies and provide experiential learning to develop and assess those objectives and/or competencies. The paper begins with an overview which notes the lack of material on listening competencies in many college speech textbooks and the relegation of listening to the speech communication department. The paper then offers a list of 8 listening competencies for the student, including requiring the student: (1) to discriminate among a series of spoken words or numbers and immediately recall them for interpretation; (2) to demonstrate emphatic listening through questioning; (3) to demonstrate awareness of the listening process through writing, through selective perception, and message abstraction; (4) to demonstrate an awareness of the distinctions among facts, inferences, judgments, and between qualified and unqualified statements; and (5) to demonstrate an awareness of his/her interpersonal listening behavior. A number of specific exercises show how these skills may be developed and tested, among them: an exercise on word meaning discrimination, an exercise on listening to a message, a critical/comprehensive exercise, and an emphatic listing responses exercise. A four-item list of available standardized listening tests concludes the paper. (Each section contains references.) Descriptors: Behavioral Objectives, Class Activities, Communication Skills, Curriculum Evaluation

Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication. (1998). Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (81st, Baltimore, Maryland, August 5-8, 1998). Communication Theory and Methodology. The Communication Theory and Methodology section of the Proceedings contains the following 20 papers: "Information Sufficiency and Risk Communication" (Robert J. Griffin, Kurt Neuwirth, and Sharon Dunwoody); "The Therapeutic Application of Television: An Experimental Study" (Charles Kingsley); "A Path Model Examining the Influence of the Media on Fear of Crime and Protective Act" (Mahmoud A. M. Braima, Thomas Johnson, and Jayanthi Sothirajah); "Cognitive Innovativeness as a Predictor of Student Attitudes and Intent: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Online Learning Environments" (Tracy Irani and Michelle O'Malley); "Source Perception and Electrodermal Activity" (No-Kon Heo and S. Shyam Sundar); "The Crisis of Communication for Citizenship: Normative Critiques of News and Democratic Processes" (Erik P. Bucy and Paul D'Angelo); "The Hoopla Effect: Toward a Theory of Regular Patterns of Mass Media Coverage of Innovations" (Eric A. Abbott and April A. Eichmeier); "Predicting Online Service Adoption Likelihood among Nonsubscribers" (Carolyn A. Lin); "Evidence for Selective Perception in the Processing of Health Campaign Messages" (Ekaterina Ognianova and Esther Thorson); "Revisiting the Knowledge Gap Hypothesis: Education, Motivation, and Media Use" (Nojin Kwak); "Predicting Future Risky Behavior among Those 'Too Young' to Drink as the Result of Advertising Desirability" (Erica Weintraub Austin and Christopher Knaus); "Thoughtful Self-Critique or Journalistic Cannibalism? International Press Coverage of Princess Diana's Death" (Martin Eichholz); "The Third-Person Perception and Support for Restriction of Pornography: Some Methodological Problems" (Ven-hwei Lo and Anna R. Paddon); "A Virtual Fetish: Themes of a Virtual Community as Presented in 'Time' and 'Wired'" (Marjorie Lynne Yambor); "Mood Congruence and the Utility of Sad Media Content–An Exploration of 'Wallowing'" (Kimberly A. Neuendorf); "Identifying Structural Features of Radio: Orienting and Memory for Radio Messages" (Robert F. Potter, Annie Lang, and Paul Bolls); "Video Violence: Desensitization and Excitation Effects on Learning" (Bradford L. Yates and others); "Developing an Integrated Theory of Recall of News Stories" (Margaret H. De Fleur); "Viewer Elaboration about News Video" (Michael Murrie); and "Understanding Deliberation: The Effects of Discussion Networks on Participation in a Public Forum" (Jack M. McLeod and others).   [More]  Descriptors: Advertising, Audience Response, Citizen Participation, Communication (Thought Transfer)

Hill, William C. (1981). Galatea in the Classroom: The Distribution of Teacher-Pupil Interaction and Its Relationship to Class-Size. If what is known about selective processes of perception is coupled with awareness of the extremely rapid pace of classroom interaction, the classroom setting becomes one in which differential teacher expectations are likely to be formed and maintained. In fact, research findings reveal the power of teacher expectations: high teacher expectations can increase student achievement and low expectations can actually decrease achievement. Attempts to alter the communication of differential expectations by retraining teachers have generally been successful, but have been found to be quite expensive. Student achievement is also influenced by class size. Research findings indicate that a student achieving at the 50th percentile in a class of 40, if instructed in a group consisting of 1 to 5 students, is likely to achieve at the 83rd percentile or higher. Because this achievement effect is specific to groups of 20 pupils or less, a "student threshold for achievement" concept of facilitative student-teacher interaction is supported. It is possible that in classes of 21 to 40 pupils, fewer students' thresholds for achievement are reached by teachers due to the much wider distribution of interaction. There are several procedural methods for equitably distributing interaction that teachers can use (1) to counter the reluctance of peripherally seated students to initiate interaction, and (2) to compensate for teacher expectancy behaviors. (Directions for further research are suggested.) Descriptors: Bias, Class Size, Classroom Communication, Elementary Education

Strain, Barbara (1970). Developmental Trends in the Selective Perception of Race and Affect by Young Negro and Caucasian Children, DARCEE Papers and Reports (George Peabody College for Teachers). This study used a "disguised-structured" technique for determining the differential saliency of race and affect on preference behavior of 60 5-, 6-, and 7-year-old Negro and Caucasian children. Positively and negatively valued objects were distributed by subjects among photographs of happy and sad Negro and Caucasian children. No racial preference was found among 5-year-olds of either race or among older Negro children; 6- and 7-year-old Caucasian children showed growing preference for the Caucasian stimuli. Preference for the happy stimuli was shown by all groups of children, the affect differences overriding all race preferences. Included are both references and a bibliography of sources not cited in the text. Appendixes provided include a duplication of task photographs, sample data form, and additional task tables.   [More]  Descriptors: Affective Behavior, Age Differences, Attitudes, Bias

Gonzalez, Ann (1990). Video Materials Production and Use in Intensive Language Instruction: The Experience of the University of South Carolina's Master's in International Business Program. As part of a communicative approach and to provide non-linguistic information to students, authentic videotape recordings were incorporated into the summer intensive Spanish course in the University of South Carolina's master's program in international business. Students were introduced to the tapes by first seeing segments without sound, both to illustrate what can be understood visually and to emphasize the need for selective perception. The second phase was viewing with sound, with or without concurrent exercises. Exercises were created with clear cues to students to pay attention to the video. Video recordings allowed for immediate replay for feedback. The final instructional stage included follow-up activities, the most effective of which were directly related to cultural issues or analysis of the video itself, such as selective use of diminutives in a family situation. Discussion of why students respond with embarrassment or laughter, appropriate or inappropriate, and of the film's possible biases were also found to be essential to understanding the film's content. Use of video was seen to enhance motivation and retention of cultural and linguistic material. Testing, not used in this course, will be incorporated in future courses. Handouts accompanying videos are appended. Contains 13 references.   [More]  Descriptors: Business Administration Education, Business Communication, College Second Language Programs, Cultural Awareness

Talbott, Albert D.; And Others (1974). A News Game Called TRIO: A Task for Reporting, Interviewing and Observing. The reason for creating the Task for Reporting, Interviewing, and Observing (TRIO) was to make selective perception and metaphoric transformation come alive for students. This paper includes the experiences in designing, implementing, and trying out the exercise, a description of the exercise, a summary of the participants' play, and suggestions and recommendations on how the exercise can be used in similar and other kinds of settings. TRIO allows students to play various roles in reporting, being reported on, and news report evaluating. The exercise includes nursing students as specialists who present the pros and cons of abortion to another group of nurses. The presentation is covered by journalism students who write up news reports of the event for a lay audience. Groups of reporters cover the event under differing conditions, including second-hand and third-hand reporting. Afterward the lay audience, the reporters, and the specialists evaluate the coverage and prizes are awarded for the best stories. A give-and-take discussion is held a week after the event for all the participants. (Also included are selected bibliographies on gaming and simulations.)   [More]  Descriptors: Class Activities, Educational Games, Higher Education, Instructional Materials

Munro, Allen; And Others (1981). An Experimental System for Research on Dynamic Skills Training. Interim Technical Report, February 1980-September 1981. A research project was conducted to determine if dynamic skill training differs in important ways from knowledge system instruction. The term dynamic skills was used to mean sets of intellectual processes responsible for selective perceptions in a real time driven content and for the selection and performance of appropriate responses in that context; knowledge systems was used to mean sets of related facts that are commonly taught as a body of coherent subject matter. The research was conducted on a microcomputer-based experimental simulation training system. Experimental subjects were taught to perform a simulation task based on the job of an air intercept controller. The training program permitted controlled differences in instructional treatment for different groups of students in order to explore empirical issues in dynamic skill training. The results of the research show that dynamic skill training differs in important ways from knowledge system instruction; e.g., the demands placed upon students' cognitive processing resources are different in the two types of learning. Ten references are listed.   [More]  Descriptors: Computer Assisted Instruction, Decision Making Skills, Feedback, Military Training

Steffen, John J.; Reckman, Richard F. (1978). Selective Perception and Interpretation of Interpersonal Cues in Dyadic Interactions, Journal of Psychology. Suggests that socially anxious and low anxious males may perceive social events similarly but interpret them differently. Descriptors: Anxiety, Attribution Theory, Behavioral Science Research, Higher Education

Martini, Mary (1994). Acquiring the Language of Learning: The Performance of Hawaiian Preschool Children on the Preschool Language Assessment Instrument (PLAI). The Preschool Language Assessment Instrument (PLAI) was designed as a diagnostic tool for 3- to 6-year-old children to assess children's abilities to use language to solve thinking problems typically posed by teachers. The PLAI was developed after observing middle-class teachers in preschool classrooms encourage children to use language in different ways. The differences in the use of language were grouped into 4 levels of difficulty, and the PLAI consists of 60 items selected from these 4 levels. The performance of 60 Hawaiian preschool children on this test was assessed at the four levels: (1) Matching Perception; (2) Selective Analysis of Perception; (3) Reordering Perception; and (4) Reasoning about Perception. Overall, the children performed better on tasks at lower levels of complexity than on tasks at higher levels. The group's performance was compared to that of a sample of mainly white upper-middle-class, 3- to 4-year-old children attending private preschools; and to a second sample of primarily black or Puerto Rican lower class, 3- to 4-year-old children attending public day care centers. At all four levels, the Hawaiian children scored to varying degrees higher than the lower class sample but lower than the middle class sample. Eight tables and one figure are included.   [More]  Descriptors: Comparative Analysis, Error Analysis (Language), Language Processing, Language Tests

Gans, Herbert J. (1968). The Uses of Television and Their Educational Implications; Preliminary Findings from a Survey of Adult and Adolescent New York Television Viewers. To collect data on how to make television a more effective learning instrument outside of the classroom, a standard probability sample with quotas consisting of 200 adults and 200 adolescents living in New York City was interviewed to study how people use TV, their attitudes toward various types of programing, and their viewing preferences. Designed to exclude light viewers, the interview schedule featured questions on viewing habits, relevance of TV to personal problems, audience preferences in news coverage, and entertainment vs. information. An attempt was made to correlate opinion with variables of age (by describing TV use among adolescents), class, race (by describing the effects of white television in the black community), emotional health (as judged by the respondents), and frequency of viewing. Such variables influence the choice of a network newscaster (Huntley-Brinkley, Cronkite, or Jennings), the selective perception of news and editorial content, and the taste for reality or fantasy in hypothetical programs. Characteristics of the sample, the interview schedule, and attitude data from East Harlem residents are appended to the text.   [More]  Descriptors: Adolescents, Adults, Audiences, Black Attitudes

Johnson, Charles D.; And Others (1974). Personality Mediators of Interpersonal Attraction. The current study was an examination of the effect of personality variables on the relationship between attitude disagreement and attraction. Attraction was measured in a neutral situation, designed to maximize any existing affective predispositions toward attitude agreement-disagreements. Subjects were placed in an ambiguous face-to-face situation in which an accomplice agreed with the subject on 7 of 14 attitude issues. The personality variables of interest were Spielberger's (1966) state-trait anxiety measures and the Marlowe-Crowne (1964) scale of social desirability. In the context of attraction toward neutral strangers, anxiety and social desirability were expected to have quite different, in fact, complementary, effects. Specifically, two hypotheses were advanced: (1) that high anxiety would be related to disliking others and enhanced recall for disagreements; and (2) that high social desirability would be associated with liking others and heightened recall for agreements, when the proportion of attitude agreements-disagreements was constant. Results supported both hypotheses. Neutral interactions elicited very different affective reactions from high anxiety and high need for approval subjects despite the fact that proportion of attitude agreements was constant. Anxiety and social desirability apparently influenced interpersonal attraction by promoting selective perception in an ambiguous social situation.   [More]  Descriptors: Affective Behavior, Anxiety, Attitudes, Interaction

Zarcone-Alessandrino, Lisa (1990). Reading and the ESL Student: Alternative Materials Used To Enhance a Phonetic Approach to Reading. The design and testing of an approach to reading instruction are described. The design system consists of five stages: analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. A needs analysis indicated the necessity to improve the reading skills of limited-English-proficient students. A group of 6- to 8-year-old students were identified for pilot testing of the approach. Five tasks in the development of reading proficiency were identified and linked to specific subskills. Supplementary audio-visual materials found to be highly motivating were used to reinforce and strengthen psychomotor skills, intellectual skills, and verbal information. Instruction was designed to enhance nine internal processes occurring during learning, including: reception, expectancy, retrieval, selective perception, semantic encoding, responding, reinforcement, retrieval and reinforcement, and retrieval and generalization. Formative evaluation was used during the instructional period, with adjustments made in instruction, and summative evaluation was used at the end of instruction. Results showed the use of supplementary materials with dictation to be effective in raising both the reading level and the confidence level of subjects. Appended materials include a weekly and monthly planner for the reading and ESL student development plan, a task analysis, a list of instructional objectives, a sample questionnaire, a performance checklist, the Durrell Analysis of Reading Difficulty Phonetic Inventory, and a scope and sequence storybook list. Descriptors: Audiovisual Aids, English (Second Language), Formative Evaluation, Instructional Effectiveness

SCHMUCK, RICHARD (1967). SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS IN KNOWLEDGE UTILIZATION AS APPLIED TO EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION. THREE PROBLEM AREAS ARE EXPLORED IN THIS SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF RESEARCH UTILIZATION IN EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION–(1) INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN BEHAVIORAL SCIENTISTS AND SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS, (2) PSYCHOLOGICAL LINKAGES BETWEEN THE ADMINISTRATOR'S SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE AND HIS ACTIONS, AND (3) THE LACK OF CONNECTION BETWEEN THE ADMINISTRATOR'S ACTION REPERTOIRE AND THE REQUIREMENTS OF EACH NATURAL SITUATION AS IT ARISES. UNPRODUCTIVE RESEARCHER-ADMINISTRATOR RELATIONSHIPS ARE CHARACTERIZED BY POOR COMMUNICATION, NEGATIVE STEREOTYPES OF ONE ANOTHER HELD BY RESEARCHER AND ADMINISTRATOR, AND DISTRUST AND SUSPICION SUPPORTED BY THE INCONSISTENT NORMS OF EACH ONE'S REFERENCE GROUP. PSYCHOLOGICAL PROCESSES CONTRIBUTING TO THESE DIFFICULTIES IN INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS INCLUDE SELECTIVE PERCEPTION OF EACH OTHER'S BEHAVIOR, DISTORTIONS OF MEMORY, A TENDENCY TO PLACE LOW VALUE ON EACH OTHER'S WORK, AND THE POSSIBILITY OF COLLABORATION THREATENING THE SELF-CONCEPTS OF BOTH RESEARCHER AND ADMINISTRATOR. TEN CLUSTERS OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSUMPTIONS ARE LISTED FOR BUILDING CONNECTIONS BETWEEN THE PRODUCTION OF RESEARCH KNOWLEDGE AND THE IMPROVEMENT OF ADMINISTRATIVE PRACTICE IN EDUCATION. THIS PAPER WAS PREPARED FOR PRESENTATION AT THE UCEA CAREER DEVELOPMENT SEMINAR (17TH), CO-SPONSORED BY THE UNIVERSITY COUNCIL FOR EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND THE UNIVERSITY OF OREGON (PORTLAND, OREGON, OCTOBER 22-25, 1967), AND WILL BE AVAILABLE FROM THE PUBLICATIONS DEPARTMENT, CENTER FOR THE ADVANCED STUDY OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION, HENDRICKS HALL, UNIVERSITY OF OREGON, EUGENE, OREGON 97403.   [More]  Descriptors: Administrator Role, Administrators, Bibliographies, Diffusion

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Bibliography: Selective Perception (page 2 of 4)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized for the Alternative Facts website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Kent Clement, Dan G. Drew, Joan E. Sussman, Harold de Bock, Michael P. Brawer, James McQueen, Cheryl Riley Powell, Kathleen M. Galvin, Barbara K. Keogh, and Steven H. Chaffee.

Kjeldergaard, Paul M.; And Others (1969). Perception of Language: Proceedings of a Symposium of the Learning Research and Development Center; Parts I and II. This report describes in two volumes the proceedings of a conference on the perception of language held at the University of Pittsburgh in January, 1968. The objectives of the conference, to present the particular research interests of the participants and to attempt to find points of concurrence in thinking through discussion of the conference topic, are emphasized throughout the nine articles and summary discussion. Major areas of psychological research which are presented as chapters in the proceedings include listening, reading, and grammatical structure; age changes in the selective perception of verbal materials; acoustic and grammatical features of spontaneous speech; the perception of time compressed speech; current approaches to syntax recognition; speech and body motion synchrony of the Speaker-Hearer; an analysis of laterality effects in speech perception; children's language development and articulatory breakdown; and perception of phonetic segments with evidence from phonology, acoustics, and psycholinguistics.   [More]  Descriptors: Acoustics, Articulation (Speech), Language Acquisition, Language Patterns

Wilhoit, G. Cleveland; de Bock, Harold (1976). Archie Bunker in a Foreign Culture: A Panel Study of Selectivity Processes in the Dutch Television Audience. A national sample of 503 Dutch people aged 15 and over who were accessible by telephone was used in this longitudinal study of reactions to a series of eight broadcasts of "All in the Family." Attitude scales were developed for three independent variables–ethnocentrism, lifestyle intolerance, and parental authoritarianism. Questionnaire items were also developed for three dependent variables–selective exposure, selective perception, and selective retention. Analyses concentrated on three questions: Do the Dutch perceive "All in the Family" as pertaining only to the American context, or is it seen as also pertinent to Dutch society? Is there selectivity in the Dutch exposure, perception, and retention that is related to ethnocentrism, lifestyle intolerance, and parental authoritarianism? What are the uses and gratifications received by the Dutch audience from "All in the Family"?   [More]  Descriptors: Adults, Bias, Cognitive Processes, Communication (Thought Transfer)

McQueen, James (1996). Phonetic Categorisation, Language and Cognitive Processes. Notes that in phonetic categorization, listeners hear a range of speech sounds forming a continuum of ambiguous sounds between two endpoints and are required to identify the sounds as one or other of the endpoints. Points out that this task has been used in phonetics and in psycholinguistics to study categorical perception, selective adaptation, speaking rate normalization, and trading relations. (61 references) Descriptors: Ambiguity, Auditory Perception, Auditory Stimuli, Classification

Snavely, William B. (1974). An Instructional Model of the Process of Selectivity. In view of the importance of selectivity to the understanding of the interpersonal, small group, and public communication processes, this concept must be introduced into the communication classroom. This paper introduces an instructional model that simplifies the student's understanding of the four major steps involved in the selectivity process: selective exposure, attention, perception, and retention. Discussion is included regarding possible extensions of this model and suggested areas of classroom application. A diagram of the model is included.   [More]  Descriptors: Attention, Behavioral Science Research, Communication (Thought Transfer), Conceptual Schemes

Braverman, Marc T.; Yates, Mary Ellen (1989). Enhancing the Educational Effectiveness of Zoos. This study addressed whether the educational impact of a zoo visit can be enhanced through the provision of appropriate instructional supports such as preparatory trainings or orientations. One important function of the educational process, in contrast to providing direct information or skill development, is to make the learner more sensitive to the learning environment by developing motivation and increasing skills in attention and/or selective perception. This is particularly significant when dealing with experiential education settings such as zoos, because those settings tend to be unstructured and the learner is more on his or her own. The subjects, Extension 4-H agents, were either presented an orientation lecture with slides, or given a packet of orientation reading materials. The two groups visited the San Diego Zoo in November 1987 as part of the annual meeting of the National Association of Extension 4-H Agents. Both of these groups were tested against a control group. This study demonstrated that orientation sessions can serve to boost the educational effectiveness of zoos, at least in the area of knowledge gain. The orientation did not increase the strength of attitudes and values related to zoos. Descriptors: Class Activities, Educational Facilities, Elementary School Science, Elementary Secondary Education

Drew, Dan G. (1974). Reporters' Attitudes, Expected Meetings with a Source and Journalistic Objectivity. A cornerstone of twentieth century journalism is the concept of objectivity. This experimental study explores psychological pressures on the reporter in a theoretical framework of balance theory and social perception. Specifically, it deals with reporters' attitudes toward their sources, their expectation of a future meeting with the sources, and the type of stories they write. It also seeks to determine whether perceptual screening, resulting from the journalist's attitude toward the source, is a factor in reportorial performance. Objectivity for this study is defined as fairness or balance in decision making, information seeking, and presentation of information. The most important finding of this study is the evidence that attitudes of reporters toward the source seemed to have little impact on news stories or editorials. The data also provide evidence indicating that selective perception is not a particularly strong restraint on reportorial activity.   [More]  Descriptors: Attitudes, Communication (Thought Transfer), Journalism, Media Research

Galvin, Kathleen M.; Book, Cassandra L. (1972). Communication/Speech. This book is intended as a resource for teachers who are adopting a communication approach to a speech course. Organized into seven chapters which each contain behavioral and learning objectives and activities, the book is designed to help educators guide their students toward an understanding of inter- and intrapersonal communication and the development of effective communication skills. The introductory chapter discusses communication models and networks. Chapter two concerns the encoding and decoding of messages in terms of selective perception, accuracy, and interference. Chapters three through six address the numerous communication settings and relationships including intrapersonal, one-to-one, group, and one-to-group communication situations. The final chapter is devoted to the study of nonverbal communication in relation to symbols, sign and signals, space and setting, status, and intercultural influences. Also included is a list of selective terminology with parallel examples used throughout the book, special monographs, and an annotated bibliography. Descriptors: Behavioral Objectives, Communication Skills, Communication (Thought Transfer), Curriculum Guides

Powell, Cheryl Riley (1978). The Reporter's Control of News. A recent study profiles the American journalist as young, male, white, educated, and coming from a solid middle- or upper-middle-class background. Women and minority groups are grossly underrepresented in the field of journalism. Other studies present parallels between the topics that are selected as newsworthy and the characteristics of those who gather and edit the news, revealing that the selective perception of the reporter does influence what becomes news. Other factors that color the individual reporter's approach to the news include reasons for entering the profession, motivation for staying on the job, personal values and professional ethics, mood, intelligence, imagination, and the competitive, self-protective atmosphere of the newsroom. Fearing a loss of credibility with the public, today's reporter faces problems in verifying all information, defining an ethical position toward sources and the public, deciding a personal role as a private citizen, and guarding relationships and affairs from conflict-of-interests charges. Descriptors: Bias, Individual Characteristics, Information Dissemination, Journalism

Griessman, B. Eugene; Bertrand, Alvin L. (1967). Factors Related to Communication of Forest Fire Prevention Messages, a Study of Selected Rural Communities. Two rural Louisiana communities were selected to evaluate the effectiveness of certain types of communication in preventing man-caused forest fires. The communities were selected on the basis of differences in fire occurrence rates and other factors related to conservation. Questionnaires and personal interviews were utilized to determine views of inhabitants and access to communication media. The relation of sociocultural factors to fire occurrence rates, the social process of communication, the potential of mass media and informal media in communication of fire prevention messages, and selective perception and effectiveness of fire prevention messages were evaluated. It was recommended that persons with roles as fire prevention change agents design their information programs to reach all the inhabitants of a community after careful appraisal of all available data on local environmental factors.   [More]  Descriptors: Area Studies, Change Agents, Communication Problems, Communication (Thought Transfer)

Sussman, Joan E. (1993). Auditory Processing in Children's Speech Perception: Results of Selective Adaptation and Discrimination Tasks, Journal of Speech and Hearing Research. Ten children (ages 5-6) and 10 adults participated in discrimination and selective adaptation speech perception tasks using a synthetic consonant-vowel continuum. Results support hypotheses of sensory processing differences in younger, normally developing children compared with adults and show that such abilities appear to be related to speech perception skills. Descriptors: Adults, Attention, Auditory Discrimination, Auditory Evaluation

Brawer, Michael P. (1982). Integrating Motivational Activities into Instruction: A Developmental Model. A model for integrating motivational activities into instruction and the problem with motivational activities in the classroom for the disadvantaged learner are examined. Eight basic learning processes are identified that the teacher should understand in preparation for presenting information to students: attention/reception, selective perception, rehearsal, semantic encoding, search and retrieval, response organization, feedback, and executive control. Motivational activities can help to gain the interest of the learner and make the task relevant to the learner. Four basic steps that should lead a teacher or instructional designer toward a definitive means of selecting appropriate motivational activities and incorporating them into instruction are considered. The first step is to determine the media needs of the learners (e.g., lower ability groups generally respond better to visual stimuli such as films, overheads, or displays). The second component of the model is derived from examining the prior decisions and entails such decisions as whether the motivational activity should focus on related past instruction, or whether remedial activities are needed. A next step is to examine the feasibility of that activity within the learning environment (i.e., the time and materials available), and the final step is to develop/select the actual motivational events of instruction. It is suggested that by examining the problem of motivation, identifying student characteristics, and carefully planning lessons, many of the motivational problems teachers face in the classroom can be overcome. A flowchart illustrating the steps in selecting motivational activities for instruction is appended. Descriptors: Classroom Environment, Diagnostic Teaching, Educationally Disadvantaged, High Risk Students

Kaid, Lynda Lee (1975). The Impact of Political Television Commercials. For decades research on mass media in political campaigns has yielded little evidence of direct, significant effects. Most survey research on elections found adequate explanations for voting decisions while excluding the impact of mass media. Although the increasing use of expensive television advertising campaigns is evidence of the confidence of candidates and their advisors, researchers have remained unconvinced, although in recent years they have begun to examine political television commercials more closely. The number of surveys has remained small, however, and fraught with methodological difficulties. Recent topics of research include: levels of voter exposure; extent of selective exposure; voter recall of information; selective perception and retention of information;"image" versus "issue" spots; the effect of length; direct impact on voting decisions; and the functions that such spots perform for voters. Recommendations for future research include the following: make further efforts to isolate the impact of particular spots; use more realistic viewing situations; measure the cumulative impact of several different spots over time; study the interaction of spots with other information sources; and study the uses voters make of the information derived from spots. Descriptors: Advertising, Broadcast Television, Communication (Thought Transfer), Information Utilization

Keogh, Barbara K. (1977). Early ID: Selective Perception or Perceptive Selection?, Academic Therapy. The state of the art in early identification of children with learning problems is reviewed, and generalizations about the value of early screening are offered. Descriptors: Early Childhood Education, Educational Diagnosis, Elementary Education, Exceptional Child Education

Clement, Kent (1997). The Psychology of Judgment for Outdoor Leaders. Judgment is the process of making decisions with incomplete information concerning either the outcomes or the decision factors. Sound judgment that leads to good decisions is an essential skill needed by adventure education and outdoor leadership professionals. Cognitive psychology provides several theories and insights concerning the accuracy of human judgment. Selective perceptions refers to the fact that perceptions are selective, reconstructive, and subject to memory biases. The context in which one encounters a situation affects the way it is perceived, and therefore will affect judgments and decisions. There are three such context effects: the primacy effect, the recency effect, and the halo effect. General rules to help find solutions are known as "heuristics." Although generally helpful, heuristics can be obstructive by creating predictable biases. Two impediments unique to group decision-making are "groupthink" and "social loafing." Three main types of common traps in decision making are overconfidence, self-fulfilling prophecies, and behavioral traps. The five types of behavioral traps discussed are the time delay trap, ignorance trap, investment trap, deterioration trap, and collective trap. Strategies to mitigate each of these phenomena are given.   [More]  Descriptors: Adventure Education, Bias, Cognitive Psychology, Cognitive Structures

Chaffee, Steven H. (1978). Communication Patterns in the Family: Implications for Adaptability and Change. The argument for renewed theoretical development in the study of family communication has several implications. One is that researchers should concentrate on family communication as such rather than expanding generalizations from family communication to other groups and institutions; this requires grappling more specifically with the explication and testing of theoretical propositions about the ways in which family communication functions. The roster of possible hypotheses includes such empirical theories as reinforcement, selective perception, information-seeking, and de facto selective exposure. Methodologies that are quite different from those used in the past will have to be devised and employed. Firsthand observation, experimental variation, and longitudinal designs are all needed. The latter is particularly important because the greatest implications of what is known about family communication have to do with developments occurring long after the child matures and leaves the family. Both observational and experimental ingenuity are needed to test specific hypotheses about the nature of the process by which family communication patterns shape the developing child's construction of the world around him.   [More]  Descriptors: Communication Problems, Communication Research, Communication (Thought Transfer), Family Influence

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Bibliography: Selective Perception (page 1 of 4)

This bibliography is selected and organized by the Alternative Facts website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Klara Overland, Judy I. Schwartz, Ingunn Storksen, David L. Klemmack, Thomas Kochman, Alexander Grob, Linda S. Fidell, Steven F. Tuckey, Isabelle Drewelow, and Robert M. Gagne.

Kochman, Thomas (1976). Perceptions along the Power Axis: A Cognitive Residue of Inter-Racial Encounters, Anthropological Linguistics. This paper is one of a series examining language and interactional patterns of white and black Americans manifested in cultural contexts. It considers the relative impact of the power or status differential on selective perceptions, attitudes and speech behavior where power difference is crucial to the communicative process. Descriptors: Black Attitudes, Blacks, Communication Problems, Interaction Process Analysis

Cone, Dick; Harris, Susan (1996). Service-Learning Practice: Developing a Theoretical Framework, Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning. Service-learning has drawn largely on a few major theorists for theoretical support. Additional theoretical perspectives drawn from cognitive psychology and social theory can also contribute, including constructs of concept formation, selective perception, categorization, critical reflection, and mediated learning. Each of these helps to explain the transformational nature of experiential education and provides intellectual support for "best practices." Descriptors: Classification, Cognitive Psychology, College Curriculum, College Instruction

Reimann, Giselle; Gut, Janine; Frischknecht, Marie-Claire; Grob, Alexander (2013). Memory Abilities in Children with Mathematical Difficulties: Comorbid Language Difficulties Matter, Learning and Individual Differences. The present study investigated cognitive abilities in children with difficulties in mathematics only (n = 48, M = 8 years and 5 months), combined mathematical and language difficulty (n = 27, M = 8 years and 1 month) and controls (n = 783, M = 7 years and 11 months). Cognitive abilities were measured with seven subtests, tapping visual perception, selective attention, memory, and reasoning, as well as full-scale-IQ. Children with difficulties in mathematics only differed in their cognitive abilities, not only from controls, but also from children with comorbid language difficulties. Children with mathematical difficulties only performed worse than controls in a selective attention measure, but not in any working memory measure, meanwhile children with difficulties in mathematics and language performed worse than controls in verbal working memory components, but not selective attention. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.   [More]  Descriptors: Children, Cognitive Ability, Mathematics, Learning Disabilities

Giorgianni, Thomas E. (2013). Impact of Professional Background on Problem Perception among Community College Leaders, ProQuest LLC. With the rising need for community college administrators, many colleges are looking outside of academia for individuals to fill upper-level positions. Controversy has risen over administrative hires as to whether the incumbent should be from within academia or from business. This leads us to question if there is a difference between individuals that have been working within academia versus those that have worked in business. Considering that an individual's perception is one of the major inputs into the decision-making process, testing the individual's perception might yield some insight and help to determine if any differences do exist between those individuals who have worked in either academia or business. This research tests if community college administrator's work history and/or educational background have a relationship with their perception. If selective perception is evidenced, then it might influence whether community colleges should take professional background into account when looking to academics or to business professionals to hire as administrators. This research consists of two studies collecting basic background information on selected subjects, along with their respective educational backgrounds, work histories, survey responses, and interviews. The research methodology utilized was based on the studies of Dearborn et al., Walsh, and Beyer et al. The first study requested each subject to read a case, identify the issues in the case, rank each identified issue on a Likert scale (1-7), and note which of all the identified issues is most important. The second study examined variances in subjects' issue perception, word utilization, and mental content in a more open ended interview format. The research shows strong support for selective perception based on professional background. It also shows that administrators from the two groups tend to preference different mental models, academics preferring "inclusive" approaches, compared to the more "top down" approaches of administrators with business background. Finally, the research raises questions as to the differential impact of "on the job socialization" on both groups. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.%5D   [More]  Descriptors: Community Colleges, College Administration, Administrators, Administrator Characteristics

Drewelow, Isabelle (2011). Learners' Selective Perceptions of Information during Instructed Learning in French: Consequences, Modern Language Journal. The present study examined how American learners of French perceived the influence of instruction on their existing stereotypes about the French people to determine the effects of these stereotypes on their language learning and cultural openness. During a semester, 22 undergraduate students, all native English speakers enrolled in 4 sections of first-semester French at a large Midwestern university were interviewed 3 times via Instant Messenger. The data analysis revealed that, for some participants, the information received during instruction was selectively interpreted (Barna, 1998; Bennett, 1998) through the lenses of beliefs and images present in their habitus (Bourdieu, 1982), with as a result the reinforcement of preexisting stereotypes and impressions. This article focuses on 3 participants who, at some point during the semester, identified a stereotype about the French people and how they believed their instructor or the instructional material participated in its reinforcement.   [More]  Descriptors: Undergraduate Students, Second Language Learning, Instructional Materials, Reinforcement

Gagne, Robert M. (1980). Is Educational Technology in Phase?, Educational Technology. Discusses whether educational technology has kept pace with recent developments in the related fields of psychology and communication science. Addressed are several areas in cognitive psychology: the process of selective perception, semantic encoding, the effects of previous learning, and the influence of metacognitlon.   [More]  Descriptors: Cognitive Development, Educational Technology, Learning Theories, Perception

Schwartz, Judy I. (1979). Reading Readiness for the Hearing Impaired, Academic Therapy. The importance of competence in both receptive and expressive language, selective perception, and a rich experiential background for reading readiness skills of hearing impaired children is empahsized. Descriptors: Aural Learning, Early Childhood Education, Elementary Education, Expressive Language

Cleave, Hayley (2009). Too Anxious to Speak? The Implications of Current Research into Selective Mutism for Educational Psychology Practice, Educational Psychology in Practice. Selective Mutism is a low incidence disorder but has considerable impact on the school system when it occurs. Over the last decade several research articles have been published which have challenged the understanding of the aetiology of Selective Mutism. Current perceptions about the aetiology of Selective Mutism are considered in order to inform the practice of educational psychologists (EPs). Research suggests a multifactorial aetiology with evidence of co-morbidity. Hypothesis led suggestions are made about assessment and intervention of Selective Mutism.   [More]  Descriptors: Children, Anxiety, Psychosomatic Disorders, Communication Problems

Fendler, Lynn; Tuckey, Steven F. (2006). Whose Literacy? Discursive Constructions of Life and Objectivity, Educational Philosophy and Theory. Drawing from literature in the social studies of science, this paper historicizes two pivotal concepts in science literacy: the definition of life and the assumption of objectivity. In this paper we suggest that an understanding of the historical, discursive production of scientific knowledge affects the meaning of scientific literacy in at least three ways. First, a discursive study of scientific knowledge has the epistemological consequence of avoiding the selective perception that occurs when facts are abstracted from the historical conditions of their emergence. Second, a discursive approach to scientific knowledge can also be an example of science-as-exploration. Third, literacy and discourse studies contribute insights that alter assumptions about pedagogical appropriateness in science education. The paper concludes by suggesting that when science literacy includes the historical production of scientific knowledge, it can thereby extend the possibilities for what can be thought, studied and imagined in the name of science education.   [More]  Descriptors: Scientific Literacy, Science Education, Science History, Scientific Enterprise

Klemmack, David L.; And Others (1975). Media Exposure and Interpersonal Perception in Family Planning Adoption, Sociology and Social Research. The influence of media awareness on family planning adoption is examined according to 3 models: selective perception, reinforcement, and cognitive dissonance.   [More]  Descriptors: Behavior Patterns, Community Influence, Contraception, Family Planning

Pashiardis, Petros (1995). Problem and Dilemma Identification in the Decision-Making Process, International Journal of Educational Reform. Examines decision making in educational organizations, focusing on problems associated with identifying and labeling issues. Factors influencing labeling include decision maker characteristics such as filtering ability, aspiration level, capabilities and experience, stress, "satisficing" proclivity, anchoring and adjustment, selective perception, illusion of control, regression and hindsight bias, misperception of chance, illusory correlation, and organizational influences. (72 references) Descriptors: Decision Making, Educational Administration, Elementary Secondary Education, Higher Education

Fidell, Linda S. (1973). Put Her Down on Drugs: Prescribed Drug Usage in Women. The medical interview was examined as a problem in two way communication, with selective perception and both patient and physician expectations operating. The potential influence of belief in the sex role stereotype on physician perception of the female patient and his prescribing of psychoactive drugs was examined. Descriptors: Attitudes, Drug Abuse, Females, Individual Needs

Bramlett-Solomon, Sharon; Liebler, Carol M. (1999). Enhancing Theory Courses with Racially Inclusive Research, Journalism and Mass Communication Educator. Offers a blueprint that instructors of mass media theory courses can adopt to expose students to racially inclusive research in order to encourage students to explore and employ relevant theories when probing media and race questions. Offers examples of inclusive media research, examining six prominent theories: selective-perception theory, socialization theory, cultivation theory, agenda-setting theory, framing theory, and cultural theory. Descriptors: Cultural Pluralism, Higher Education, Journalism Education, Journalism Research

Overland, Klara; Thorsen, Arlene Arstad; Storksen, Ingunn (2012). The Beliefs of Teachers and Daycare Staff regarding Children of Divorce: A Q Methodological Study, Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal of Research and Studies. This Q methodological study explores beliefs of daycare staff and teachers regarding young children's reactions related to divorce. The Q factor analysis resulted in two viewpoints. Participants on the viewpoint "Child problems" believe that children show various emotional and behavioral problems related to divorce, while those on the "Structure is working" viewpoint believe structure in daycare centers and parental cooperation help children to overcome divorce-related difficulties. Selective perception based on subjective experiences may have influenced these views. Practical implications are discussed. Q methodology and cognitive interviewing techniques seem efficient in exploring daycare staff beliefs.   [More]  Descriptors: Divorce, Q Methodology, Factor Analysis, Preschool Teachers

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Bibliography: Selective Retention (page 3 of 3)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized for the Alternative Facts website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Arthur Wellesley Foshay, Irving Morrisett, Tampa. Coll. of Education. University of South Florida, WALTER W. COOK, Warren W. Shivley, ROBERT A. PIERSON, Roger E. Wilk, Lynda Lee Kaid, and Roy Gale Mikalson.

Foshay, Arthur Wellesley, Ed.; Morrisett, Irving, Ed. (1978). Beyond the Scientific: A Comprehensive View of Consciousness. Eight papers which discuss rational and nonrational modes of knowing and consciousness and their relevance to educational practice are presented. Richard Jones in "Looking Back and Forth on Consciousness" considers two modes, the rational and the metaphoric, in a discussion of dreams. Alfred Kuhn discusses random variation and selective retention (RVSR) as operations of left and right brain. The combination of the two produce rationality. Maxine Greene focuses on imaginative literature as expressing an array of modes of consciousness. Arthur Wellesly Foshay in "Intuition and Curriculum" pleads for the legitimacy of intuition and offers several examples of how the intuitive leap may be encouraged in school. Ronald Lippit and Eva Schindler-Rainman in "Knowing, Feeling, Doing" call for a fully linked person. The three elements in the title are necessary for the education of the whole person. Robert Samples makes a sharp distinction between right and left hemisphere activities and explains the dominance of the linear, logical, rationalist mode of thinking in schools chiefly through the lack of trust engendered in the classrooms. Mark Phillips describes confluent education, which recognizes and employs all forces present in classroom activity at a given time. John Haas discusses the term synectics, which refers to the unity of the metaphoric and the analytic in the creative process, and uses examples drawn from actual experience. The implications of all the papers are that there are many modes of knowing of which the rational is one and if we are to function fully we ought to make full use of all modes.   [More]  Descriptors: Books, Cognitive Processes, Concept Formation, Creativity

University of South Florida, Tampa. Coll. of Education. (1974). Case Study: Focus on Personal/Professional Preparation in Physical Education. This paper describes a program featuring integrated course sequences and continuous teaching experience that prepares teachers who can create a variety of learning environments that provide meaningful movement experiences for grades K-12,. The 2-year program sequence includes the following elements: (a) selective admissions and retention procedure, (b) individual assessment, (c) seminar and field experience/internship, and (d) human kinetics theory and application. Close articulation of program elements is assured by team teaching and open communication between faculty and students. Immediate application of theory is possible in the concurrent field experience, and frequent evaluation by all involved provides feedback for continuing refinement of the program.   [More]  Descriptors: Elementary Education, Field Experience Programs, Kinetics, Physical Education

COOK, WALTER W.; AND OTHERS (1963). A STUDY OF FACTORS OPERATIVE IN THE SELECTIVE RETENTION OF STUDENTS IN TEACHER EDUCATION, PART I. THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO DISCOVER THE PERSONALITY AND EXPERIENCE FACTORS WHICH DISTINGUISH STUDENTS WHO ARE SUCCESSFUL IN PROFESSIONAL TEACHER TRAINING COURSES AND ACTUALLY ENTER TEACHING, FROM THE PERSONALITY AND EXPERIENCE FACTORS OF STUDENTS WHO DROP OUT ALONG THE WAY. INFORMATION WAS GATHERED FROM ALL STUDENTS WHO ENTER THE JUNIOR PROFESSIONAL SEQUENCE OF COURSES IN THE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION. THESE STUDENTS WERE DIVIDED INTO GROUPS ACCORDING TO THEIR MAJOR AREA. THE KINDS OF DATA WHICH WERE COLLECTED INCLUDED SUCH ITEMS AS BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION, ACADEMIC RECORDS, INTERVIEW REPORTS, AND TEST MEASURES OF ABILITIES AND INTERESTS. THERE WAS IMMEDIATE FOLLOWUP OF STUDENTS WHO DROPPED OUT AT VARIOUS POINTS DURING THE TRAINING PROGRAM, AND THE FINAL ANALYSES WERE DESIGNED TO DETECT THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THOSE WHO PERSISTED AND THOSE WHO LEFT. THE MOST SIGNIFICANT IMPLICATION FOR FURTHER RESEARCH WAS THE NEED TO CONTINUE THE PROCEDURES WHICH HAVE BEEN ESTABLISHED AND TO EXTEND DATA THAT HAVE BEEN GATHERED FOR THE INITIAL POPULATIONS OF STUDENTS. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Dropout Rate, Educational Background, Personality Assessment

Kaid, Lynda Lee (1975). The Impact of Political Television Commercials. For decades research on mass media in political campaigns has yielded little evidence of direct, significant effects. Most survey research on elections found adequate explanations for voting decisions while excluding the impact of mass media. Although the increasing use of expensive television advertising campaigns is evidence of the confidence of candidates and their advisors, researchers have remained unconvinced, although in recent years they have begun to examine political television commercials more closely. The number of surveys has remained small, however, and fraught with methodological difficulties. Recent topics of research include: levels of voter exposure; extent of selective exposure; voter recall of information; selective perception and retention of information;"image" versus "issue" spots; the effect of length; direct impact on voting decisions; and the functions that such spots perform for voters. Recommendations for future research include the following: make further efforts to isolate the impact of particular spots; use more realistic viewing situations; measure the cumulative impact of several different spots over time; study the interaction of spots with other information sources; and study the uses voters make of the information derived from spots. Descriptors: Advertising, Broadcast Television, Communication (Thought Transfer), Information Utilization

Shivley, Warren W. (1982). Let's Reevaluate our Instruments for Selective Retention in Teacher Education, College Student Journal. Investigated the relationship between success in student teaching and 13 instruments commonly completed before student teaching and whether the measures predict success in student teaching. The data indicated the measures were ineffective. Suggested alternatives to the instruments used are proposed.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Academic Aptitude, Attitude Measures, Education Majors

Mikalson, Roy Gale (1964). The Impact of 1961 Legislation Relating to Probationary Teachers on Instruction and Administrative Practices in California Public Junior Colleges. In 1961, the California Legislature stiffened the legal requirements for the dismissal of probationary teachers at the end of a school year. Surveying the literature, and polling selected junior college administrators and probationary teachers, the author sought to assess the impact of this change on the quality of junior college instruction. On the positive side, he found a greater emphasis on careful selection of new faculty, revised programs of evaluation of probationary teachers, and freer feelings of probationary teachers to teach without fear of arbitrary dismissal. On the negative side, he found boards and administrators reluctant to dismiss mediocre teachers, no increase in supervisory help, and a negative effect on faculty-administrator rapport on the possibility of a hearing. The effects of the change varied with the individual college and seemed to depend on the state of faculty-administrator rapport, the ability of the college to attract and hold competent teachers, community expectations, and the perceptions of the administrators on the possibility of releasing a teacher rated ineffective. The author concludes that administrators must not perceive the changes in the Education Code as providing "instant tenure"; otherwise selective retention will be precluded and the quality of instruction will diminish. Descriptors: Administrative Policy, Educational Legislation, Instructional Improvement, Probationary Period

Wilk, Roger E.; And Others (1969). A Study of Factors Operative in the Selective Retention of Students in Teacher Education. Part II. A longitudinal study (1956-62) of 4,948 education majors during their junior and senior years was conducted to identify biographical, academic, and psychometric factors characteristic of students who persist and student who do not persist in a teacher education curriculum. The data variables which were analyzed against the criterion of persistence were, in addition to the above-mentioned factors, from achievement test scores and postbaccalaureate questionnaires. Eight questions framed the collection and analysis of data. Results are of descriptive value, especially from questions regarding the characteristics of juniors entering the college of education, the number and location of students teaching after graduation, and the achievement levels of five standardized tests of juniors and seniors. Additional findings indicate the following: in determining differences between "persists" and "nonpersists," only overall grade point average contributed significantly, and information available at the time of admission is not an effective predictor; men and women who persisted had different patterns of scores, with high school rank being the most effective single variable; generally, persistence or nonpersistence could not be determined by achievement tests, even after adjustment was made for ability differences; and the pattern of significant gains in educational development differed but personality test scores did not differ among students grouped according to major fields.   [More]  Descriptors: Education Majors, Persistence, Research Needs, Teacher Persistence

PIERSON, ROBERT A. (1966). THE G.P.A. CRITERION AND SELECTIVE RETENTION IN TEACHER EDUCATION. TO DETERMINE WHETHER ARBITRARY GRADE-POINT AVERAGE CUT-OFF POINTS (E.G. 2.25) FOR ENTRANCE INTO TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMS ARE UNFAIR TO PRESENT-DAY STUDENTS, NINETY 1966 COLLEGE SOPHOMORES WITH FRESHMAN-YEAR GPA'S BETWEEN 2.00 AND 2.09 WERE COMPARED TO THE SAME NUMBER OF 1961 SOPHOMORES WITH FRESHMAN-YEAR GPA'S BETWEEN 2.25 AND 2.34 USING (1) POSITION IN HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATING CLASS AND (2) FRESHMAN SCAT AND ACT SCORES AS CRITERION MEASURES. IT WAS HYPOTHESIZED THAT THE 1966 SOPHOMORES WOULD HAVE HIGHER RANKS AND SCORES BECAUSE PRESENT-DAY SELECTION AND ADMISSION POLICIES MAY HAVE MADE THEM BETTER PREPARED THAN THEIR PREDECESSORS. CONTRARY TO EXPECTATIONS, IT WAS FOUND THAT THE 1961 STUDENTS RANKED HIGHER IN THEIR GRADUATING CLASSES AND HAD HIGHER FRESHMAN TEST SCORES, ALTHOUGH THE DIFFERENCES WERE NOT SIGNIFICANT. IT IS THOUGHT THAT THE DISCREPANCY MIGHT BE ACCOUNTED FOR BY THE FACT THAT GRADING POLICIES MAY HAVE REMAINED INVARIANT OR MAY HAVE BECOME SOMEWHAT MORE STRINGENT WITH RESPECT TO THE FRESHMAN AND SOPHOMORE POPULATION OF 1966.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Admission Criteria, Aptitude Tests, Class Average

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