Bibliography: Misinformation (page 01 of 30)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized for the Alternative Facts website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Pia-Isabell Schmidt, Maria S. Zaragoza, Anja Breidenstein, Christopher Jarrold, Karen H. Peters, Alexandra M. Freund, Rachel M. DeFranco, Katie Maras, Susan Troncoso Skidmore, and Celina Schatto.

Rindal, Eric J.; DeFranco, Rachel M.; Rich, Patrick R.; Zaragoza, Maria S. (2016). Does Reactivating a Witnessed Memory Increase Its Susceptibility to Impairment by Subsequent Misinformation?, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. In a recent PNAS article, Chan and LaPaglia (2013) provided arguments and evidence to support the claim that reactivating a witnessed memory (by taking a test) renders the memory labile and susceptible to impairment by subsequent misinformation. In the current article, we argue that Chan and LaPaglia's (2013) findings are open to alternative interpretations, and further test the hypothesis that reactivation increases a witnessed memory's susceptibility to impairment. To this end, the current studies used a different set of materials and a different measure of memory impairment, the Modified Recognition Test (McCloskey & Zaragoza, 1985). In Experiment 1a, we established that our reactivation manipulation was effective by showing that we could replicate the well-established retrieval enhanced suggestibility effect with our materials. However, when we assessed potential impairment of the witnessed memory with the Modified Recognition Test (Experiments 1a and 1b), we failed to find evidence that reactivating the witnessed memory prior to misinformation impaired memory for the originally witnessed event. In Experiment 2, we replicated Chan and LaPaglia's (2013) findings when we used their memory impairment measure (misinformation-free True/False Recognition Test) and showed why that test does not permit clear inferences about memory impairment. Collectively, the results showed that, although the reactivation manipulation increased susceptibility to suggestion (i.e., as evidenced by increased reporting of suggested misinformation), there was no evidence that reactivation through testing increased the original memory's susceptibility to impairment.   [More]  Descriptors: Memory, Hypothesis Testing, Questioning Techniques, Responses

Bajaj, Monisha; Ghaffar-Kucher, Ameena; Desai, Karishma (2016). Brown Bodies and Xenophobic Bullying in US Schools: Critical Analysis and Strategies for Action, Harvard Educational Review. In this essay, Monisha Bajaj, Ameena Ghaffar-Kucher, and Karishma Desai present an evidence-based action project that seeks to interrupt and transform bullying behaviors directed at South Asian American youth in schools in the United States. In the context of this essay and project, they argue that larger macro-level forces which promote misinformation about youth who inhabit brown bodies have given rise to bullying and, in some cases, harassment and hate crimes in schools. Conventional literature on bullying offers inadequate frames for how the forces of Islamophobia–which affect all those perceived to be Muslim–and bullying come together to shape realities for South Asian American youth in schools. The authors advance new frameworks and strategies for understanding xenophobic and bias-based bullying and explore schools as sites of possibility to interrupt Islamophobia and misinformation about South Asian Americans.   [More]  Descriptors: Stranger Reactions, Bullying, Social Bias, Islam

Schmidt, Pia-Isabell; Rosga, Kristin; Schatto, Celina; Breidenstein, Anja; Schwabe, Lars (2014). Stress Reduces the Incorporation of Misinformation into an Established Memory, Learning & Memory. Memory can be distorted by misleading post-event information. These memory distortions may have serious consequences, for example in eyewitness testimony. Many situations in which memory reports are solicited, and suggestive or misleading information is presented, are highly stressful for the respondent, yet little is known about how stress affects people's susceptibility to misinformation. Here, we exposed participants to a stressor or a control manipulation before they were presented misinformation about a previous event. We report that stressed participants endorsed misinformation in a subsequent memory test less often than control participants, suggesting that stress reduces distortions of memory by misleading information.   [More]  Descriptors: Stress Variables, Memory, Comparative Analysis, Experimental Groups

Pansky, Ainat; Tenenboim, Einat; Bar, Sarah Kate (2011). The Misinformation Effect Revisited: Interactions between Spontaneous Memory Processes and Misleading Suggestions, Journal of Memory and Language. Recent findings indicate that retained information tends to converge at the basic level (BL). The aim of the present study was to apply these findings to the investigation of misinformation phenomena. In three experiments, we examined the extent to which the contaminating effects of misinformation are influenced by its consistency with the accessible representation of the original information. Following different retention intervals, participants were misled with items that either shared the same BL with the target items (Same-BL condition) or did not (Different-BL condition). Misinformation was found to interfere with subsequent correct recall of event information only in the Same-BL condition. Suggestibility was more pronounced and more affected by the timing of misinformation presentation in the Same-BL condition. Moreover, Same-BL distortions were more often misattributed to the event than Different-BL distortions. These findings are interpreted in terms of the interaction between the misinformation and the accessible (BL) representations of the event information at the time the misinformation is introduced.   [More]  Descriptors: Intervals, Recall (Psychology), Memory, Experiments

Bright-Paul, Alexandra; Jarrold, Christopher (2009). A Temporal Discriminability Account of Children's Eyewitness Suggestibility, Developmental Science. Children's suggestibility is typically measured using a three-stage "event-misinformation-test" procedure. We examined whether suggestibility is influenced by the time delays imposed between these stages, and in particular whether the temporal discriminability of sources (event and misinformation) predicts performance. In a novel approach, the degree of source discriminability was calculated as the relative magnitude of two intervals (the ratio of event-misinformation and misinformation-test intervals), based on an adaptation of existing "ratio-rule" accounts of memory. Five-year-olds (n = 150) watched an event, and were exposed to misinformation, before memory for source was tested. The absolute event-test delay (12 versus 24 days) and the "ratio" of event-misinformation/misinformation-test intervals (11:1, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3 and 1:11) were manipulated across participants. The temporal discriminability of sources, measured by the ratio, was indeed a strong predictor of suggestibility. Most importantly, if the ratio was constant (e.g. 18/6 versus 9/3 days), performance was remarkably similar despite variations in absolute delay (e.g. 24 versus 12 days). This intriguing finding not only extends the ratio-rule of distinctiveness to misinformation paradigms, but also serves to illustrate a new empirical means of differentiating between explanations of suggestibility based on interference between sources and disintegration of source information over time.   [More]  Descriptors: Intervals, Memory, Influences, Predictor Variables

Behrens, Susan J. (2016). Challenging Linguistic Stereotypes on the Internet, Research & Teaching in Developmental Education. Our research focuses on the creation and reinforcement of overgeneralized and inaccurate depictions of language behavior on the Internet. Misrepresentation of language behavior spreads easily by exposure to unchallenged depictions. We posit that such stereotypes have already influenced our students, consumers of the Internet, by introducing, reinforcing, and perpetuating linguistically ungrounded views of language behavior. We believe that scholarly research serves as a reality-check to overgeneralized misinformation, and that both students and teachers in developmental education need more valid sources of linguistic information. [Additional assistance in writing this article was provided by Rosangela Catalano, Jennifer Perez, Kaitlyn Clark, and Latoya Chisholm.]   [More]  Descriptors: Stereotypes, Internet, Reinforcement, Language Usage

Rich, Patrick R.; Zaragoza, Maria S. (2016). The Continued Influence of Implied and Explicitly Stated Misinformation in News Reports, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. The piecemeal reporting of unfolding news events can lead to the reporting of mistaken information (or misinformation) about the cause of the newsworthy event, which later needs to be corrected. Studies of the "continued influence effect" have shown, however, that corrections are not entirely effective in reversing the effects of initial misinformation. Instead, participants continue to rely on the discredited misinformation when asked to draw inferences and make judgments about the news story. Most prior studies have employed misinformation that explicitly states the likely cause of an outcome. However, news stories do not always provide misinformation explicitly, but instead merely imply that something or someone might be the cause of an adverse outcome. Two experiments employing both direct and indirect measures of misinformation reliance were conducted to assess whether implied misinformation is more resistant to correction than explicitly stated misinformation. The results supported this prediction. Experiment 1 showed that corrections reduced misinformation reliance in both the explicit and implied conditions, but the correction was much less effective following implied misinformation. Experiment 2 showed that implied misinformation was more resistant to correction than explicit misinformation, even when the correction was paired with an alternative explanation. Finally, Experiment 3 showed that greater resistance to correction in the implied misinformation condition did not reflect greater disbelief in the correction. Potential reasons why implied misinformation is more difficult to correct than explicitly provided misinformation are discussed.   [More]  Descriptors: Experimental Psychology, News Reporting, Misconceptions, Error Correction

March, Judith K.; Peters, Karen H. (2015). Telling the Truth about the Common Core, Phi Delta Kappan. The authors take on myths and misinformation about the Common Core State Standards and seek to tell the positive ways in which the standards work to move education.   [More]  Descriptors: State Standards, Academic Standards, Elementary Secondary Education, Adoption (Ideas)

Maras, Katie; Bowler, Dermot M. (2011). Brief Report: Schema Consistent Misinformation Effects in Eyewitnesses with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. A number of studies have demonstrated schema-related misinformation effects in typical individuals, but no research to date has examined this with witnesses with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), despite their impaired ability to generate core elements that define everyday events. After witnessing slides depicting a bank robbery, 16 adults with ASD and 16 matched comparison individuals were exposed to post-event misinformation that was either schema typical or atypical. Consistent with previous work, the comparison group went onto report more schema typical misinformation than atypical misinformation. However, so too did the ASD group, suggesting that individuals with ASD do have understanding of the causal links between events, persons and actions, an important finding from both theoretical and applied perspectives.   [More]  Descriptors: Autism, Pervasive Developmental Disorders, Misconceptions, Adults

Martinez, James; Unterreiner, Ann; Aragon, Antonette; Kellerman, Phillip (2016). Immigration Reform and Education: Demystifying Mythologies about Latina/o Students, Multicultural Learning and Teaching. In this paper, the authors deconstruct commonly held mythologies about immigration to inform the critical discourse and support those educators who strive to be fair brokers of an inclusive educational system addressing the distinct needs of immigrant students. We (teacher educators and a community organizer) emphasize and clarify verifiable information that in fact refutes seven prevalent mythologies often articulated in the public debate. In our observations and experiences, this misinformation impacts decisions and fosters biases about Latina/o immigrants in the educational field, particularly impacting students from Mexico and Latin American countries. By debunking misinformation, we seek to inform a thoughtful discourse as advocates engaged to positively influence how these students are viewed by educators. This paper highlights evidence needed to advance the learning and educational success of Latina/o students. The hope of the authors is for a more thoughtful recognition of the immigrant student plight in the face of a nationally politicized and criminalized immigration stance.   [More]  Descriptors: Immigration, Hispanic American Students, Ethnic Stereotypes, Public Opinion

Legates, David R.; Soon, Willie; Briggs, William M.; Monckton of Brenchley, Christopher (2015). Climate Consensus and "Misinformation": A Rejoinder to "Agnotology, Scientific Consensus, and the Teaching and Learning of Climate Change", Science & Education. Agnotology is the study of how ignorance arises via circulation of misinformation calculated to mislead. Legates et al. ("Sci Educ" 22:2007-2017, 2013) had questioned the applicability of agnotology to politically-charged debates. In their reply, Bedford and Cook ("Sci Educ" 22:2019-2030, 2013), seeking to apply agnotology to climate science, asserted that fossil-fuel interests had promoted doubt about a climate consensus. Their definition of climate "misinformation" was contingent upon the post-modernist assumptions that scientific truth is discernible by measuring a consensus among experts, and that a near unanimous consensus exists. However, inspection of a claim by Cook et al. ("Environ Res Lett" 8:024024, 2013) of 97.1% consensus, heavily relied upon by Bedford and Cook, shows just 0.3% endorsement of the standard definition of consensus: that most warming since 1950 is anthropogenic. Agnotology, then, is a two-edged sword since either side in a debate may claim that general ignorance arises from misinformation allegedly circulated by the other. Significant questions about anthropogenic influences on climate remain. Therefore, Legates et al. appropriately asserted that partisan presentations of controversies stifle debate and have no place in education.   [More]  Descriptors: Misconceptions, Science Education, Climate, Ecology

Skidmore, Susan Troncoso; Thompson, Bruce (2012). Things (We Now Believe) We Know, Educational Researcher. The present article responds briefly to the comments, in this issue of "Educational Researcher," of Petrosino and of Robinson to the "Propagation of Misinformation About Frequencies of RFTs/RCTs in Education: A Cautionary Tale." The authors emphasize that the context of how the quality of education research is perceived both within and outside the field creates the milieu for evaluating the ultimate impacts of misinformation about that quality. They note that related concerns have been detailed in various American Educational Research Association journal articles and in other reports for decades.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Research, Journal Articles, Educational Researchers, Context Effect

English, Shaun M.; Nielson, Kristy A. (2010). Reduction of the Misinformation Effect by Arousal Induced after Learning, Cognition. Misinformation introduced after events have already occurred causes errors in later retrieval. Based on literature showing that arousal induced after learning enhances delayed retrieval, we investigated whether post-learning arousal can reduce the misinformation effect. 251 participants viewed four short film clips, each followed by a retention test, which for some participants included misinformation. Afterward, participants viewed another film clip that was either arousing or neutral. One week later, the arousal group recognized significantly more veridical details and endorsed significantly fewer misinformation items than the neutral group. The findings suggest that arousal induced after learning reduced source confusion, allowing participants to better retrieve accurate details and to better reject misinformation.   [More]  Descriptors: Arousal Patterns, Films, Tests, Behavior Patterns

Lewandowsky, Stephan; Stritzke, Werner G. K.; Freund, Alexandra M.; Oberauer, Klaus; Krueger, Joachim I. (2013). Misinformation, Disinformation, and Violent Conflict: From Iraq and the "War on Terror" to Future Threats to Peace, American Psychologist. The dissemination and control of information are indispensable ingredients of violent conflict, with all parties involved in a conflict or at war seeking to frame the discussion on their own terms. Those attempts at information control often involve the dissemination of misinformation or disinformation (i.e., information that is incorrect by accident or intent, respectively). We review the way in which misinformation can facilitate violent conflicts and, conversely, how the successful refutation of misinformation can contribute to peace. We illustrate the relevant cognitive principles by examining two case studies. The first, a retrospective case, involves the Iraq War of 2003 and the "War on Terror." The second, a prospective case, points to likely future sources of conflict arising from climate change and its likely consequences.   [More]  Descriptors: War, Terrorism, Conflict, Foreign Countries

Oeberst, Aileen; Blank, Hartmut (2012). Undoing Suggestive Influence on Memory: The Reversibility of the Eyewitness Misinformation Effect, Cognition. Presenting inconsistent postevent information about a witnessed incident typically decreases the accuracy of memory reports concerning that event (the "misinformation effect"). Surprisingly, the "reversibility" of the effect (after an initial occurrence) has remained largely unexplored. Based on a "memory conversion" theoretical framework and associated refined assessment strategy, we report three experiments to demonstrate that suggestive influence can be completely undone. Initially established misinformation effects were eliminated–even after a period of 5 weeks (Exp. 3)–through (a) an "enlightenment" procedure ensuring an adequate representation of the memory task as a search for potentially two contradictory items (instead of "the" single "correct" answer) and (b) using a "memory state test" that unconfounds the performance contributions of item and source memory by assessing them separately. Specifically, memory for original event details that were the target of misinformation was restored to the level of non-misled control performance, and even beyond (Exp. 3). This remarkable reversibility of misinformation influence highlights the central role of memory conversion processes in the misinformation effect (but does not principally exclude the contribution of traditional interference processes). We discuss the compatibility of our findings with previous research and make suggestions for real-world eyewitness interrogation.   [More]  Descriptors: Recall (Psychology), Memory, Models, Experiments

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