Bibliography: Misinformation (page 02 of 30)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized for the Alternative Facts website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Sarah J. Barber, Julie I. Liebman, Suparna Rajaram, Ole Bjørn Rekdal, Malen Migueles, Nicole A. Miller, Teaching Tolerance, Lisa K. Fazio, Susan Rakosi Rosenbloom, and Martine B. Powell.

Bedford, Daniel (2010). Agnotology as a Teaching Tool: Learning Climate Science by Studying Misinformation, Journal of Geography. Despite the existence of a clear scientific consensus about global warming, opinion surveys find confusion among the American public, regarding both scientific issues and the strength of the scientific consensus. Evidence increasingly points to misinformation as a contributing factor. This situation is both a challenge and an opportunity for science educators, including geographers. The direct study of misinformation–termed agnotology (Proctor 2008)–can potentially sharpen student critical thinking skills, raise awareness of the processes of science such as peer review, and improve understanding of the basic science. This potential is illustrated with examples from a small, upper-division collegiate weather and climate class.   [More]  Descriptors: Scientific Literacy, Climate, Thinking Skills, Critical Thinking

Rosenbloom, Susan Rakosi; Killian, Caitlin (2014). What Are They Thinking? Findings for Educators and Practitioners on Youths' Experience and Knowledge of the HPV Vaccine, American Journal of Sexuality Education. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends the HPV vaccination for boys and girls starting at age 11, yet adoption rates are low. We use eight focus groups to explore the decision making process, experiences, and social influences, including media and sex education classes, shaping attitudes of male and female college students. We find many students who have misinformation or no knowledge of the vaccination yet are eager to learn more. Due to youths' range of knowledge about the vaccination and varied preparedness for making their own medical decisions, practitioners are in a challenging position to inform and encourage responsible decision making without appearing coercive.   [More]  Descriptors: Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Immunization Programs, Health Promotion, Focus Groups

Fazio, Lisa K.; Barber, Sarah J.; Rajaram, Suparna; Ornstein, Peter A.; Marsh, Elizabeth J. (2013). Creating Illusions of Knowledge: Learning Errors that Contradict Prior Knowledge, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. Most people know that the Pacific is the largest ocean on Earth and that Edison invented the light bulb. Our question is whether this knowledge is stable, or if people will incorporate errors into their knowledge bases, even if they have the correct knowledge stored in memory. To test this, we asked participants general-knowledge questions 2 weeks before they read stories that contained errors (e.g., "Franklin invented the light bulb"). On a later general-knowledge test, participants reproduced story errors despite previously answering the questions correctly. This misinformation effect was found even for questions that were answered correctly on the initial test with the highest level of confidence. Furthermore, prior knowledge offered no protection against errors entering the knowledge base; the misinformation effect was equivalent for previously known and unknown facts. Errors can enter the knowledge base even when learners have the knowledge necessary to catch the errors.   [More]  Descriptors: Prior Learning, Misconceptions, Memory, Accuracy

Chan, Jason C. K.; Langley, Moses M. (2011). Paradoxical Effects of Testing: Retrieval Enhances Both Accurate Recall and Suggestibility in Eyewitnesses, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. Although retrieval practice typically enhances memory retention, it can also impair subsequent eyewitness memory accuracy (Chan, Thomas, & Bulevich, 2009). Specifically, participants who had taken an initial test about a witnessed event were more likely than nontested participants to recall subsequently encountered misinformation–an effect we called "retrieval-enhanced suggestibility" (RES). Here, we sought to test the generality of RES and to further elucidate its underlying mechanisms. To that end, we tested a dual mechanism account, which suggests that RES occurs because initial testing (a) enhances learning of the later misinformation by reducing proactive interference and (b) causes the reactivated memory trace to be more susceptible to later interference (i.e., a reconsolidation account). Three major findings emerged. First, RES was found after a 1-week delay, where a robust testing benefit occurred for event details that were not contradicted by later misinformation. Second, blockage of reconsolidation was unnecessary for RES to occur. Third, initial testing enhanced learning of the misinformation even when proactive interference played a minimal role.   [More]  Descriptors: Accuracy, Testing, Observation, College Students

Watermeyer, Richard; Morton, Pat; Collins, Jill (2016). Rationalising "for" and "against" a Policy of School-Led Careers Guidance in STEM in the U.K.: A Teacher Perspective, International Journal of Science Education. This paper reports on teacher attitudes to changes in the provision of careers guidance in the U.K., particularly as it relates to Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM). It draws on survey data of n = 94 secondary-school teachers operating in STEM domains and their attitudes towards a U.K. and devolved policy of internalising careers guidance within schools. The survey presents a mixed message of teachers recognising the significance of their unique position in providing learners with careers guidance yet concern that their "relational proximity" to students and "informational distance" from higher education and STEM industry may produce bias and misinformation that is harmful to their educational and occupational futures.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Career Guidance, STEM Education, Teacher Attitudes

Roberts, Kim P.; Powell, Martine B. (2007). The Roles of Prior Experience and the Timing of Misinformation Presentation on Young Children's Event Memories, Child Development. The current study addressed how the timing of interviews affected children's memories of unique and repeated events. Five- to six-year-olds (N = 125) participated in activities 1 or 4 times and were misinformed either 3 or 21 days after the only or last event. Although single-experience children were subsequently less accurate in the 21- versus 3-day condition, the timing of the misinformation session did not affect memories of repeated-experience children regarding invariant details. Children were more suggestible in the 21- versus 3-day condition for variable details when the test occurred soon after misinformation presentation. Thus, timing differentially affected memories of single and repeated events and depended on the combination of event-misinformation and misinformation-test delays rather than the overall retention interval.   [More]  Descriptors: Recall (Psychology), Young Children, Interviews, Time

Luna, Karlos; Migueles, Malen (2008). Typicality and Misinformation: Two Sources of Distortion, Psicologica: International Journal of Methodology and Experimental Psychology. This study examined the effect of two sources of memory error: exposure to post-event information and extracting typical contents from schemata. Participants were shown a video of a bank robbery and presented with high-and low-typicality misinformation extracted from two normative studies. The misleading suggestions consisted of either changes in the original video information or additions of completely new contents. In the subsequent recognition task the post-event misinformation produced memory impairment. The participants used the underlying schema of the event to extract high-typicality information which had become integrated with episodic information, thus giving rise to more hits and false alarms for these items. However, the effect of exposure to misinformation was greater on low-typicality items. There were no differences between changed or added information, but there were more false alarms when a low-typicality item was changed to a high-typicality item.   [More]  Descriptors: Memory, Validity, Error Patterns, Misconceptions

Lehman, Elyse Brauch; McKinley, Marcia J.; Thompson, David W.; Leonard, Ann Marie; Liebman, Julie I.; Rothrock, Danielle D. (2010). Long-Term Stability of Young Children's Eyewitness Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Resistance to Misinformation, Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology. Forty 4-year-olds and 39 6-year-olds participated in a modified misinformation-effects paradigm. At time 1 they reviewed a story and some of the children were asked questions about it in either recall or recognition format. Three weeks later they were given misinformation about some of the story events. The following week they were asked the original questions. Two years later the procedure was repeated with a different story for 31 of the children. Although 4-year-olds overtly disagreed more times than the older children did when misinformation was initially presented, this resistance did not affect their accuracy or suggestibility scores. The 6-year-olds became more resistant to the suggestive effects of misinformation when they were given an immediate recall test or when given the opportunity to disagree with misinformation. Significant test-retest correlations occurred over a two year period for both story accuracy and one of the suggestibility scores.   [More]  Descriptors: Memory, Recall (Psychology), Models, Recognition (Psychology)

Marion, Scott (2016). Considerations for State Leaders in the Design of School Accountability Systems under the "Every Student Succeeds Act", National Center for the Improvement of Educational Assessment. The Elementary and Secondary Schools Education Act (ESEA) was finally reauthorized as the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA). The reauthorization was long overdue and with its passage comes much hype and some misinformation about what the law permits and does not permit. The purpose of this brief is to outline some of the key accountability provisions of ESSA and offer some considerations for states as education leaders move to meet the accountability requirements of the law that capitalizes on what has been learned in the state previously and how an ESSA accountability system can best support the state's policy and educational goals. These recommendations and general steps can be tailored to each state's needs. The accountability systems called for under ESSA offer more flexibility than under No Child Left Behind (NCLB) even with the waivers. Taking advantage of this flexibility to further the state's policy and educational aims will require considerable thought and collaboration with other states and other partners.   [More]  Descriptors: State Officials, State Policy, Policy Formation, Accountability

Teaching Tolerance (2011). 10 Myths about Immigration. Myths about immigration and immigrants are common. This article presents a few of the most frequently heard misconceptions, along with information to help teachers and their students separate fact from fear. Teachers should debunk the misinformation students bring to school–and help them think for themselves. They must guide students to find a reliable source and help them figure out how to check the facts.   [More]  Descriptors: Immigration, Misconceptions, Immigrants, Fear

Rekdal, Ole Bjørn (2014). Academic Citation Practice: A Sinking Sheep?, portal: Libraries and the Academy. An explosion in access to electronic databases and digital information is changing the way we view source citation. While the original purpose of referencing–showing the reader exactly where the author got his or her input–is clearly more important than ever, citation is increasingly taking on other roles, ones that have little to do with good scientific practice or effective communication of knowledge. One of the results is that myths and urban legends continue to flourish in academia, despite that we have never had better tools for preventing such misinformation.   [More]  Descriptors: Citations (References), Citation Indexes, Electronic Libraries, Electronic Publishing

Dillenburger, Karola (2011). The Emperor's New Clothes: Eclecticism in Autism Treatment, Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders. Increasingly, Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) is internationally recognised as the scientific basis for teaching and treatment in Autism Spectrum Disorders. Yet, many governments and professionals across Europe promote an eclectic model as more child-centred and pragmatic. This paper addresses the issues of eclecticism and ABA by exploring how misinformation stands in the way of evidence-based procedures that are truly unified, practical, and child-centred.   [More]  Descriptors: Autism, Foreign Countries, Pervasive Developmental Disorders, Teaching Methods

Trump, Kenneth S. (2015). Crisis Communications in a Digital World, Educational Leadership. Kenneth Trump, a school safety expert who consults with districts on how to respond to school safety crises, explains how the new prevalence of threats of violence being delivered over digital and social media creates for administrators a "communication crisis" that unfolds alongside the real or perceived crisis of school safety being breached. Once a threat, even one that seems to have no credibility, comes in at school, misinformation about that warning spreads rapidly through the school and often to the media. Trump states that schools must develop "threat assessment protocols" so they can rationally analyze how serious the threat is, rather than make knee-jerk reactions like closing school instantly. He further states that schools need to have a communications/social media strategy in place to put out the word about safety and to be ready to deliver messages effectively and uniformly if a threat or a real incident happens.   [More]  Descriptors: School Safety, Risk Assessment, Emergency Programs, Information Security

Challies, Danna M.; Hunt, Maree; Garry, Maryanne; Harper, David N. (2011). Whatever Gave You that Idea? False Memories Following Equivalence Training: A Behavioral Account of the Misinformation Effect, Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. The misinformation effect is a term used in the cognitive psychological literature to describe both experimental and real-world instances in which misleading information is incorporated into an account of an historical event. In many real-world situations, it is not possible to identify a distinct source of misinformation, and it appears that the witness may have inferred a false memory by integrating information from a variety of sources. In a stimulus equivalence task, a small number of trained relations between some members of a class of arbitrary stimuli result in a large number of untrained, or emergent relations, between all members of the class. Misleading information was introduced into a simple memory task between a learning phase and a recognition test by means of a match-to-sample stimulus equivalence task that included both stimuli from the original learning task and novel stimuli. At the recognition test, participants given equivalence training were more likely to misidentify patterns than those who were not given such training. The misinformation effect was distinct from the effects of prior stimulus exposure, or partial stimulus control. In summary, stimulus equivalence processes may underlie some real-world manifestations of the misinformation effect.   [More]  Descriptors: Memory, Misconceptions, Behavior, Recognition (Psychology)

Wright, Jennifer M.; Henze, Erin E. C.; Coles, Jeremy T.; Miller, Nicole A.; Williams, Robert L. (2016). Knowledge of the Health Care Law as an Issue in Teacher Education, Issues in Teacher Education. Of all the collegiate majors that affect society, none is more critical than teacher education. If teacher education students are uninformed or misinformed about issues central to society, they are likely to be inept in responding to queries and opinions voiced by their future students regarding such issues. The current study investigated one such issue that has been brewing for the past several years and will likely continue to be debated indefinitely. This issue is without question one of the most contentious and polarizing political issues in recent times, and one that has been inundated with misinformation from various sectors of government and the public media. The major focus of this study was to determine how the political affiliations of teacher education students related to their knowledge of the content and probable effects of the Affordable Care Act (or Health Care Law).   [More]  Descriptors: Preservice Teacher Education, Preservice Teachers, Political Affiliation, Knowledge Level

Share on FacebookPin on PinterestShare on Google+Tweet about this on TwitterEmail this to someone

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *