Bibliography: Misinformation (page 03 of 30)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized for the Alternative Facts website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Sulava D. Gautam-Adhikary, Craig E. L. Stark, Peter J. LaFreniere, William S. Horton, Candice M. Mills, Charity Flener-Lovitt, Robyn E. Holliday, Fredanna A. D. M'Cormack, Yoko Okado, and Ayanna K. Thomas.

Rahayuningsih, Faizah Betty (2015). The Knowledge of Third Trimester Pregnant Women about Postpartum and Newborn Infants Care, Journal of Education and Practice. Introduction: Postpartum period is a transition period but it is being neglected aspect from women health care. Mother's knowledge and education before childbirth is important to be prepared for postpartum. Misinformation about traditions/customs in society are considered irrational, causing confusion in puerperal women, especially for mothers who having their first birth (pirimipara). Method: Analytical observational study, using cross-sectional design. The research conducted in the area of Miri Health Centers, Sragen Regency in December 2012. Result: Mother's age significantly associated with maternal knowledge (p = 0,002). Long marriage was significantly associated with maternal knowledge (p = 0,002). In high knowledge category was 25 pregnant women (83,3%) and moderate knowledge was 5 pregnant women (16,7%).   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Knowledge Level, Pregnancy, Females

MacLeod, Malcolm D.; Saunders, Jo (2005). The Role of Inhibitory Control in the Production of Misinformation Effects, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. Recent research has indicated a link between retrieval-induced forgetting and the production of misinformation effects (J. Saunders & M. D. MacLeod, 2002). The mechanism underlying this relationship, however, remains unclear. In an attempt to clarify this issue, the authors presented 150 participants with misinformation under conditions designed to promote the activation of inhibitory control during the retrieval of information about a target event. A modified retrieval practice paradigm that used the independent probe method pioneered by M. C. Anderson and B. A. Spellman (1995) revealed that misinformation effects emerged only where misinformation had been introduced about items that had been subject to 1st-order, 2nd-order, or cross-category inhibition. By contrast, misinformation effects failed to emerge where inhibitory processing had not been activated. These findings are discussed in terms of inhibitory control, memory malleability, and their implications for the interviewing of eyewitnesses.   [More]  Descriptors: Recall (Psychology), Memory, Cognitive Processes, Inhibition

Smith, Rachelle M.; LaFreniere, Peter J. (2013). Development of Tactical Deception from 4 to 8 Years of Age, British Journal of Developmental Psychology. One hundred eighteen children, divided into three age groups (4-, 6-, and 8-year-olds) participated in a competitive game designed to explore advances in children's deceptive abilities. Success in the game required children to inhibit useful information or provide misinformation in their communication with an adult opponent. Age trends were evident for all dependent variables, including success at the task, strategic behaviours, and interview data. Four-year-olds were non-strategic and rarely successful, 6-year-olds were increasingly strategic and successful, and 8-year-olds were significantly more subtle in their strategies, more successful at the task, and more likely to verbalize an understanding of their opponent's expectations than younger age groups.   [More]  Descriptors: Young Children, Preschool Children, Predictor Variables, Expectation

Holliday, Robyn E. (2003). Reducing Misinformation Effects in Children with Cognitive Interviews: Dissociating Recollection and Familiarity, Child Development. Two experiments examined effects of a cognitive interview on 4- and 8-year-olds' correct recall and subsequent reporting of misinformation. Found that a cognitive interview elicited more correct details than a control interview. Eight-year-olds' reports were more complete than 4-year-olds', with more correct person, action, object, and location details. Cognitive interviews given after postevent misinformation reduced children's reporting of misinformation at interview and reduced reporting of self-generated misinformation at test. Descriptors: Age Differences, Children, Cross Sectional Studies, Developmentally Appropriate Practices

M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Drolet, Judy C. (2012). Assessment of Anemia Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors among Pregnant Women in Sierra Leone, Health Educator. Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia prevalence of pregnant Sierra Leone women currently is reported to be 59.7%. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 3-7% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of urban pregnant Sierra Leone women regarding anemia. Method: Hemoglobin levels were obtained from 171 pregnant women. Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of anemic pregnant women were compared to those without anemia. This mixed-method study was framed around the Modified Ecological Model for Health Behavior and Health Promotion. Results: Participants scored low (M = 64% correct) on a 10-item anemia knowledge questionnaire. Forty percent of participants provided erroneous information regarding improving iron status. Participants were likely to believe that anemia caused difficulty in pregnancy. Factors affecting anemia status include pica (chi[superscript 2] = 4.18; p = 0.041). Discussion: Findings from the study indicate that early prenatal intervention and financial security had a positive impact on anemia status, whereas pica, and misinformation about anemia prevention and treatment had a negative impact on participant anemia status. To address misinformation about anemia, the health services sector needs to incorporate health promotion strategies and social marketing principles that are based on socio-ecological theoretical models reflective of diverse populations.   [More]  Descriptors: Pregnancy, Females, Health Promotion, Health Services

Chrisler, Joan C. (2013). Teaching Taboo Topics: Menstruation, Menopause, and the Psychology of Women, Psychology of Women Quarterly. The purpose of this article is (a) to consider reasons why women's reproductive processes receive so little attention in psychology courses and (b) to make an argument for why more attention is needed. Menstruation, menopause, and other reproductive events are important to the psychology of women. Reproductive processes make possible a social role that all women respect and most women hope to embody: mother. Yet, too many women and girls are ashamed of and embarrassed by these and other aspects of their bodies. Instructors of psychology of women courses are in a position to make a difference in their students' lives by breaking the communication taboo to discuss these topics openly, correcting misinformation, challenging stereotypes, and encouraging students to resist stigmatized messages about women's bodies.   [More]  Descriptors: Females, Physiology, Psychology, Course Content

Roediger, Henry L., III; Geraci, Lisa (2007). Aging and the Misinformation Effect: A Neuropsychological Analysis, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. Older adults' susceptibility to misinformation in an eyewitness memory paradigm was examined in two experiments. Experiment 1 showed that older adults are more susceptible to interfering misinformation than are younger adults on two different tests (old-new recognition and source monitoring). Experiment 2 examined the extent to which processes associated with frontal lobe functioning underlie older adults' source-monitoring difficulties. Older adults with lower frontal-lobe-functioning scores on neuropsychological tests were particularly susceptible to false memories in the misinformation paradigm. The authors' results agree with data from other false memory paradigms that show greater false recollections in older adults, especially in those who scored poorly on frontal tests. The results support a source-monitoring account of aging and illusory recollection.   [More]  Descriptors: Models, Memory, Older Adults, Aging (Individuals)

Flener-Lovitt, Charity (2014). Using the Socioscientific Context of Climate Change to Teach Chemical Content and the Nature of Science, Journal of Chemical Education. A thematic course called "Climate Change: Chemistry and Controversy" was developed for upper-level non-STEM students. This course used the socioscientific context of climate change to teach chemical principles and the nature of science. Students used principles of agnotology (direct study of misinformation) to debunk climate change misconceptions commonly encountered in the media and politics. The culmination of the course was a service-learning project to create training documents for staff at a local science center that explained common climate misconceptions. In the process of completing this project, students gained a greater appreciation for the nature of science and learned chemical principles of electromagnetic radiation, atomic structure (isotopes), molecular structure (Lewis structures, VESPR, and polarity) spectroscopy, and stoichiometry. This paper summarizes the outcomes of the course, teaching strategies used to reach the outcomes, and strategies for incorporating agnotology and socioscientific study in science courses.   [More]  Descriptors: Science Instruction, College Science, Undergraduate Study, Teaching Methods

Mills, Candice M. (2013). Knowing when to Doubt: Developing a Critical Stance when Learning from Others, Developmental Psychology. Children may be biased toward accepting information as true, but the fact remains that children are exposed to misinformation from many sources, and mastering the intricacies of doubt is necessary. The current article examines this issue, focusing on understanding developmental changes and consistencies in children's ability to take a critical stance toward information. Research reviewed includes studies of children's ability to detect ignorance, inaccuracy, incompetence, deception, and distortion. Particular emphasis is placed on what this research indicates about how children are reasoning about when to trust and when to doubt. The remainder of the article proposes a framework to evaluate preexisting research and encourage further research, closing with a discussion of several other overarching questions that should be considered to develop a model to explain developmental, individual, and situational differences in children's ability to evaluate information.   [More]  Descriptors: Young Children, Information Seeking, Access to Information, Information Skills

Bulevich, John B.; Thomas, Ayanna K. (2012). Retrieval Effort Improves Memory and Metamemory in the Face of Misinformation, Journal of Memory and Language. Retrieval demand, as implemented through test format and retrieval instructions, was varied across two misinformation experiments. Our goal was to examine whether increasing retrieval demand would improve the relationship between confidence and memory performance, and thereby reduce misinformation susceptibility. We hypothesized that improving the relationship between confidence and memory performance would improve controlled processes at retrieval. That is, when confidence and memory performance were well calibrated, participants would be able to withhold incorrect responses if given the opportunity. To examine the relationship between memory retention, confidence, and controlled withholding, we compared older and younger adults' performance on a forced memory test, where participants could not withhold responses, and on a free test, where participants were encouraged to withhold responses. Confidence judgments were collected after forced responding. Retrieval demand was manipulated indirectly through type of test (cued recall vs. recognition) and directly through retrieval instructions. The results demonstrated that increasing retrieval demands improved memory retention, metamemorial monitoring and effective withholding. This was particularly pronounced when participants received misleading information. Finally, older adults required explicit direction to effectively monitor memory and institute successful controlled withholding.   [More]  Descriptors: Memory, Memorization, Experiments, Responses

Okado, Yoko; Stark, Craig E. L. (2005). Neural Activity during Encoding Predicts False Memories Created by Misinformation, Learning & Memory. False memories are often demonstrated using the misinformation paradigm, in which a person's recollection of a witnessed event is altered after exposure to misinformation about the event. The neural basis of this phenomenon, however, remains unknown. The authors used fMRI to investigate encoding processes during the viewing of an event and misinformation to see whether neural activity during either encoding phase could predict what would be remembered. fMRI data were collected as participants studied eight vignettes (Original Event phase). Shortly afterward, participants studied the same vignettes during scanning, but with changes to several details, serving as the misinformation (Misinformation phase). Two days later, their memories for the Original Event were assessed. Activity that subsequently led to true and false memories was examined during both encoding phases. Two interaction patterns between encoding phase (Original Event and Misinformation) and type of memory (true and false) were observed in MTL and PFC regions. In the left hippocampus tail and perirhinal cortex, a predictive item-encoding pattern was observed. During the Original Event phase, activity was greater for true than false memories, whereas during the Misinformation phase, activity was greater for false than true memories. In other regions, a pattern suggestive of source encoding was observed, in which activity for false memories was greater during the Original Event phase than the Misinformation phase. Together, these results suggest that encoding processes play a critical role in determining true and false memory outcome in misinformation paradigms.   [More]  Descriptors: Neurolinguistics, Memory, Coding, Knowledge Representation

Sato, Mistilina; Lensmire, Timothy J. (2009). Poverty and Payne: Supporting Teachers to Work with Children of Poverty, Phi Delta Kappan. If we are going to make progress in helping teachers develop awareness and pedagogies that are sensitive to children who live in poverty, we need to challenge the widespread misinformation that is being disseminated in this area and then set a new course. The work of Ruby Payne merely furthers negative stereotypes of the poor.   [More]  Descriptors: Poverty, Cultural Awareness, Stereotypes, Teaching Methods

Rapp, David N.; Hinze, Scott R.; Slaten, Daniel G.; Horton, William S. (2014). Amazing Stories: Acquiring and Avoiding Inaccurate Information from Fiction, Discourse Processes: A Multidisciplinary Journal. Authors of fiction need not provide accurate accounts of the world, which might generate concern about the kinds of information people can acquire from narratives. Research has demonstrated that readers liberally encode and rely upon the information provided in fictional stories. To date, materials used to demonstrate these effects have largely included stories taking place in real-world settings. We tested whether readers might exhibit more conservative use of information from stories with unrealistic settings and characters, as in science fiction and fantasy genres. In two experiments, participants read texts containing accurate, misleading, or neutral information, embedded in realistic or unrealistic stories. They subsequently completed a general knowledge test that included probes for story information. Unrealistic stories, in comparison to realistic stories, led to reductions in the use of misinformation. Source monitoring judgments suggest explanations for these reductions. The findings offer intriguing possibilities for encouraging readers' critical evaluation of text content.   [More]  Descriptors: Fiction, Accuracy, Information Utilization, Science Fiction

Swenson, John Eric, III; Schneller, Gregory R. (2011). Teaching and Experiencing the Misinformation Effect: A Classroom Exercise, Psychology Teaching Review. Students from four sections of Introduction to Psychology (N=82) were taught that participating in a classroom exercise may make memories vulnerable to the misinformation effect. All students were shown a short video clip of a car wreck. Students were then asked either "leading" or "non-leading" questions about the video clip. Students were also asked to rate how reliable they believed their memories to be. Responses to the questions were statistically analysed. This classroom exercise was found to be a simple and useful way of allowing students to experience firsthand the way in which memories may be distorted.   [More]   [More]  Descriptors: Video Technology, Psychology, Memory, Introductory Courses

Gautam-Adhikary, Sulava D. (2011). Myths and Facts about Comprehensive Sex Education: Research Contradicts Misinformation and Distortions. Issues at a Glance, Advocates for Youth. Comprehensive sexuality education programs are based on the idea that young people have the right to be informed about their sexuality and to make responsible decisions about their sexual and reproductive health. Despite demonstrating the ability to help youth delay the onset of sexual activity, reduce frequency and number of sexual partners, and increase condom and contraceptive use, such programs continue to come under attack by supporters of abstinence-only education. With much misinformation being propagated about comprehensive sexuality education, it is time to put the debate to rest and debunk some of the more common myths about comprehensive sexuality education. This paper presents myths and facts about comprehensive sex education.   [More]  Descriptors: Sexuality, Sex Education, Youth, Decision Making

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