Bibliography: Misinformation (page 04 of 30)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized for the Alternative Facts website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Manoj K. Doss, Sharda Umanath, Kimberly C. Jeffers, Elizabeth J. Marsh, Alicia D. Leslie, Becky Wai-Ling Packard, Risto Ikonen, R. V. Rikard, Maximilian R. Bluestone, and Tuula Keinonen.

Chan, Jason C. K.; Wilford, Miko M.; Hughes, Katharine L. (2012). Retrieval Can Increase or Decrease Suggestibility Depending on How Memory Is Tested: The Importance of Source Complexity, Journal of Memory and Language. Taking an intervening test between learning episodes can enhance later source recollection. Paradoxically, testing can also increase people's susceptibility to the misinformation effect–a finding termed retrieval-enhanced suggestibility (RES, Chan, Thomas, & Bulevich, 2009). We conducted three experiments to examine this apparent contradiction. Experiment 1 extended the RES effect to a new set of materials. Experiments 2 and 3 showed that testing can produce opposite effects on memory suggestibility depending on the complexity of the source test. Specifically, retrieval facilitated source discriminations when the test contained only items with unique source origins. But when the source test included some items that had appeared in multiple sources, the intervening test actually increased source confusions. These results have implications for a wide variety of learning situations. We focused our discussion on eyewitness memory, source complexity, and reconsolidation.   [More]  Descriptors: Testing, Memory, Learning, Experiments

Loftus, Elizabeth F. (2005). Planting Misinformation in the Human Mind: A 30-Year Investigation of the Malleability of Memory, Learning & Memory. The misinformation effect refers to the impairment in memory for the past that arises after exposure to misleading information. The phenomenon has been investigated for at least 30 years, as investigators have addressed a number of issues. These include the conditions under which people are especially susceptible to the negative impact of misinformation, and conversely when are they resistant. Warnings about the potential for misinformation sometimes work to inhibit its damaging effects, but only under limited circumstances. The misinformation effect has been observed in a variety of human and nonhuman species. And some groups of individuals are more susceptible than others. At a more theoretical level, investigators have explored the fate of the original memory traces after exposure to misinformation appears to have made them inaccessible. This review of the field ends with a brief discussion of the newer work involving misinformation that has explored the processes by which people come to believe falsely that they experienced rich complex events that never, in fact, occurred.   [More]  Descriptors: Retention (Psychology), Memory, Misconceptions, Neuropsychology

Marsh, Elizabeth J.; Butler, Andrew C.; Umanath, Sharda (2012). Using Fictional Sources in the Classroom: Applications from Cognitive Psychology, Educational Psychology Review. Fictional materials are commonly used in the classroom to teach course content. Both laboratory experiments and classroom demonstrations illustrate the benefits of using fiction to help students learn accurate information about the world. However, fictional sources often contain factually inaccurate content, making them a potent vehicle for learning misinformation about the world. We briefly review theoretical issues relevant to whether learners process fictional sources differently before exploring how individual differences, learning activities, and assessment characteristics may affect learning from fiction. This review focuses on our own experimental approaches for studying learning from fiction, including learning from short stories and from films, while connecting to a broader educational literature on learning from fictional sources. Throughout the review, implications for educational use and future directions for experimental research are noted.   [More]  Descriptors: Individual Differences, Course Content, Literary Genres, Cognitive Psychology

Roy, Amit; Ikonen, Risto; Keinonen, Tuula; Kumar, Kuldeep (2017). Adolescents' Perceptions of Alcohol, Health Education. Purpose: Rising trends in alcohol consumption and early drinking initiation pose serious health risks especially for adolescents. Learner's prior knowledge about alcohol gained from the social surroundings and the media are important sources that can impact the learning outcomes in health education. The purpose of this paper is to map adolescents' perceptions of alcohol in Punjab, India and how these perceptions are related to their attitudes towards their social surroundings and the media. Design/methodology/approach: The questionnaire was created after informal discussions with local people who consume alcohol and discussions with alcohol-related experts. Students from five schools (n = 379, average age = 13.6 years) in the urban region of Punjab, India, filled in a questionnaire. Quantitative tests were performed on the questionnaire data. Summative content analysis was performed for the textbook content about alcohol from classes 1 to 10. Findings: Data suggest that students gain knowledge about alcohol from multiple sources, including society, the media and education. While society and the media can give misinformation, education did not provide them with factual scientific information about alcohol. Students from financially marginalized social surroundings experience the presence and use of alcohol more frequently; they trust the media and celebrities somewhat unquestioningly and, hence, are more at-risk. Research limitations/implications: All participants in informal discussions as well as all participating schools in the study were from urban regions. Data about individual's socio-economic conditions was not collected. Originality/value: This research investigates perceptions of alcohol that are derived from adolescents' social surroundings, perceptions of the media and perceptions gained through educational guidance in a developing country. Such multi-dimensional investigations have not been conducted earlier.   [More]  Descriptors: Adolescent Attitudes, Adolescents, Health Education, Foreign Countries

Thompson, Maxine Seaborn; Head, Rachel; Rikard, R. V.; McNeil, Carlotta; White, Caressa (2012). University-Community Partnerships: Bridging People and Cultures in an HIV/AIDS Health Intervention in an African American Community, Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement. As universities become more involved in real-world problems that affect racial and ethnic communities, university members are identifying strategies to effectively work with culturally diverse community partners. The Communities and Health Disparities Project described in this article is an example of collaborative scholarship that engages the university, a community-based organization, and members of the African American community. The purpose of the project was to develop a culturally tailored toolkit to correct misinformation about HIV/AIDS. In this article, the authors identify five strategies for building relationships across diverse cultural groups: connecting with cultural insiders, building collegiality, developing shared aims and goals, recognizing diverse skills and expertise, and sustaining commitments. The authors provide a conceptual framework that integrates the Freirian philosophy and the scholarship of engagement.   [More]  Descriptors: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), African American Community, School Community Relationship, Collegiality

Faught, Gayle G.; Leslie, Alicia D.; Scofield, Jason (2015). The Effects of Source Unreliability on Prior and Future Word Learning, First Language. Young children regularly learn words from interactions with other speakers, though not all speakers are reliable informants. Interestingly, children will reverse to trusting a reliable speaker when a previously endorsed speaker proves unreliable. When later asked to identify the referent of a novel word, children who reverse trust are less willing to consider previously mislabeled objects. The current studies report two related findings. When later asked to identify the label of a novel object, children who reverse trust are less willing to consider previously misused words. When later asked to identify the referent of a novel word, children who reverse trust are less willing to endorse the testimony of the initially trusted but unreliable speaker–even when judged against a stranger. Overall, these findings suggest reversing trust has residual effects for elements involved in the original acquisition of misinformation (e.g. the mislabeled object, misused word, and originally trusted speaker), and these effects could undermine later word-learning efforts. Accounts of children who continue endorsing an unreliable speaker despite opposing testimony from a reliable speaker are also considered.   [More]  Descriptors: Native Language, Prior Learning, Vocabulary Development, Trust (Psychology)

Breuer, Gabriele B.; Schlegel, Jürg; Kauf, Peter; Rupf, Reto (2015). The Importance of Being Colorful and Able to Fly: Interpretation and Implications of Children's Statements on Selected Insects and Other Invertebrates, International Journal of Science Education. Children have served as research subjects in several surveys on attitudes to insects and invertebrates. Most of the studies have used quantitative scoring methods to draw conclusions. This paper takes a different approach as it analyzes children's free-text comments to gain an understanding of their viewpoints. A total of 246 children aged 9-13 completed a standard questionnaire regarding their attitudes toward 18 invertebrates indigenous to Switzerland. Fourteen insect species and four other invertebrates were individually presented in a color photograph without any further background information. The children were given the opportunity to provide comments on each animal to explain the attitude score they had awarded. Nearly 5,000 comments were coded and categorized into 7 positive and 9 negative categories. A significant correlation between fear and disgust was not detected. Based on a hierarchical cluster analysis, we concluded that flying in the air versus crawling on the ground was a major differentiator for attitude and underlying reasons, only being trumped by the fear of getting stung. The visualization of our findings in a cluster heat map provided further insights into shared statement categories by species. Our analysis establishes that fear and disgust are separate emotions with regard to insects and other invertebrates. Based on our findings, we believe that prejudice-based fear and culturally evolved revulsion can be overcome. We suggest promoting environmental education programs, especially if they allow for personal experience, provide information in emotion-activating formats, and include content that resolves existing misinformation and myths.   [More]  Descriptors: Student Attitudes, Questionnaires, Foreign Countries, Entomology

DiConsiglio, John (2012). A Beautiful Friendship, CURRENTS. In this article, the author talks about the significance of the collaboration between alumni relations and student affairs offices in overcoming misinformation and silos. Each has something the other wants. For the alumni office, student affairs offers a treasure trove of resources. They have databases with contact information, affinity-based records, and a history of effectively targeted programming. To student affairs, the alumni team presents a variety of opportunities, from mentors and event speakers to career counseling and job connections. Partnerships between alumni relations and student affairs start at the top, with senior leadership setting a collaboration mandate and directing the institution's culture. The author presents examples of alumni relations-student affairs partnerships.   [More]  Descriptors: College Administration, Cooperation, Alumni, Career Counseling

Packard, Becky Wai-Ling; Jeffers, Kimberly C. (2013). Advising and Progress in the Community College STEM Transfer Pathway, NACADA Journal. Community college students enrolled in science and technology fields face many challenges as they pursue transfer pathways to earn a 4-year degree. Despite clear links to student persistence, advising interactions that facilitate or inhibit transfer progress are not clearly understood. In this study, 82 community college students pursuing science and technology transfer-based programs of study participated in phenomenological interviews. Students described how professors, major advisors, and transfer office staff supported their progress by providing accurate information or referring them to helpful resources; students learned answers to unasked questions and stayed on track to transfer. Interactions impeded progress when initial advisors, in particular, provided misinformation, leading to frustration and costly delays. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.   [More]  Descriptors: Community Colleges, STEM Education, Academic Advising, College Students

Doss, Manoj K.; Bluestone, Maximilian R.; Gallo, David A. (2016). Two Mechanisms of Constructive Recollection: Perceptual Recombination and Conceptual Fluency, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. Recollection is constructive and prone to distortion, but the mechanisms through which recollections can become embellished with rich yet illusory details are still debated. According to the conceptual fluency hypothesis, abstract semantic or conceptual activation increases the familiarity of a nonstudied event, causing one to falsely attribute imagined features to actual perception. In contrast, according to the perceptual recombination hypothesis, details from actually perceived events are partially recollected and become erroneously bound to a nonstudied event, again causing a detailed yet false recollection. Here, we report the first experiments aimed at disentangling these 2 mechanisms. Participants imagined pictures of common objects, and then they saw an actual picture of some of the imagined objects. We next presented misinformation associated with these studied items, designed to increase conceptual fluency (i.e., semantically related words) or perceptual recombination (i.e., perceptually similar picture fragments). Finally, we tested recollection for the originally seen pictures using verbal labels as retrieval cues. Consistent with conceptual fluency, processing-related words increased false recollection of pictures that were never seen, and consistent with perceptual recombination, processing picture fragments further increased false recollection. We also found that conceptual fluency was more short-lived than perceptual recombination, further dissociating these 2 mechanisms. These experiments provide strong evidence that conceptual fluency and perceptual recombination independently contribute to the constructive aspects of recollection.   [More]  Descriptors: Recall (Psychology), Pictorial Stimuli, Misconceptions, Semantics

Sensoy, Ãñzlem; Ali-Khan, Carolyne (2016). Unpaving the Road to Hell: Disrupting Good Intentions and Bad Science about Islam and the Middle East, Educational Studies: Journal of the American Educational Studies Association. Teachers across all subject areas engage students, in some way, in the study of "otherness"–other societies, other cultures, other practices. Often teachers and teacher educators attend to teaching about others with strong desires toward social justice as they seek to make a difference and do good. However, with insufficient tools to interrogate their practices and beliefs to think critically what good actually entails, they can unwittingly pave the road to hell. When good intentions are additionally coupled with the bad science of incomplete knowledge, misinformation, and weak arguments, the road can get treacherous. In this article, we examine the road to hell as it winds through teaching about a specific "other," Muslims. We examine how good intentions and bad science about Muslims and Islam have worked to cement stereotypes, promote intolerance, shut down learning, and in doing so thwart education for social justice. Peering closely, we examine commonly voiced student conceptions of Muslims/Islam/The East and highlight the good intentions and bad science behind many of the popular discourses that students advance. We then offer strategies for building a different path, by problematizing good intentions and repairing bad science.   [More]  Descriptors: Islam, Islamic Culture, Geographic Location, Muslims

Bixler, Andrea (2007). Teaching Evolution with the Aid of Science Fiction, American Biology Teacher. Students obtain much misinformation from TV and movies. Teachers can use the analysis of science fiction to correct misconceptions about biology and spur students' interests in the subject. Suggestions for discussions and assignments based on literary-quality science fiction works are included.   [More]  Descriptors: Misconceptions, Interests, Evolution, Science Fiction

Stark, Craig E. L.; Okado, Yoko; Loftus, Elizabeth F. (2010). Imaging the Reconstruction of True and False Memories Using Sensory Reactivation and the Misinformation Paradigms, Learning & Memory. Many current theories of false memories propose that, when we retrieve a memory, we are not reactivating a veridical, fixed representation of a past event, but are rather reactivating incomplete fragments that may be accurate or distorted and may have arisen from other events. By presenting the two phases of the misinformation paradigm in different modalities, we could observe sensory reactivation of the auditory and visual cortex during the retrieval phase. Overall, true and false memories showed similar brain activation, but could be distinguished by this reactivation. This was true only in the early regions of the sensory cortex.   [More]  Descriptors: Brain Hemisphere Functions, Memory, Auditory Perception, Visual Perception

Principe, Gabrielle F.; Schindewolf, Erica (2012). Natural Conversations as a Source of False Memories in Children: Implications for the Testimony of Young Witnesses, Developmental Review. Research on factors that can affect the accuracy of children's autobiographical remembering has important implications for understanding the abilities of young witnesses to provide legal testimony. In this article, we review our own recent research on one factor that has much potential to induce errors in children's event recall, namely natural memory sharing conversations with peers and parents. Our studies provide compelling evidence that not only can the content of conversations about the past intrude into later memory but that such exchanges can prompt the generation of entirely false narratives that are more detailed than true accounts of experienced events. Further, our work show that deeper and more creative participation in memory sharing dialogues can boost the damaging effects of conversationally conveyed misinformation. Implications of this collection of findings for children's testimony are discussed.   [More]  Descriptors: Children, Memory, Accuracy, Recall (Psychology)

Smith, David Geoffrey (2012). The Deep Politics of War and the Curriculum of Disillusion, Policy Futures in Education. This article examines the historic uses of the phenomenon recently defined as "Deep Politics" to shed light on the underlying realities of the contemporary War on Terror. Deep Politics describes the multiple uses of misinformation to marshal public sentiment in directions desired by dominant political and economic forces. Facing the reality of Deep Politics today can be a disillusioning experience for those wedded to the rhetorical tropes of democracy, human rights and the rule of law. However, as the article attempts to illustrate, drawing on indigenous knowledge practice, disillusionment can be the first step in a longer process of cultural healing, away from naive realism to an appreciation of the sacredness, or wholeness, of life, and the courage to face and deal with the broader truth of things.   [More]  Descriptors: Indigenous Knowledge, Deception, Credibility, Political Attitudes

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