Bibliography: Misinformation (page 05 of 30)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized for the Alternative Facts website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Marianne B. Barnes, Daniel Bedford, Brad M. Maguth, Eugenia Eng, Kenneth S. Trump, Lorraine Carter, Josh Chave, Fouad Abd-El-Khalick, Rebecca Cashman, and John Cook.

Trump, Kenneth S. (2012). The Post-Crisis Crisis: Managing Parent and Media Communications, School Administrator. Student and parent use of cell phones, text messaging and social networking through Facebook and Twitter can quickly become the enemies of a superintendent and principal. Rumors and misinformation about threats and other student safety issues that used to take hours and days to spread now goes viral in seconds. This rapid dissemination of information and misinformation expedites the flocking of parents to the school in the midst of a crisis. The media calls begin to accumulate, and reporters and camera crews may arrive at the scene as fast as district officials and police investigators. School administrators must move quickly to manage not only the emergency itself but also the parents and press that arrive at the school's doorstep, often while the incident is still unfolding. School leaders need to go beyond establishing prohibitions or limitations on the use of these communications tools and networks. Set rules and communicate them clearly to students, parents and staff. But instead of running away from the increasing use of digital communication, school leaders ought to embrace it and turn the technology into an asset for better managing safety and crisis messages. Tap into parent use of cell phones and texting by using mass parent notification systems with voice and text-messaging capabilities to share information quickly in a crisis. Many parents are using smartphones to communicate with their kids and to network with other parents. Be prepared to deliver urgent messages to them by the methods they prefer. Turn Twitter, Facebook and other social networks from high-risk enemies to tools to use in the district day by day and especially in a crisis. School leaders must work to change decades of a culture in K-12 education where parent and media communications on school safety, security and emergency preparedness have been reactive, not pro-active. Today's rapidly evolving world of digital communications, multimedia journalism and information-hungry members of the school community require a new approach to communication.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Networks, Handheld Devices, Information Dissemination, Parents

Chan, Jason C. K.; LaPaglia, Jessica A. (2011). The Dark Side of Testing Memory: Repeated Retrieval Can Enhance Eyewitness Suggestibility, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied. Eyewitnesses typically recount their experiences many times before trial. Such repeated retrieval can enhance memory retention of the witnessed event. However, recent studies (e.g., Chan, Thomas, & Bulevich, 2009) have found that initial retrieval can exacerbate eyewitness suggestibility to later misleading information–a finding termed retrieval-enhanced suggestibility (RES). Here we examined the influence of multiple retrieval attempts on eyewitness suggestibility to subsequent misinformation. In four experiments, we systematically varied the number of initial tests taken (between zero and six), the delay between initial testing and misinformation exposure ([asymptotically equivalent to]30 min or 1 week), and whether initial testing was manipulated between- or within-subjects. University undergraduate students were used as participants. Overall, we found that eyewitness suggestibility increased as the number of initial tests increased, but this RES effect was qualified by the delay and by whether initial testing occurred in a within- or between-subjects manner. Specifically, the within-subjects RES effect was smaller than the between-subjects RES effect, possibly because of the influence of retrieval-induced forgetting/facilitation (Chan, 2009) when initial testing was manipulated within subjects. Moreover, consistent with the testing effect literature (Roediger & Karpicke, 2006), the benefits of repeated testing on later memory were stronger after a 1-week delay than after a 30-min delay, thus reducing the negative impact of RES in long-term situations. These findings suggest that conditions that are likely to occur in criminal investigations can either increase (repeated testing) or reduce (delay) the influence of RES, thus further demonstrating the complex relationship between eyewitness memory and repeated retrieval.   [More]  Descriptors: Undergraduate Students, Investigations, Testing, Recall (Psychology)

Myers, John Y.; Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad (2016). "A Ton of Faith in Science!" Nature and Role of Assumptions in, and Ideas about, Science and Epistemology Generated upon Watching a Sci-Fi Film, Journal of Research in Science Teaching. This study (i) explicates the sorts of ideas about science and the nature of knowing that were generated among participant graduate students who viewed the sci-fi film, "Contact," and (ii) examines the interactions between these ideas and ontic stances with which participants approached viewing the film. Eleven doctoral students of various disciplinary backgrounds viewed "Contact," wrote a film review in response to a prompt, and were interviewed to clarify and further explore ideas mentioned in their review. Participants' most prevalent ideas generated upon viewing "Contact" were that scientific assumptions, and trust in scientific knowledge and authority, are "faith-based"; theory-choice in science can be faith-based; science requires empirical evidence; and females in science are severely misrepresented. Further, more participants experienced such ideas as realistic rather than unrealistic representations of science, and some identified with particular scenes from the film. These results do not empirically support pedagogical techniques recommended by prior literature suggesting that science teachers who expose students to sci-fi film in the classroom should focus specifically on what teachers deem scientifically inaccurate or misinformation. This approach is rather limited and fails to consider ideas generated by students upon viewing films, which teachers might not expect (e.g., relating science with faith). Rather, we recommend an open-ended, reflective pedagogical approach to using sci-fi film where teachers, first, openly engage students with writing about and discussing thoughts they generate upon watching a given film, and then move to address student ideas. Our findings also indicate a critical need to expand the current consensus model for NOS in K-12 science education–in particular, including and explicating the nature and role of assumptions in science as an additional core dimension of currently accepted NOS models. Toward this end, we delineate the nature and role of scientific assumptions by reference to the epistemological theory of coherentism.   [More]  Descriptors: Science Fiction, Films, Science Instruction, Epistemology

Zirkel, Perry A.; Barnes, Marianne B. (2011). Negligence Liability of K-12 Chemistry Teachers: The Need for Legal Balance and Responsible Action, Journal of Chemical Education. The science education community promotes inquiry teaching and learning enhanced by the school laboratory experience, and this emphasis is reflected in state and national science education standards. However, science teachers, especially those in chemistry settings, have been known to avoid laboratory activities because of fear of legal liability that may occur in the event of a laboratory-related mishap. Incorrect or incomplete information relayed by sources within and outside the school intensifies teacher misapprehension. This article summarizes misinformation found in the literature and presents the contrasting, current, officially published pertinent case law. The discussion shows that the number of published court decisions specific to alleged district or teacher liability for negligence in the context of science teaching in public schools and their judicial outcomes are far different from the common conception. Implications and suggestions for science educators' action with respect to laboratory safety instruction are included.   [More]  Descriptors: Negligence, Laboratory Safety, Chemistry, Court Litigation

Killam, Laura Anne; Carter, Lorraine; Graham, Rob (2013). Facebook and Issues of Professionalism in Undergraduate Nursing Education: Risky Business or Risk Worth Taking?, Journal of Distance Education. The purpose of this exploratory investigation was to share the strengths, challenges, and tensions of using Facebook in an undergraduate nursing program. The observations presented have emerged from information shared by study participants and the professional insights of the three researcher-authors who represent perspectives from nursing, education, and technology-enabled teaching and learning. The theoretical framework used to guide the study was Drexler's (2010) Networked Student as well as ideas based on work by Siemens (2010) and Downes (2012). Findings suggest that use of Facebook in professional programs such as nursing provides an opportunity for the modeling of professional behaviour by students and teachers. However, concerns about privacy, misinformation, and a lack of professionalism are also present in the discussions of Facebook in professional programs. As a learning strategy, Facebook is recommended when pedagogical benefits are anticipated and clear and transparent guidelines regarding its use have been established by the user group. It is respectfully acknowledged that there are many social media options available to students and teachers to support learning in a professional program. Facebook, however, was the focus of this study given its unique prevalence among university students at the present time. The paper is a first step in looking at how Facebook and other social media experiences may play a role in supporting learning in professional programs offered by universities.   [More]  Descriptors: Nursing Education, Social Networks, Web 2.0 Technologies, Undergraduate Students

A+ Education Partnership (2014). Academic Standards in Alabama. Education policymakers and educators in Alabama are committed to improving the state's public education system to ensure that students gain the knowledge and skills they need to graduate from high school ready for real life. The state is on the path to implementing higher academic standards–the College and Career Ready Standards–which lay a foundation to ensure that classroom instruction across Alabama provides students with real world skills and knowledge in reading, math, and writing. There has been a large amount of conflicting information distributed about Alabama's College and Career Ready Standards based on the Common Core State Standards. This brief accomplishes the following: (1) answers numerous questions and corrects misinformation that is being spread about Alabama's College and Career Ready Standards and the Common Core State Standards; (2) clarifies the role of academic standards in Alabama and the recent adoption of the College and Career Ready Standards; (3) includes information on the committees of educators and experts that reviewed the standards with great care prior to implementation, the difference between standards and curriculum, and how the standards build a more foundational path to success with ACT assessments and college/career preparedness.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Standards, State Standards, College Readiness, Career Readiness

Cashman, Rebecca; Eng, Eugenia; Siman, Florence; Rhodes, Scott D. (2011). Exploring the Sexual Health Priorities and Needs of Immigrant Latinas in the Southeastern United States: A Community-Based Participatory Research Approach, AIDS Education and Prevention. Latinas living in the United States are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections. However, few effective interventions currently exist that are designed to meet the priorities and needs of recently arrived and less acculturated immigrant Latinas who are settling in the southeastern United States. To identify sexual health priorities, gaps in information and skills, and key intervention characteristics to improve sexual health among immigrant Latinas, a community-based participatory research partnership conducted four focus groups with Latinas, in central North Carolina. Findings revealed a lack of knowledge about sexual health, shame and embarrassment related to clinical exams and conversations about sex, multilevel barriers to sexual health, and disease transmission misinformation. Findings also suggested that interventions should include information about a broad range of sexual and reproductive health topics and skill building. Such interventions could serve to assist in diminishing health disparities experienced among this vulnerable population.   [More]  Descriptors: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), Participatory Research, Sex Education, Focus Groups

Elischberger, Holger B. (2005). The Effects of Prior Knowledge on Children's Memory and Suggestibility, Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. In this study, 5- and 6-year-olds were read a story and asked to recall its details. Two independent factors-prestory knowledge and poststory suggestions-were crossed to examine the effects on children's story recall. The results indicated that prestory social knowledge about the story protagonist as well as academic knowledge relating to the content of the story influenced the accuracy of children's recall immediately after the story presentation. Following the suggestive interview, children reported interviewer-provided social and academic misinformation to a greater extent when the misinformation was consistent with their prior knowledge. In contrast, children were more likely to refute misinformation that contradicted their academic knowledge. These findings are discussed in terms of the mechanisms underlying the knowledge-memory and knowledge-suggestibility linkages.   [More]  Descriptors: Prior Learning, Recall (Psychology), Knowledge Level, Young Children

Johnson, Daniel Morley (2011). From the Tomahawk Chop to the Road Block: Discourses of Savagism in Whitestream Media, American Indian Quarterly. Since early colonial times, Indigenous peoples on Anowarakowa Kawennote–"Great Turtle Island" in Kanienkeha (the Mohawk language)–have been represented via the imaginations of the invading European settler-colonists. Not surprisingly, such typically distorted representations have long been a part of the popular press and news media in the United States and Canada. Typically, the news media have tended to portray Natives as a conquered people, a poor minority in a rich country, militant activists, remnants of an ancient North American past, and so on. Media outlets continue to perpetuate stereotypes and inaccurate generalizations about Indigenous peoples, and aside from a few independent and Indigenous-owned media sources, the misinformation continues mostly unchallenged and unabated. This essay explores the use, perpetuation, and legitimization of anti-Indigenous rhetoric (discourses of Savagism) in media with regard to two major flashpoints of misrepresentation: (1) racist sports imagery; and (2) anticolonial Indigenous protest.   [More]  Descriptors: Indigenous Populations, Foreign Countries, Mass Media Use, North Americans

Anderson, Kristin (2011). Immigration: Coming to America, School Library Journal. To say that immigration is currently a controversial issue would be an understatement. The media is rife with misinformation and does a very poor job of making the critical distinction between legal and illegal immigration. Because of this, it is vitally important that libraries provide students with clear and unbiased material on the topic. In addition, fiction written from a broad range of perspectives is critical to students' understanding of immigration. While this bibliography focuses on current immigration, some titles on immigration history have been included where appropriate or in cases where there are parallels between the historical experience and contemporary issues. Their inclusion serves to illustrate that the latest questions about immigration are not in any way new, even though they are often presented as such.   [More]  Descriptors: Immigration, Libraries, Access to Information, Fiction

Maguth, Brad M.; Taylor, Nathan (2014). Bringing LGBTQ Topics into the Social Studies Classroom, Social Studies. Social studies education plays an important role in preparing students for a diverse, pluralistic democratic citizenry (NCSS 2010). While the field has made some gains in addressing the needs of various marginalized communities within the curriculum, there has been very little progress in incorporating LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer) people and their experiences in the social studies (Jennings 2006). As such, this article gives a rationale for the inclusion of LGBTQ figures and their allies within the social studies and provides an overview of ways in which teachers can successfully incorporate LGBTQ topics into the social studies. The authors present one such project, entitled "The Difference Maker Project", which aims to get students to research, listen, and advocate in the exploration of a constitutional LGBTQ issue. In closing, the authors contend that by adding LGBTQ topics into the curriculum teachers can begin to eradicate the erasure and misinformation surrounding a group of people and their history within the social studies. This not only gives a more truthful account of history but also provides a more hospitable educational environment for LGBTQ students.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Studies, Controversial Issues (Course Content), Homosexuality, Advocacy

Ridge, Katie; Guerin, Suzanne (2011). Irish Clinicians' Views of Interventions for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders, Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice. The current study investigated clinicians' perspectives on the effectiveness of interventions designed to support the development of children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs). Researchers developed a semi-structured interview which was administered to 11 clinicians involved in the assessment and treatment of ASDs (5 = clinical psychologists, 6 = psychiatrists). Content analysis of qualitative data revealed that Irish clinicians typically endorse an eclectic approach to treatment, combining facets of different methods of interventions in a complementary fashion. The process that clinicians engaged in when evaluating modes of treatment was assessed. Significant variation was observed in how clinicians merge clinical experience with empirical evidence. Challenges which clinicians face in assessing individuals on the autistic spectrum, such as the proliferation of misinformation on interventions, as well as the role of parents in treatment, were also discussed within the interviews. The implications of the findings for understanding the process of selecting interventions for children with ASDs are discussed.   [More]  Descriptors: Evidence, Autism, Psychologists, Interviews

Sivell, John (2013). Factors Underlying Students' Appropriate or Inappropriate Use of Scholarly Sources in Academic Writing, and Instructors' Responses, Iranian Journal of Language Teaching Research. At first glance it is surprising that–in remarkable contrast to grammatical or lexical failings which, while certainly not viewed as insignificant, are rarely greeted with outright anger or hostility–inappropriate documentation of scholarly sources so frequently provokes very harsh penalties. Rather than the constructively pedagogical approach that one would expect with regard to other defects in writing, why do we so often witness a rush to negative evaluation of what may, after all, be evidence of nothing more culpable than misinformation, confusion, or oversight? Much has of course been written about possible remedies for ineffective use of scholarly sources and, on the other hand, about available monitoring and punishment for deliberate plagiarism; so, in a sense, the alternatives appear quite simple. However, decisions about when to adopt a more pedagogical or a more disciplinary viewpoint are complicated by difficult and potentially emotional factors that can disrupt calm, confident and well-reasoned judgment. Thus, this paper will focus not on pedagogical or disciplinary strategies, whichever may be considered suitable in a given case, but on a framework for thorough reflection earlier in the thinking process. It will explore multiple perspectives on possible origins for the innocent if maladroit mishandling of scholarly sources, with a view to highlighting a number of informative but potentially neglected reference points–a cognitive psychological perspective on human error and error management, plausible ambiguities in determining what actually constitutes plagiarism, and communication challenges–that may enter into the instructor's final determination.   [More]  Descriptors: Information Sources, Academic Discourse, Citations (References), Documentation

Chave, Josh (2014). A Case Study of Gender Neutral Policies in University Housing, ProQuest LLC. Gender neutral housing is an innovative new policy being developed in colleges around the country. One reason to create these policies is an attempt to meet the unique needs and challenges of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender students. As the number of gender neutral housing policies in the United States continues to rise, research has been slow to meet the growing demand for empirical data on gender neutral housing. The dissertation presented a case study of one institution. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with administrators, gender neutral housing committee members, residence life staff, and students. This dissertation examined the implementation, execution, and impact of gender neutral housing on the campus. The purpose was to provide a transferrable case study for other institutions, as well as to provide the university with information about how gender neutral housing functions on the campus. This dissertation found that implementation began as a grass roots proposal from LGBT advocates in the student population. The university responded by creating a gender neutral housing committee that examined gender neutral housing policies on other campuses, sought feedback from the community, and eventually made recommendations for the creation of gender neutral housing. The strength of the policy is rooted in its openness to the entire community. Its weaknesses stem from misinformation and confusion about the policy, and a lack of practical access for first-year students. This dissertation also found that while the campus climate was not heavily impacted by gender neutral housing, individual students experienced a positive change as a result of participation. The results indicated that while the policy began as an LGBT specific program, the culture of the university and the gender neutral housing committee led to gender neutral housing becoming open to all students. Similarly, while the campus climate has not changed dramatically as a result of gender neutral housing, it has opened discussion on issues of gender and sexuality. It is recommended that the university conduct an awareness campaign to address misinformation about the policy, as well as consider alternative means for allowing first-year students to participate in gender neutral housing. Further, institutions seeking to implement gender neutral housing can consider this case as a model of practice. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.%5D   [More]  Descriptors: College Housing, School Policy, Gender Issues, Case Studies

Bedford, Daniel; Cook, John (2013). Agnotology, Scientific Consensus, and the Teaching and Learning of Climate Change: A Response to Legates, Soon and Briggs, Science & Education. Agnotology is a term that has been used to describe the study of ignorance and its cultural production (Proctor in "Agnotology: the making and unmaking of ignorance." Stanford University Press, Stanford, 2008). For issues that are contentious in the societal realm, though largely not in the scientific realm, such as human evolution or the broad basics of human-induced climate change, it has been suggested that explicit study of relevant misinformation might be a useful teaching approach (Bedford in "J Geogr" 109(4):159-165, 2010). Recently, Legates et al. ("Sci Educ." doi:10.1007/s11191-013-9588-3, 2013) published an aggressive critique of Bedford's ("J Geogr" 109(4):159-165, 2010) proposals. However, the critique is based on a comprehensive misinterpretation of Bedford's ("J Geogr" 109(4):159-165, 2010) paper. Consequently, Legates et al. ("Sci Educ." doi:10.1007/s11191-013-9588-3, 2013) address arguments not actually made by Bedford (J Geogr 109(4):159-165, 2010). This article is a response to Legates et al. ("Sci Educ." doi:10.1007/s11191-013-9588-3, 2013), and demonstrates their errors of interpretation of Bedford ("J Geogr" 109(4):159-165, 2010) in several key areas: the scientific consensus on climate change; misinformation and the public perception of the scientific consensus on climate change; and agnotology as a teaching tool. We conclude by arguing that, although no single peer-reviewed publication on climate change, or any other scientific issue, should be accepted without due scrutiny, the existence of a scientific consensus–especially one as overwhelming as exists for human-induced climate change–raises the level of confidence that the overall findings of that consensus are correct.   [More]  Descriptors: Climate, Science Instruction, Misconceptions, Science and Society

Share on FacebookPin on PinterestShare on Google+Tweet about this on TwitterEmail this to someone

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *