Bibliography: Misinformation (page 06 of 30)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized for the Alternative Facts website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Dana Williams, Ashley A. McClung, Wanda K. Mohr, Joseph Kahne, Hermine Warren, Sharon Buckley, Thomas A. Busey, Rachel Calam, Andrew Ujifusa, and Ronald O'Halloran.

Williams, Dana (2008). Peeling Back the Labels, Teaching Tolerance. In this article, the author, who has a child diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), shares her concerns about the stereotypes that too often surround the disorder. She suggests that because most biases and stereotypes are born of ignorance and misinformation, it is important that parents and educators do their part to educate themselves–and their children–about differences such as mental health conditions and the treatments that exist for them. She hopes that through increased awareness and honest discussion, others will learn to see all children–including her own–not as "labels" but as unique individuals with unlimited potential.   [More]  Descriptors: Labeling (of Persons), Stereotypes, Social Bias, Social Attitudes

Raff, Lionel M. (2014). Spontaneity and Equilibrium III: A History of Misinformation, Journal of Chemical Education. Necessary and sufficient criteria for reaction spontaneity in a given direction and for spontaneity of finite transformations in single-reaction, closed systems are developed. The criteria are general in that they hold for reactions conducted under either conditions of constant T and p or constant T and V. These results are illustrated using a simple, liquid-to-vapor phase transition as an example. Following this development, the paper investigates the source of the mathematical and logical errors contained in textbooks ca. 1950 to the present that led to the fallacious statements still present in most introductory chemistry textbooks and some more advanced texts that the conditions for spontaneity are ?G < 0 at constant T and p and ?A < 0 at constant T and V, whereas the corresponding conditions for equilibrium are ?G = 0 or ?A = 0. This investigation shows the principal errors to be (i) incorrect evaluation of definite integrals; (ii) failure to determine whether the results of such integrations produce criteria for spontaneity and equilibrium that are necessary conditions, sufficient conditions, both, or neither; and (iii) incorrect logical arguments related to equilibrium. The question of why such errors have been perpetuated in textbooks for over 50 years is also addressed. Some recommendations for revision of textbooks, for more frequent use of the concept of chemical force in discussing spontaneity and equilibrium, and for revision of the notation and nomenclature related to spontaneity and equilibrium are made. [See additional series articles: Spontaneity and Equilibrium, Part I at EJ1031144, and Part 11 at EJ1032433.]   [More]  Descriptors: Science Education History, Misconceptions, Textbook Evaluation, Textbook Standards

Muhammad, Crystal Gafford (2008). African American Students and College Choice: A Consideration of the Role of School Counselors, NASSP Bulletin. Misinformation in the African American community regarding college costs, access, and the benefits of a college education abound. Counseling from a trustworthy, supportive school counselor can make a difference in stemming African American talent loss, especially among young Black men. Using the 1988 National Educational Longitudinal Survey, the author finds that African American students' understanding of their counselors' expectations for their future education positively influences college predisposition at a magnitude comparable to fatherly support. Implications for principals and school counselor assignments are addressed.   [More]  Descriptors: African American Students, College Choice, School Counselors, Counseling Techniques

Berry, Steve (2012). Turf Wars: Which Side Are You on?, School Business Affairs. A school business manager who has been in the market for a new athletic field in the last 10 years has no doubt has been exposed to the front lines of an intense battle for market share between producers of natural grass and manufacturers of artificial turf. Each camp is well represented by powerful industry organizations across the country. As a result, the marketplace is flooded with information (and misinformation) about natural grass and artificial turf. The decision to go natural or artificial is further complicated by the diversity of public opinion on the subject. Sports purists swear by the authenticity of natural grass, and owners and operators praise the benefits and flexibility of artificial turf. More recently, community groups such as youth sports organizations, frustrated by limited access to school and community fields, are calling for more artificial turf fields. So which playing surface really provides the best value? The answer often depends on a combination of many different factors. These include: (1) Construction and start-up costs; (2) Maintenance and operations costs; (3) Replacement costs; (4) Hours of use; (5) Water issues; (6) Safety issues; and (7) Weather and environmental factors. To make the best value selection for one's organization, consider a thorough review of the benefits and concerns for each product type with respect to the district's unique situation.   [More]  Descriptors: Costs, Performance Factors, Cost Effectiveness, Physical Education Facilities

Motz, Benjamin A.; James, Karin H.; Busey, Thomas A. (2012). The Lateralizer: A Tool for Students to Explore the Divided Brain, Advances in Physiology Education. Despite a profusion of popular misinformation about the left brain and right brain, there are functional differences between the left and right cerebral hemispheres in humans. Evidence from split-brain patients, individuals with unilateral brain damage, and neuroimaging studies suggest that each hemisphere may be specialized for certain cognitive processes. One way to easily explore these hemispheric asymmetries is with the divided visual field technique, where visual stimuli are presented on either the left or right side of the visual field and task performance is compared between these two conditions; any behavioral differences between the left and right visual fields may be interpreted as evidence for functional asymmetries between the left and right cerebral hemispheres. We developed a simple software package that implements the divided visual field technique, called the Lateralizer, and introduced this experimental approach as a problem-based learning module in a lower-division research methods course. Second-year undergraduate students used the Lateralizer to experimentally challenge and explore theories of the differences between the left and right cerebral hemispheres. Measured learning outcomes after active exploration with the Lateralizer, including new knowledge of brain anatomy and connectivity, were on par with those observed in an upper-division lecture course. Moreover, the project added to the students' research skill sets and seemed to foster an appreciation of the link between brain anatomy and function.   [More]  Descriptors: Teaching Methods, Neurology, Brain, Visual Stimuli

Ujifusa, Andrew (2013). Standards Supporters Firing Back, Education Week. Supporters of the Common Core State Standards are moving to confront increasingly high-profile opposition to the standards at the state and national levels by rallying the private sector and initiating coordinated public relations and advertising campaigns as schools continue implementation. In states such as Michigan and Tennessee, where common-core opponents feel momentum is with them, state education officials, the business community, and allied advocacy groups are ramping up efforts to define and buttress support for the standards–and to counter what they say is misinformation. Supporters assert that the common core remains on track in the bulk of the states that have adopted it, all but four at last count. The pressure is on, however, for common-core champions to make sure their message gets through. U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan told the U.S. Chamber of Commerce in Washington last month that the private sector had to snap out of what he portrayed as its lethargy and to prevent states from reverting to inferior standards, as he contended states did a decade ago under the No Child Left Behind Act.   [More]  Descriptors: State Standards, Academic Standards, Public Relations, Advertising

Kahne, Joseph; Bowyer, Benjamin (2017). Educating for Democracy in a Partisan Age: Confronting the Challenges of Motivated Reasoning and Misinformation, American Educational Research Journal. This article investigates youth judgments of the accuracy of truth claims tied to controversial public issues. In an experiment embedded within a nationally representative survey of youth ages 15 to 27 (N = 2,101), youth were asked to judge the accuracy of one of several simulated online posts. Consistent with research on motivated reasoning, youth assessments depended on (a) the alignment of the claim with one's prior policy position and to a lesser extent on (b) whether the post included an inaccurate statement. To consider ways educators might improve judgments of accuracy, we also investigated the influence of political knowledge and exposure to media literacy education. We found that political knowledge did not improve judgments of accuracy but that media literacy education did.   [More]  Descriptors: Democracy, Surveys, Adolescents, Young Adults

McClung, Ashley A.; Perfect, Michelle M. (2012). Sexual Health Education: Social and Scientific Perspectives and How School Psychologists Can Be Involved, Communique. The National Association of School Psychologists' (NASP) official stand on sexual education is that it should be taught in schools to help young people make healthy decisions regarding sex throughout their lives. Accordingly, school psychologists have a responsibility to use their expertise to facilitate these programs. Without a comprehensive sexual education program facilitated by a professional who is educated in these issues, young adults will often base their decisions on misinformation from peers and unvetted Internet sources. In this article, the authors inform readers about some of the issues associated with implementing and maintaining sexual health education programs in the schools. They briefly describe the problems raised by the popular press, particularly in light of the ongoing political debate. Furthermore, they discuss the variability in state requirements regarding school-based sexual health education. Then, they provide an overview of the research related to the effectiveness of various programs. As part of this coverage, they present two reviews of reviews (umbrella reviews) that critically evaluated different programs. Finally, this article provides tips on how to create and implement an effective evidence-based curriculum, how to involve parents and the community, and most importantly, why school psychologists should be at the forefront of creating and implementing these programs.   [More]  Descriptors: Expertise, Evidence, Health Education, Sex Education

Holliday, Robyn E.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Hayes, Brett K. (2002). Memory Processes Underlying Misinformation Effects in Child Witnesses, Developmental Review. Reviews empirical findings that misinformation effects in children are the product of automatic or unconscious and intentional or conscious processes. Outlines findings that show developmental change in cognitive processes underlying acceptance of misinformation in the absence of overall changes with age in the probability of reporting a suggestion. Descriptors: Age Differences, Children, Memory, Models

Waks, Leonard J. (2014). Literary Art in the Formation of the Great Community: John Dewey's Theory of Public Ideas in "The Public and Its Problems", Education and Culture. In his books "Public Opinion" and "The Phantom Public," Walter Lippmann argued that policy leaders should deny the public a significant role in policymaking. Public opinion, he argued, would inevitably be ill-informed, self-interested and readily manipulated. In "The Public and its Problems," Dewey countered Lippmann by arguing that the problem of the public was neither self-interest nor misinformation, but lack of community. He proposed a theory of public ideas – new public social science and a new journalism that gave social investigations the "potency of art" as a means for community formation. Dewey added nothing in "The Public and its Problems" to explain just how literary art could weld individuals into a community. In this paper I draw on the Dewey corpus to flesh out that crucial phase of his argument. The "double merger" account I offer also illuminates hidden connections between the "Great Community" (chapter 5) and the necessity of local exchanges in "The Problem of Method" (chapter 6) of "The Public and its Problems." Dewey's account is that (1) works of social inquiry presented with the "potency of art" (e.g., works of investigative creative non-fiction) provide broad audiences with immersive common experiences, and (2) local exchanges stemming from these immersive experiences can lead to a blurring of personal, egocentric identities in a common citizen identity that supports effective common action.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Theories, Social Sciences, Community, Social Theories

Merryfield, Merry M. (2012). Four Strategies for Teaching Open-Mindedness, Social Studies and the Young Learner. An open mind–the willingness to consider experiences, beliefs, values, perspectives, etc. that differ from one's own–allows the learner to explore how diverse people across the world think and act. Open-mindedness creates opportunities to rethink assumptions, identify misinformation, and consider alternative ways to make decisions. Open-mindedness is critical in teaching students to understand how contextual factors (economic, historical, religious, geographic, political, and technological) shape the way people in their own neighborhood, or across the world, think and live. In this article, the author shares four strategies for increasing open-mindedness that she has learned from teachers identified as exemplary global educators. These are methods that work best if used regularly in grades PreK-8, and they can be scaffolded to meet the developmental needs and backgrounds of specific students. These four strategies are the following: (1) Make cross-cultural interaction ordinary; (2) Challenge stereotyping, prejudgment, and overgeneralization; (3) Demonstrate ways to learn from ordinary people; and (4) Teach the habit of seeking out multiple perspectives.   [More]  Descriptors: Classroom Techniques, Consciousness Raising, Social Justice, Stereotypes

Mohr, Wanda K.; LeBel, Janice; O'Halloran, Ronald; Preustch, Christa (2010). Tied up and Isolated in the Schoolhouse, Journal of School Nursing. In 1999, the United States General Accountability Office (USGAO) investigated restraints and seclusion use in mental health settings and found patterns of misuse and abuse. A decade later, it found the same misuse and abuse in schools. Restraints and seclusion are traumatizing and dangerous procedures that have caused injury and death. In the past decade, restraints and seclusion have gone from being considered an essential part of the psychiatric mental health toolkit to being viewed as a symptom of treatment failure. In most mental health settings, the use of restraints and seclusion has plummeted due to federal regulations, staff education, and concerted effort of psychiatric national and local leadership. The purpose of this article is to provide a background to and an overview of the present imbroglio over restraints and seclusion in public and private schools, articulate their dangers, dispel myths and misinformation about them, and suggest a leadership role for school nurses in reducing the use of these procedures.   [More]  Descriptors: School Nurses, Mental Health, Leadership, Psychiatry

Warren, Hermine (2014). A Proposal Comparing a Clinician-Guided Patient Information Module to Standard Patient Information Evaluating Treatment Expectations of Dermal Fillers, ProQuest LLC. In 2011, nearly 13 million nonsurgical cosmetic procedures were performed, representing a 6% increase from the previous year. Patients often present with unrealistic treatment expectations based on beauty industry standards and misinformation. In addition, due to the lack of competency standardization in this area, providers frequently deliver inconsistent educational information to their patients. King's goal attainment theory and Knowles's adult learning theory of andragogy provided a theoretical infrastructure for examining these issues. The initial goal of the project was to evaluate the clinician-guided module, a 13-slide PowerPoint presentation that was disseminated to key stakeholders for preliminary review. A convenience sample of 10 females, ages 30–64, was recruited. Following exposure to the module, each participant was asked to fill out an evaluation comprised of both closed- and open-ended responses, noting her experience with this type of educational tool. Quantitative data was analyzed using comparison of means, while qualitative data was examined for the emergence of themes. Initial findings suggested that patients and healthcare providers found the clinician-guided module informative and visually appealing and that they would recommend this module to peers and colleagues. Potential social change from this project may surface through increased patient knowledge and empowerment, awareness, safety, and satisfaction. The final project will compare the clinician-guided patient information module to standard patient information evaluating treatment expectations of dermal fillers. The ultimate impact of a clinician-guided information module may improve standardization in this arena, and thus be of particular interest to members of the nonsurgical cosmetic community. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.%5D   [More]  Descriptors: Patients, Statistical Analysis, Information Sources, Qualitative Research

Parker, Andrew; Buckley, Sharon; Dagnall, Neil (2009). Reduced Misinformation Effects Following Saccadic Bilateral Eye Movements, Brain and Cognition. The effects of saccadic bilateral (horizontal) eye movements on memory for a visual event narrative were investigated. In the study phase, participants were exposed to a set of pictures accompanied by a verbal commentary describing the events depicted in the pictures. Next, the participants were asked either misleading or control questions about the depicted event and were then asked to engage in 30 s of bilateral vs. vertical vs. no eye movements. Finally, recognition memory was tested using the remember-know procedure. It was found that bilateral eye movements increased true memory for the event, increased recollection, and decreased the magnitude of the misinformation effect. The findings are discussed in terms of source monitoring, dual-process theories of memory and the potential neural foundations of such effects.   [More]  Descriptors: Eye Movements, Recognition (Psychology), Human Body, Memory

Suter, Sarah; McCracken, Wendy; Calam, Rachel (2012). The Views, Verdict and Recommendations for School and Home Sex and Relationships Education by Young Deaf and Hearing People, Sex Education: Sexuality, Society and Learning. The purpose of this survey study was to explore the views of young deaf and hearing people (16-25 years old) on school and home sex and relationships education (SRE). The study addressed a critical knowledge gap in the research literature on deaf youth's perception of SRE. The small-scale study explored young deaf people's experiences of SRE and the challenges they had faced when learning about sexuality and relationships. Recommendations on how to improve school SRE lessons were also obtained. Data were collected from 81 young people (n = 27 deaf, n = 54 hearing). Overall, deaf participants indicated greater levels of satisfaction with school SRE than hearing respondents. More deaf young people than young hearing people felt that the school had provided them with enough opportunities to learn about sexuality and relationships. The deaf group showed a preference for school SRE lessons to start at a later age than the hearing group. Mothers and friends were the two sources most frequently consulted in both groups. Teachers and school nurses were a third source frequently used by the deaf group. The views of deaf and hearing youth on their own SRE are important for the development, implementation and delivery of the school SRE curriculum. The study's findings can provide educators with valuable insight on the needs of a minority group who are particularly vulnerable to sexual exploitation and sexual misinformation due to their sensory loss and associated factors.   [More]  Descriptors: Sexuality, Sex Education, Minority Groups, Young Adults

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