Bibliography: Misinformation (page 08 of 30)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized for the Alternative Facts website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Ian Cornelius, Jianguo Wei, Lisa K. Fazio, Martha Copp, Linxiu Zhang, Council of the Great City Schools, Hongmei Yi, Patrick C. Friman, Prashant Loyalka, and Chengfang Liu.

Fazio, Lisa K.; Marsh, Elizabeth J. (2008). Older, Not Younger, Children Learn More False Facts from Stories, Cognition. Early school-aged children listened to stories that contained correct and incorrect facts. All ages answered more questions correctly after having heard the correct fact in the story. Only the older children, however, produced story errors on a later general knowledge test. Source errors did not drive the increased suggestibility in older children, as they were better at remembering source than were the younger children. Instead, different processes are involved in learning correct and incorrect facts from fictional sources. All ages benefited from hearing correct answers because they activated a pre-existing semantic network. Older children, however, were better able to form memories of the misinformation and thus showed greater suggestibility on the general knowledge test.   [More]  Descriptors: Children, Learning Processes, Evaluation, Error Correction

Chickering, Arthur W. (2010). Our Purposes: Personal Reflections on Character Development and Social Responsibility in Higher Education, Liberal Education. Recognition of the importance of outcomes related to moral and ethical development, other dimensions of personal development, and civic engagement is a result of decades of educational reform. But have colleges and universities succeeded in helping students achieve these outcomes? In this article, the author shares his personal reflections on character development and social responsibility in higher education. He argues that in the quarter century since the release of "Involvement in Learning: Realizing the Potential of American Higher Education," the final report of the Study Group on the Conditions of Excellence in American Higher Education, colleges and universities have failed in encouraging character development and social responsibility. He believes that colleges and universities are the most important social institutions for sustaining a pluralistic, globally interdependent democracy. Yet, they have so far failed to graduate citizens who have attained the levels of cognitive, moral, intellectual, and ethical development required to address complex national and global problems. He contends that higher-order cognitive skills, which are needed to see through the misinformation and disinformation and to examine complex issues with critical judgment, must be anchored in clear recognition of the fundamental moral implications concerning human dignity and well-being.   [More]  Descriptors: Higher Education, Educational Change, Human Dignity, Moral Values

Reed, Latish C. (2008). An Expansion of a Scholar's Social Justice Perspective: A Meeting at the Crossroads, Journal of School Leadership. Using a life notes methodology (Bell-Scott, 1994; Dillard, 2000, 2006; Simmons, 2007), I use personal narratives to describe my epistemological influences on my approach to educational practice, research, and the preparation of school leaders. Second, I share personal accounts of how my social justice lens expanded to be inclusive of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered individuals. Finally, I draw four important lessons from my personal social justice journey for educators to incorporate within their social justice educational leadership curriculum. These lessons include helping students be reflective practitioners, acknowledging the baggage of misinformation and prejudice that they may bring to a social justice education, being able to connect with students at their points of advocacy, and reminding future leaders of their unquestionable responsibility to support all students regardless of their identities.   [More]  Descriptors: Scholarship, Personal Narratives, Instructional Leadership, Leadership Training

Sewall, Gilbert T. (2008). Islam in the Classroom: What The Textbooks Tell Us, Center for Education Studies dba American Textbook Council. This review samples ten of the nation's most widely used junior and senior high school history textbooks comparing what respected historians say about Islam in authoritative histories to what is being said in textbooks. It assesses how today's history textbooks characterize Islam's foundations and creeds; changes and additions that have occurred in textbook material written before 2001; and what textbooks say about terrorism. Further, it assesses what textbooks say about the September 11 air attack on the United States, weapons of mass destruction, Islamic challenges to global security, and looming dangers to the United States and world. The review concludes that many political and religious groups try to use the textbook process to their advantage, but the deficiencies in Islam-related lessons are uniquely disturbing. History textbooks present an incomplete and confected view of Islam that misrepresents its foundations and challenges to international security. Misinformation about Islam is more pronounced in junior high school textbooks than high school textbooks. Outright textbook errors about Islam are not the main problem. The more serious failure is the presence of disputed definitions and claims that are presented as established facts. Deficiencies about Islam in textbooks copyrighted before 2001 persist and in some cases have grown worse. Instead of making corrections or adjusting contested facts, publishers and editors defend misinformation and content evasions against the record. Biases persist. Silences are profound and intentional. Islamist activists use multiculturalism and ready-made American political movements, especially those on campus, to advance and justify uncritical Islam-related content makeover in history textbooks. Particular fault rests with the publishing corporations, the boards of directors, and executives who decide what editorial policies their companies will pursue. [Funding was provided by the Searle Freedom Foundation, Achelis Foundation, and the Stuart Family Foundation.]   [More]  Descriptors: Textbook Content, Islam, Bias, Politics of Education

Deutsch, Ronald M. (1974). The Nutrition Boomerang, School Health Review. This article discusses the misinformation about nutrition. Descriptors: Eating Habits, Food, Health, Nutrition

Cornelius, Ian (2002). Theorizing Information for Information Science, Annual Review of Information Science and Technology (ARIST). Considers whether information science has a theory of information. Highlights include guides to information and its theory; constructivism; information outside information science; process theories; cognitive views of information; measuring information; meaning; and misinformation. (Contains 89 references.) Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Constructivism (Learning), Information Science, Literature Reviews

Mittan, Robert J. (2010). Diagnosing and Solving School Learning Disabilities in Epilepsy: Part 4, Forgotten Problems–The Student, Exceptional Parent. In the last article the author discussed the powerful effect epilepsy has on the social functioning of the classroom and how this impact can affect learning difficulties in the student. Epilepsy also exerts a powerful influence upon the teacher, depending how educated that teacher is and any fears about seizures the teacher may harbor. Fortunately most teachers are very conscientious and will do everything they can to make the classroom a good environment for learning for the child. However, usually not being an expert in epilepsy, the teacher may not appreciate all the classroom factors that may affect learning in the child. Even with the teacher's best efforts, the student herself brings attitudes and beliefs that affect her ability to learn in the classroom. Misinformation and fears are not limited to others; it can appear in the student as well. In this article, the author covers the causes in the student's social and psychological environment that could lead to learning difficulties. Because of the special impact epilepsy has on others and oneself, these could be powerful influences on learning skills. [For Part 3, see EJ916399.]   [More]  Descriptors: Learning Problems, Epilepsy, Learning Disabilities, Seizures

Phelps, Richard P. (2014). The Gauntlet: Think Tanks and Federally Funded Centers Misrepresent and Suppress Other Education Research, Online Submission. Currently, too few people have too much influence over those who control the education research purse strings. And, those who control the purse strings have too much influence over policy decisions. Until folk at the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the US Education Department–to mention just a couple of consistent funders of education policy debacles–broaden their networks, expand their reading lists, and open their minds to more intellectual diversity, they will continue to produce education policy failure. It would help if they would fund a wider pool of education researchers, evidence, and information. In recent years, they have, instead, encouraged the converse–funding a saturating dissemination of a narrow pool of information–thereby contributing to US education policy's number 1 problem: pervasive misinformation. So what? The aggressive, career-strategic behavior of researchers in federally funded centers and think tanks creates many problems, including a loss of useful information and bad public policies based on skewed information. But, two adverse consequences worry me the most. First, these badly behaved researchers are the only ones that most journalists and policy-makers pay any attention to. Second, the effects of their bad behavior are spreading overseas. The education testing research function at the World Bank, for example, has been handed down over the past few decades from one scholar affiliated with Boston College's School of Education to another. True to form, they cite the research they like, some of which is their own, most of the rest of which comes from Center for Research and Exploration in Space Science & Technology (CRESST), and imply that the vast majority of relevant research does not exist. More recently, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) published a completely one-sided study on educational assessment that ignores most of the relevant research literature and highlights that conducted at a certain US federal research center and several US think tanks (Phelps 2013, 2014). Their skewed recommendations are now the world's.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Research, Educational Testing, Standardized Tests, Public Agencies

Looney, Shannon M. (2011). Cohort Default Rates in Context, Institute for Higher Education Policy. Burgeoning student loan debt indicates problems not only for the country's borrowers but also for the postsecondary system. The rise in student loan defaults signifies a rise in institutional cohort default rates (CDRs)–a measure of accountability that informs the government and the general public how well an institution prepares its students for loan repayment. Like any institutional measure, CDRs support explanations or assumptions about institutional effectiveness and responsiveness. The issues of student debt and CDRs are of particular concern for Minority-Serving Institutions (MSIs), which have a legacy of providing increased access to some of the nation's most underserved students. Students who enroll at MSIs are more often low-income, first-generation, and underprepared–all student characteristics that indicate a greater likelihood of loan default (Fletcher 2010; McMillon 2004; Volkwein and Cabrera 1998; Woo 2002). Additionally, many MSIs are located in regions with high unemployment rates; as such, some MSIs have higher than average CDRs. A number of MSIs are working to develop and implement sound solutions to manage default, particularly by way of financial literacy initiatives (IHEP 2008, 2009, 2010; Looney 2011; USA Funds 2011). A number of studies explore the individual characteristics and implications of student loan default, but few address how postsecondary institutions and their practices may shape borrower behavior. Students who default may do so for a variety of reasons including misinformation, lack of awareness of forbearance and/or deferment options, and other tools to manage loan use. This brief seeks to address the approaches that institutions may employ to reduce or manage a CDR–with a particular emphasis on MSIs. In highlighting these common approaches, this brief hopes to make a stronger case for financial literacy strategies as a solution for institutions looking to increase student completion and reduce default rates. Cohort Default Rate Challenges and Appeals are appended.   [More]  Descriptors: Individual Characteristics, Student Loan Programs, Debt (Financial), Loan Default

Taylor, Annette Kujawski; Kowalski, Patricia (2004). Naive Psychological Science: The Prevalence, Strength, and Sources of Misconceptions, Psychological Record. Studies show that misconceptions about psychology are pervasive. This study examined how the strength of prior beliefs and the sources of misinformation relate to conceptual change following an introductory psychology course. Ninety introductory psychology students completed a 36-item "Psychological Information" questionnaire. Testing during the 1st day of the semester showed 38.5% accuracy whereas testing during the last week showed 66.3% accuracy. These results suggest that misconceptions remain prevalent but can be reduced by taking an introductory psychology course. Our data also indicate that strength of belief is an important transitional variable that may reflect the process of change. Finally, although personal experience and media are important sources of misinformation, we found that they do not promote strongly held beliefs.   [More]  Descriptors: Misconceptions, Testing, Psychology, Beliefs

Benham, Christine (2010). Cobb Montessori: A Community Crisis Illuminating the Challenges and Opportunities of Public Montessori, Montessori Life: A Publication of the American Montessori Society. One of the goals of Montessorians is to spread Montessori education and make quality Montessori education available for children. However, one of the obstacles is the lack of information in the world (and an abundance of misinformation) about the Montessori philosophy. In 2009, these two issues came to a head in what evolved into a battle of parents and educators. Most Montessorians would be shocked to hear their philosophy likened to cancer, but that is precisely what happened at Cobb Elementary in San Francisco. The Cobb Montessori program started as an effort in 2005 by the San Francisco Unified School District (SFUSD) to place a free, public Montessori program in an under-enrolled school in a low-income community. The idea was to start with an initial group of students and expand the school each year until it reached fifth grade. As the demand for entrance increased to a reported "133 applications for eight open seats in the pre-K program," plans were made to phase out the general education portion of the school and convert the whole school to Montessori. The community immediately was up in arms. The community rallied to support the general education program instead of the Montessori program. This article discusses a community crisis illuminating the challenges and opportunities of public Montessori.   [More]  Descriptors: Montessori Schools, Public Schools, Urban Schools, Elementary Schools

Loyalka, Prashant; Liu, Chengfang; Song, Yingquan; Yi, Hongmei; Huang, Xiaoting; Wei, Jianguo; Zhang, Linxiu; Shi, Yaojiang; Chu, James; Rozelle, Scott (2013). Can Information and Counseling Help Students from Poor Rural Areas Go to High School? Evidence from China, Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness. To sustain its economic growth in the coming years, China will have to increase the country's supply of skilled labor by enabling its workforce to attain to higher levels of formal education. Unfortunately, when children in poor, rural areas today grow up, they may not be able to enjoy China's future economic prosperity because of their low levels of education. Credit constraints combined with the high cost of attending school can induce students from economically disadvantaged households to prematurely leave school (Banerjee et al., 2000). Even when schooling is free, there may be high opportunity costs of going to school (Angrist and Lavy, 2009). The highly competitive nature of education systems in many developing countries can also discourage students in poor, rural areas from continuing their education (Glewwe and Kremer, 2006; Clarke et al., 2000). Misinformation about the returns to schooling is another important, but less researched, factor that may undermine the likelihood that students continue school. However, this may only be part of the problem. There may be a number of other constraints. First, even if students understand that there are high returns to high school, they may not know how to prepare for high school, i.e., entrance requirements and which types of high schools are available. Second, beyond economic returns, students may not see the links among their own interests and aptitudes, going to high school and the careers options available to them. The term "career planning skills" is used here to refer to the knowledge about how to attend high school (requirements, options, planning, etc.) and the awareness of the links among one's own interests and aptitudes, high school and future career options. The main purpose of this study is to measure the impact of offering information or teaching career planning skills on dropout, academic achievement, and plans to go to high school among grade 7 students in poor, rural areas in China. Results from the study suggest that information and counseling have negligible to quite small impacts on the outcomes of the average junior high school student in poor, rural areas.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Economically Disadvantaged, Counseling, Rural Areas

Friman, Patrick C.; Hofstadter, Kristi L.; Jones, Kevin M. (2006). A Biobehavioral Approach to the Treatment of Functional Encopresis in Children, Journal of Early and Intensive Behavior Intervention. Functional encopresis (FE) refers to the repeated passage of feces into inappropriate places at least once per month for at least 3 months. Treatment of FE targets the processes that cause or exacerbate the condition, including reduced colonic motility, constipation, and fecal impaction. The cardinal elements of successful treatment include "demystifying" the elimination process, bowel evacuation, stool softeners, prompts and reinforcement for proper toileting habits, and dietary modifications. Despite misinformation and misinterpretations of encopresis, the assessment and treatment of this condition actually represent one of the more successful achievements of behavior therapy.   [More]  Descriptors: Behavior Modification, Counseling Techniques, Misconceptions, Incidence

Council of the Great City Schools (2010). Building Public Confidence in Urban Schools: It Begins inside the District. A Guide for Administrators and Board Members. A Public Relations Executives Network Project of the Council of the Great City Schools, 2009-2010. Effective organizational communication begins with employees, who should be communications ambassadors for a district. From administrators to teachers to school bus drivers to custodians, employees set the tone for a district. The informal conversations they have at church, the bowling alley, the barbershop and other venues can make or break the image of a district. Armed with information, they can dispel misinformation. Without information, they can contribute to the grapevine of discontent. With the most credible sources of information about schools coming from teachers, parents, students and other school staff members, it is critical that school districts develop, fund, implement and evaluate their internal communications programs. "Building Public Confidence in Urban Schools: It Begins Inside the District" is a guide for administrators and board members to not only understand and appreciate the need for quality internal communications, but to begin developing an internal communications system to complement effective community outreach and media relations programs. The guide is a project of the Public Relations Executives Network of the Council of the Great City Schools based on annual meetings of the district communications directors.   [More]  Descriptors: Urban Schools, School Organization, Organizational Communication, Employees

Copp, Martha; Kleinman, Sherryl (2008). Practicing What We Teach: Feminist Strategies for Teaching about Sexism, Feminist Teacher: A Journal of the Practices, Theories, and Scholarship of Feminist Teaching. For decades, feminist teachers have been working in a chilly political climate. Rightwing critics claim that women's studies programs suffer from "insularity and narrowness, ideological bias, and a tendency toward misinformation." In the mainstream media, feminism is both vilified and trivialized. It's no wonder that many students doubt that sexism exists. In this article, the authors share the feminist strategies they practice for teaching about sexism to their students. The authors discuss techniques on: (1) Establishing trust; (2) Facilitating student ownership of the course; (3) Getting students to apply feminist insights to the world through writing; (4) Sharpening students' analytical skills through humor; and (5) Having students connect feminist knowledge to their future actions.   [More]  Descriptors: Feminism, Ownership, Gender Bias, Womens Studies

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