Bibliography: Misinformation (page 10 of 30)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized for the Alternative Facts website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Kelli R. Jordan, Steve Willis, Sherry K. Bain, Monique C. Boudreaux, Eric G. Benotsch, Katherine Sager Brown, Moira Kalichman, Lisa Botshon, Charsey Cherry, and Wayne D. Lord.

Chechile, Richard A. (2006). Memory Hazard Functions: A Vehicle for Theory Development and Test, Psychological Review. A framework is developed to rigorously test an entire class of memory retention functions by examining hazard properties. Evidence is provided that the memory hazard function is not monotonically decreasing. Yet most of the proposals for retention functions, which have emerged from the psychological literature, imply that memory hazard is monotonically decreasing over the entire temporal range. Furthermore, the few remaining proposals, that do not have monotonically decreasing hazard, have difficulty fitting data over both short-term and long-term intervals. A new 2-trace hazard model is developed that successfully circumvents these difficulties. This new model is used to account for the size of memory span and the time course of proactive and retroactive interference effects. The model can fit the retention characteristics of H. M., the famous amnesic patient, as well as normal experimental participants. The model is also used to account for the time course of the misinformation effect.   [More]  Descriptors: Intervals, Memory, Retention (Psychology), Models

Skidmore, Susan Troncoso; Thompson, Bruce (2012). Propagation of Misinformation about Frequencies of RFTs/RCTs in Education: A Cautionary Tale, Educational Researcher. In this article, the authors examine the interconnections among education researchers' misconceptions about the quality of the education research literature. Specifically, the authors catalog the sequence of events that, when taken together with a series of contradictory graphs presented by influential scholars in prominent settings, may have gratuitously damaged the already fragile reputation of education research as a field. The authors' "take-home" messages emphasize the importance of both critically evaluating the claims and warrants of our scholar colleagues and being aware of our natural tendencies, often unconscious, toward confirmation bias.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Research, Misconceptions, Evaluation, Scholarship

Phelps, Richard P. (2009). Dropping the Ball on Dropouts, Educational Horizons. The U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) has measured various types of high school graduation, completion, and dropout rates for decades. In 2006, NCES was directed by senior managers in the Education Department to reduce use of its standard graduation and completion rate measures and instead promote the previously obscure "averaged freshman graduation rate" (AFGR). The AFGR is an "on time" completion measure. In this article, the author discusses the origins of the current preference for an "on-time" graduation rate and the widespread acceptance of the AFGR by policymakers despite its abundant flaws which raises some troubling questions. For example, does exaggerating a problem through semantic distortion help to solve the problem, or does it misdirect attention, misplace priorities, and obfuscate public policy? Further, should education policies be based on the work of those who attract the most publicity or those with the greatest expertise? The author argues two most critical threats to the quality of education in the United States that stand out for their neglect from the press and policymakers. First, much high-quality information and expertise on education policy topics are never seen or heard by policymakers, while too much poor-quality and biased misinformation is. Second, American students arguably do not have to work as hard as students in many other countries, and current public policies in effect support that lack of effort.   [More]  Descriptors: Graduation Rate, Semantics, Dropout Rate, Dropouts

Bracey, Gerald W. (2009). Education Hell: Rhetoric vs. Reality, Educational Research Service. Are America's schools broken? "Education Hell: Rhetoric vs. Reality" seeks to address misconceptions about America's schools by taking on the credo "what can be measured matters." To the contrary, Dr. Bracey makes a persuasive case that much of what matters cannot be assessed on a multiple choice test. The challenge for educators is to deal effectively with an incomplete accountability system–while creating a broader understanding of successful schools and teachers. School leaders must work to define, maintain, and increase essential skills that may not be measured in today's accountability plans. Those who work in America's schools will find Dr. Bracey's work uplifting and convincing. Those who seek the truth about our schools will develop a deeper understanding of the multi-faceted reality, rejecting a simplistic view of school success. "Education Hell: Rhetoric vs. Reality" is an excellent book study for school leaders and educational teams working to increase true student achievement and dispel the misinformation about schools so often disseminated as truth.   [More]  Descriptors: Rhetoric, Academic Achievement, Educational Change, Accountability

Botshon, Lisa; Plastas, Melinda (2009). Homeland In/Security: A Discussion and Workshop on Teaching Marjane Satrapi's "Persepolis", Feminist Teacher: A Journal of the Practices, Theories, and Scholarship of Feminist Teaching. One of the great challenges of teaching in the post-9/11 United States is contending with persistent stereotypes and misinformation about Islam, "Arabs," "Arab Americans," and the "Middle East" within student bodies. Since 2003 the authors have been employing Iranian author Marjane Satrapi's work in the classroom as a way to begin discussions about race, terrorism, and war, and particularly about how these issues are gendered. Her critically acclaimed graphic novel/memoir "Persepolis," which relates how she grew up in Tehran during the fall of the U.S.-backed Mohammad Reza Pahlavi monarchy, the rise of the Islamic regime, and the advent of the Iran-Iraq war, has sold over a million copies worldwide and has been taught in hundreds of classrooms around the nation. In this essay, the authors share some of their insights from teaching "Persepolis" in a variety of classes at the University of Maine at Augusta and at Bates College over the last few years and provide some paradigms that may help others who are considering adopting such a text. The authors have found that Satrapi's "Persepolis" offers a rich opportunity to engage their students in an expanded understanding of the gendered dynamics of war and an opportunity to enter into the transnational project of transversal politics.   [More]  Descriptors: Arabs, Foreign Countries, Science Education, National Security

Willis, Steve (2005). The Four Directions, International Journal of Art and Design Education. This article presents the Native American cultural symbol, the Four Directions, as a sign that is culturally evident and inter-tribally significant. Through understanding the significance of the symbol, a deeper understanding is possible for non-Natives, especially an understanding of the Native Americans' relationship between their artwork and their culture. It will be argued that through a deeper understanding and cultural saturation by non-Natives that cultural misinformation can be reduced. Even though the article makes no attempt to define a culture, community, or person, cultural groups are presented through image and story.   [More]  Descriptors: American Indians, American Indian Culture, Cultural Awareness, Art Appreciation

Horwedel, Dina M. (2006). The Misinformation about Financial Aid, Diverse: Issues in Higher Education. The escalating cost of college tuition seems to be on everyone's minds these days. Particularly concerned are low-income students, who are often averse to taking out loans for fear of jeopardizing their own, as well as their families', financial situation. Experts say economically disadvantaged students of all races are worse off if the only aid they receive comes in the form of student loans. Many students graduate only to face immediate and staggering loan debt. One other huge barrier preventing low-income students from attending college is misinformation about how much college costs and the availability of aid. Dr. Estela Zarate, research director for TRPI, says there needs to be a better effort at clearing up misperceptions about college costs. The institute is working to educate Hispanics about state and federal grant and loan programs, so students don't inadvertently forfeit the opportunity to get a higher education. Financial aid experts say that for all students, especially those who are the first in their family to attend college, college planning should start sooner rather than later. The challenge is getting students and parents to think about college at all.   [More]  Descriptors: Student Financial Aid, Paying for College, Economically Disadvantaged, Hispanic Americans

Sanchez, Patricia (2012). Creative, Professional, and Moral Wherewithal in the Schooling of Immigrant Students, Teacher Education and Practice. The author is grateful that this journal has taken on the production of a special theme issue entitled "Immigration and Teacher Education: The Crisis and the Opportunity." In her estimation, the "crisis" is not so much that the United States may indeed continue to enroll more immigrant children and youth in its schooling system or that districts may begin to serve immigrant students from nations that have never graced the public institutions. Instead, the real "crisis" rests in the preparation of veteran and soon-to-be teachers. Do teacher educators and public school faculty have the creative, professional, and moral wherewithal to effectively serve immigrant populations (and in a dignified manner)? The author asks this because in her years of working with immigrant families and public schools or nonprofit organizations, there is never quite enough money or human resources to best serve the needs of all newly arrived or long-term immigrants. However, to best fulfill this responsibility, she feels there needs to be a shift in perspective in two key areas, as well as a change of practice in two additional spheres. And ironically, these shifts and changes need to occur not only in the K-12 setting but also in university preparation programs; misinformation and misguided practices exist in both places (but not with every individual nor in every instance, of course–there are many educators doing amazing work with immigrant students). The first perspective that needs a shift can be framed like this: "Preservice and in-service teachers and teacher educators need to see immigrant children as their children–and not solely the students of the bilingual or ESL teachers." The second perspective that she often interrogates in her courses with teacher candidates involves the following statement: "Immigrant students are here because the US has been there." These two perspectives are discussed in this article, as well as two changes in practice that could greatly improve outcomes for immigrant students: really knowing the students and advocating for them.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Teacher Educators, Inservice Teacher Education, Preservice Teacher Education

Bain, Sherry K.; Brown, Katherine Sager; Jordan, Kelli R. (2009). Teacher Candidates' Accuracy of Beliefs regarding Childhood Interventions, Teacher Educator. The authors examined the beliefs of 351 teacher candidates, from various levels of training, regarding the effectiveness of potential interventions for childhood disorders. They were primarily interested in participants' responses to three categories of interventions: (a) evidence-based, (b) controversial, and (c) primarily anecdotal. They found that the participants' endorsement levels across three types of disorders (autism, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder [ADHD], and dyslexia) varied but not in a consistent manner, with only a few noticeable trends across interventions. Furthermore, respondents tended to endorse interventions, whether evidence-based or not, without admitted prior exposure to information about them. The results suggest that more attention should be paid to teaching critical evaluation skills as a part of preliminary training of future educators. The potential for practicing teachers, who often serve as a readily available consultant for parents of children with disabilities, to pass on misinformation poses a potential dilemma that should be addressed in teacher training programs.   [More]  Descriptors: Preservice Teachers, Student Attitudes, Beliefs, Intervention

Kalichman, Seth C.; Cherry, Charsey; Cain, Demetria; Pope, Howard; Kalichman, Moira; Eaton, Lisa; Weinhardt, Lance; Benotsch, Eric G. (2006). Internet-Based Health Information Consumer Skills Intervention for People Living with HIV/AIDS, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. Medical information can improve health, and there is an enormous amount of health information available on the Internet. A randomized clinical trial tested the effectiveness of an intervention based on social-cognitive theory to improve information use among people living with HIV/AIDS. Men and women (N = 448) were placed in either (a) an 8-session intervention that focused on Internet information consumer skills or (b) a time-matched support group and were followed to 9 months postintervention. The Internet skills group demonstrated greater Internet use for health, information coping, and social support compared with the control group. The authors conclude that people with HIV infection may benefit from increased access to health information on the Internet and that vulnerability to misinformation and fraud can be reduced through behavioral interventions.   [More]  Descriptors: Internet, Access to Information, Intervention, Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Boudreaux, Monique C.; Lord, Wayne D. (2005). Combating Child Homicide: Preventive Policing for the New Millennium, Journal of Interpersonal Violence. High-profile media coverage of crimes against children has heightened public awareness of critical child safety needs and issues. However, numerous research studies in the area of child homicide have illustrated the importance of the power of science to correct false perceptions and misinformation, improving how to best serve and protect our children. Age-based analyses of childhood crime patterns have vastly improved how law enforcement and social service practitioners identify, investigate, and resolve child victimization cases. Future protective efforts must involve multiagency and multidisciplinary collaboration. Law enforcement, social service clinicians, educators, and academicians should jointly develop and implement pragmatic and effective prevention, detection, and resolution programs and policies.   [More]  Descriptors: Child Safety, Children, Law Enforcement, Homicide

Holliday, Robyn E.; Hayes, Brett K. (2000). Dissociating Automatic and Intentional Processes in Children's Eyewitness Memory, Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. Two experiments investigated the contribution of automatic and intentional memory processes to 5- and 8-year-olds' acceptance of misinformation either read to them or self-generated from semantic and perceptual hints. Results from recognition tests conducted under two instructional conditions suggested that both automaticity and recollection influenced misinformation acceptance, but the role of automatic processes declined with age. Descriptors: Age Differences, Children, Memory, Performance Factors

Knight, Jane (2006). Cross-Border Education: Conceptual Confusion and Data Deficits, Perspectives in Education. It is no longer just students who are moving across borders to study. Program and institutions/providers are delivering foreign education programs and qualifications to students in their own countries. A whole new world of international academic mobility is opening up. This article looks at the concepts of cross-border, transnational, and borderless education in terms of key and common elements, and proposes a number of typologies to classify the growing diversity of providers and delivery modes. The serious absence of reliable statistical data on the volume, type, destination, impact and trends related to education being delivered across borders is discussed. This article argues that the lack of solid information on program and provider mobility creates an undesirable environment of speculation, confusion and often misinformation. This can have negative consequences in terms of confidence in the quality and dependability of cross-border education provision and it impedes the analysis needed to underpin solid policy and regulatory frameworks.   [More]  Descriptors: Statistical Data, Global Approach, Classification, Educational Policy

Soler, Mark; Breglio, Amy (2010). Confidentiality Laws: Protections for Kids or Cloak of Secrecy for Agencies? The Abell Report. Volume 23, No.3, Abell Foundation. Any analysis of confidentiality laws begins with a discussion of the interests involved. Children and families involved in the juvenile justice system have important interests in keeping their records confidential, yet, at the same time, when youth under the care or custody of state or local agencies commit violent crimes, or are the victims of abuse or neglect, the public has strong interests in obtaining information that is timely and accurate. When the media publish information about violent incidents involving young people under state care, public agencies have their own strong interests in correcting misinformation in the public domain about agency operations and in providing context information to enable a fuller understanding of what policies are in place and why. There are clearly valid and important interests on all sides of this issue. Children and families have legitimate concerns about protecting their privacy, however, and the Supreme Court has taken a strong position in support of the "monitoring" or "watchdog" function of the public and the press, which requires some degree of openness and transparency. Information sharing among public agencies is being offered as one remedy to the above situation and states are working to come to a consensus on how this can be accomplished and still protect minor children and their families. A second article in this issue describes "Banner Neighborhoods," which was founded in 1982 as a neighborhood project in Southeast Baltimore. Its purpose is to help elderly homeowners on a fixed income maintain their homes, prolonging the years that they can live independently in their neighborhoods.   [More]  Descriptors: At Risk Students, Confidential Records, Confidentiality, Juvenile Justice

Beers, Kylene (2010). The 2009 NCTE Presidential Address: Sailing over the Edge–Navigating the Uncharted Waters of a World Gone Flat, Research in the Teaching of English. This article presents the text of the author's presidential address, delivered at the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) Annual Convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on November 22, 2009. For the author, the title of this president's address, "Sailing over the Edge: Navigating the Uncharted Waters of a World Gone Flat," calls to mind that most famous seaman, Christopher Columbus. The author suggests that teachers may be venturing now into unknown waters–a world in which the tools of literacy are multiplying and evolving more rapidly than ever before, in which the social fabric is complicated by social networking tools, and in which sources of information and misinformation have exploded from three channels to 300. But we know that some principles will hold true even in these new oceans. Teachers still want their students to learn to use language to make sense of their experience, they still hope that students will read to sharpen insight and deepen understanding, that they will write and speak ethically and honestly. Some fundamentals remain true. But teachers' most threatening dragons are the educational policies and classroom practices that reduce our understanding of what it means to live a literate life to a score on a bubbled-in exam. We have got a lot to fix in education as we sail past those dragons. To sail over the edge, we must remember that the best teachers are thoughtful, creative, independent thinkers–not passive, restrained script-followers; the best teachers teach from a cornucopia of pedagogy, choosing the right instructional strategy for each student; the best teachers value the probing question from the curious–even angry–student far more than the right answer from the passive one. The best teachers, like good leaders, have the courage to overcome obstacles, the courage to sail into the unknown, even though, here, there be dragons.   [More]  Descriptors: Teaching (Occupation), Instruction, Pedagogical Content Knowledge, Educational Change

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