Bibliography: Misinformation (page 11 of 30)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized for the Alternative Facts website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Francois Rivest, Kerry Lee, Richard F. Burton, Janiece DeSocio, Linda Cameron, Lee Bartel, Ayca Cebi, Yigit Emrah Turgut, National Institute for Literacy, and Edward Finegan.

Robelen, Erik W. (2011). Primary Sources Enliven Civil War, Education Week. Today, a growing number of teachers are moving beyond the textbook in teaching about the war, and U.S. history more broadly. Teachers are digging directly into primary sources and harnessing technology, all in an attempt to help students better understand the past and bring it to life. Doing so may be especially important with the Civil War, educators and historians say, since public debates about its meaning are alive and well, and young people may be exposed to a lot of misinformation that original sources can dispel in compelling ways. One factor helping fuel this kind of learning is the roughly $1 billion supplied over the past decade through the U.S. Department of Education's Teaching American History program, which focuses on professional development to improve instruction in the subject. Participants say a strong component of many workshops and other activities supported by the program is helping teachers use primary sources effectively. Another development has been the rapid increase in primary sources about the Civil War accessible online–from the vast collections of the Library of Congress and the National Archives to those of state historical societies–and the creation of websites such as teachinghistory.org. That site, launched in 2008 with support from the Education Department, helps teachers access resources and materials to improve U.S. history education. The Civil War is one of the pivotal events in the nation's history, even if teachers often struggle to find time to do it justice in history classes that may cover centuries of information. The war saved the Union from a permanent split, led to the end of slavery on U.S. soil, and took far more lives than any other conflict involving American soldiers. And it offers a window into a raft of issues that still resonate, including slavery and racism, the role of the federal government, states' rights, economics, and politics. It's also a compelling tale. Experts say using primary sources, with the help of technology or not, can be a powerful way to bring the war to life, and to build a stronger, more nuanced understanding of the conflict.   [More]  Descriptors: United States History, War, Primary Sources, Archives

National Institute for Literacy (2005). What Is Scientifically Based Research? A Guide for Teachers. More than ever, educators are expected to make decisions that guarantee quality instruction. As knowledge emerges, so do philosophies, opinions, and rhetoric about definitions of instructional excellence. From policy makers to classroom teachers, educators need ways to separate misinformation from genuine knowledge and to distinguish scientific research from poorly supported claims. Teachers can strengthen their instruction and protect their students' valuable time in school by scientifically evaluating claims about teaching methods and recognizing quality research when they see it. This booklet, distilled from the monograph "Using Research and Reason in Education: How Teachers Can Use Scientifically Based Research to Make Curricular and Instructional Decisions", provides a brief introduction to understanding and using scientifically based research.   [More]  Descriptors: Teaching Methods, Scientific Research, Textbook Content, Robustness (Statistics)

Greene, Edith; And Others (1982). Inducing Resistance to Misleading Information, Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. Presents study designed to explore whether warning people about the possibility of future misinformation would increase their resistance to that misinformation. Results show exposure to a warning just prior to presentation of misinformation resulted in slightly greater resistance to its suggestive effects, but warnings after misinformation had been processed had no effect. Descriptors: College Students, Memory, Persuasive Discourse, Testing

Burton, Richard F. (2004). Multiple Choice and True/False Tests: Reliability Measures and Some Implications of Negative Marking, Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education. The standard error of measurement usefully provides confidence limits for scores in a given test, but is it possible to quantify the reliability of a test with just a single number that allows comparison of tests of different format? Reliability coefficients do not do this, being dependent on the spread of examinee attainment. Better in this regard is a measure produced by dividing the standard error of measurement by the test's "reliability length", the latter defined as the maximum possible score minus the most probable score obtainable by blind guessing alone. This, however, can be unsatisfactory with negative marking (formula scoring), as shown by data on 13 negatively marked true/false tests. In these the examinees displayed considerable misinformation, which correlated negatively with correct knowledge. Negative marking can improve test reliability by penalizing such misinformation as well as by discouraging guessing. Reliability measures can be based on idealized theoretical models instead of on test data. These do not reflect the qualities of the test items, but can be focused on specific test objectives (e.g. in relation to cut-off scores) and can be expressed as easily communicated statements even before tests are written. The following are included in the appendix: (1) Reliability coefficients and standard errors of measurement; (2)Comparison of number-right scoring and negative marking; (3) Dependence of SEM/RL on N; and (4) The unreliability index.   [More]  Descriptors: Multiple Choice Tests, Error of Measurement, Test Reliability, Test Items

Baker, David P.; Collins, John M.; Leon, Juan (2008). Risk Factor or Social Vaccine? The Historical Progression of the Role of Education in HIV and AIDS Infection in Sub-Saharan Africa, Prospects: Quarterly Review of Comparative Education. Numerous epidemiological studies from the early years of the tragic HIV and AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa identified formal education as a risk factor increasing the chance of infection. Instead of playing its usual role as a preventative factor, as has been noted in many other public health cases, until the mid-1990s educated African men and women had a higher risk of contracting HIV than their less educated peers. This led to ambivalent policy about the efficacy of education as a possible social vaccine against new infections in this region. Reported here is a cohort analysis of formal education and HIV infection in 11 African countries showing that among younger adults, who came to sexual maturity after widespread misconceptions and misinformation about the causes of the disease were reduced, more schooling is associated with a lower risk of HIV infection. The results are discussed in light of a critique of past weak hypotheses about how education works as a social vaccine, and a new hypothesis is developed. Policy implications are described for renewed efforts towards the supply of quality education as an important strategy to promote public health in sub-Saharan Africa.   [More]  Descriptors: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), Cohort Analysis, Public Health, Role of Education

Lee, Kerry; Bussey, Kay (1999). The Effects of Misleading and Inconsistent Postevent Information on Children's Recollections of Criterion-Learned Information, Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. Examined effects of misleading or inconsistent post-event information on 7-year olds' recollections. Misinformation was administered on one or three occasions two days after learning a target game. Found that three weeks later, even criterion-learned information could be affected detrimentally by misinformation exposure. Children given misinformation on only one occasion reported more target information than children in all other groups. Descriptors: Children, Communication (Thought Transfer), Comparative Analysis, Information Dissemination

Finegan, Edward (2003). Linguistic Prescription: Familiar Practices and New Perspectives, Annual Review of Applied Linguistics. Reports on a question by a law student of whether a correction of "sneaked" to "snuck" suggests misinformation and misguided rigidity in the context of better information about current legal usage and a perennial tendency to linguistic prescription. Explores attitudes to current borrowings from English into Japanese and French and distinguishes between language as a vehicle of communication and as a symbol of cultural values. Descriptors: English (Second Language), French, Japanese, Language Usage

Fahy, Patrick J.; Steel, Nancy (2008). Post-Secondary Learning Priorities of Workers in an Oil Sands Camp in Northern Alberta, Journal of Vocational Education and Training. This paper reports results to date of a three-year project by Athabasca University, intended to determine the education and training needs and interests of employees in a work camp in northern Alberta's oil sands. (Future reports will address results of efforts to provide programming suiting the needs identified, and the uptake, satisfaction, completion rates, further requirements, and impacts on the careers of workers who become students as part of the project.) In initial project investigations, the areas of business, finance, and management (including interprovincial business certification for tradesmen), health and safety, and project management constituted 56% of enquiries by workers; also of interest to workers were courses in trades and engineering. Barriers to enrolment were found to be related both to the demands of the workplace and to the workers' backgrounds and situations, including: long hours (with regular overtime, and often with long commutes to and from the worksite); work pressure (the site was in the final phases of construction); high mobility of employment, resulting in frequent relocations to new work camps; lack of information about the potential relation of training to promotion opportunities within and outside of the present employer; ignorance about open and distance learning in general, and misinformation about technology-based learning delivery in particular; and concerns about costs were among these.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Employee Attitudes, Educational Needs, Access to Education

DeSocio, Janiece; Stember, Lisa; Schrinsky, Joanne (2006). Teaching Children about Mental Health and Illness: A School Nurse Health Education Program, Journal of School Nursing. A mental health education program designed by school nurses for children ages 10-12 was developed in 2000-2001 and expanded with broader distribution in 2004-2005. Six classroom sessions, each 45 minutes in length, provided information and activities to increase children's awareness of mental health and illness. Education program content included facts about the brain's connection to mental health, information about healthy ways to manage stress, resources and activities to promote mental health, common mental health problems experienced by children, and how to seek help for mental health problems. Classes included a combination of didactic presentation and open discussion, encouraging students to ask questions and allowing the school nurse to correct misinformation. Analysis of pre- and posttests from 370 elementary and middle school students revealed statistically significant improvements in their knowledge of mental health and mental illness.   [More]  Descriptors: Health Education, School Nurses, Mental Disorders, Mental Health

Interracial Books for Children Bulletin (1982). Resources. Lists organizations and printed and audiovisual materials that counter current misinformation prevalent about Central America.   [More]  Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education, Foreign Countries, Organizations (Groups), Resource Materials

Rivest, Francois (2002). L'enseignement de la diversite culturelle, c'est une responsabilite collective (The Teaching of Cultural Pluralism, a Collective Responsibility), Education Canada. Following September 11, some students in a computer-assisted journalism lab in Canada made disgraceful comments based on ignorance and misinformation regarding the school's Arabic-speaking members. However, a few articles and two news reports helped change the atmosphere as students began to recognize the individuals within stereotyped groups. Descriptors: Cultural Awareness, Cultural Pluralism, Educational Environment, Educational Responsibility

Bright-Paul, Alexandra; Jarrold, Christopher; Wright, Daniel B. (2008). Theory-of-Mind Development Influences Suggestibility and Source Monitoring, Developmental Psychology. According to the mental-state reasoning model of suggestibility, 2 components of theory of mind mediate reductions in suggestibility across the preschool years. The authors examined whether theory-of-mind performance may be legitimately separated into 2 components and explored the memory processes underlying the associations between theory of mind and suggestibility, independent of verbal ability. Children 3 to 6 years old completed 6 theory-of-mind tasks and a postevent misinformation procedure. Contrary to the model's prediction, a single latent theory-of-mind factor emerged, suggesting a single-component rather than a dual-component conceptualization of theory-of-mind performance. This factor provided statistical justification for computing a single composite theory-of-mind score. Improvements in theory of mind predicted reductions in suggestibility, independent of verbal ability (Study 1, n = 72). Furthermore, once attribution biases were controlled (Study 2, n = 45), there was also a positive relationship between theory of mind and source memory, but not recognition performance. The findings suggest a substantial, and possibly causal, association between theory-of-mind development and resistance to suggestion, driven specifically by improvements in source monitoring.   [More]  Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Memory, Verbal Ability, Cognitive Development

Cameron, Linda; Bartel, Lee (2009). The Researchers Ate the Homework! Perspectives of Parents and Teachers, Education Canada. The issue of homework is now uppermost in many parents' and teachers' minds. Researchers are questioning homework's effectiveness as an educational tool. Policy makers are thinking twice about what to do about it while kids have their fingers crossed. In two national surveys conducted by the authors, they have discovered a wide range of opinions–and enormous tension–about homework. This article presents the perspectives of parents and teachers about homework based on two separate surveys. The first–"Homework Realities: A Canadian Study of Parental Opinions and Attitudes"–was a survey of 1094 caregivers and of 2072 children across Canada which was conducted in 2007, and the second–"Teacher Perspectives on Homework"–is a survey of 945 teachers across Canada. What the authors learned from these surveys is that homework really is problematic. As they examined the data, a number of issues emerged and interestingly, so did a lot of misunderstanding and misinformation that cause tension between home, school, policy-makers, and children. Both surveys point to stress as a major issue. Parents recognize that considerable time and family stress is invested in homework. For teachers, creating quality assignments is a challenge. One factor that seems highly significant and related to a number of issues is the question of homework expectations. Respondents expressed concerns that too often the assignments were not clear, that expectations were too high for the child to accomplish and required parental assistance, and that there was inadequate accommodation for English language learners and students with learning disabilities.   [More]  Descriptors: Homework, Assignments, Opinions, Learning Disabilities

Alterman, Eric (2011). The Professors, the Press, the Think Tanks–And Their Problems, Academe. Think back to the famous 1920s debate between Walter Lippmann and John Dewey. The argument–begun by Lippmann with a series of three brilliant books published between 1919 and 1925 and ended by Dewey in 1927 with his book-length response to "Public Opinion," Lippmann's masterpiece–turned on many issues simultaneously but rested foundationally on the two men's differing conceptions of truth. Whether in journalism, academia, or the policy world in between, most participants in public discussion pretend to a Lippmannlike devotion to facts but reach conclusions through Dewey's culture of communication and conversation. Academics tend to be both more knowledgeable than journalists about the topics on which they comment or write and more circumspect about what they profess to know about a given topic and the conclusions they feel comfortable drawing as a result. They test their truths with relevant counterarguments and footnoted references that can be examined by those with opposing views. Journalists, on the other hand, usually treat anything as true if someone in a position of ostensible authority is willing to say it, even anonymously (and if no one is going to sue over it). The accuracy of anyone's statement, particularly if that person is a public official, is often deemed irrelevant. If no evidence is available for an argument a journalist wishes to include in a story, then up pop weasel words such as "it seems" or "some claim" to enable inclusion of the argument, no matter how shaky its foundation in reality. What's more, too many journalists believe that their job description does not require them to adjudicate between competing claims of truth. The "truth" produced by think-tank denizens lies somewhere between that of journalism and academia. The research these organizations produce tends to be footnoted, but the footnotes themselves are often questionable, and ideological counterarguments are rarely entertained except in mocking tones. Truth is considered to be self-evident if it matches the belief of the author, though footnotes are nice, too, if only for the patina of authority they tend to lend one's arguments. The slow collapse of the newspaper industry and the growth of online, less professionalized news sources, while salutary from a Deweyan conversational perspective, has opened up public discourse to additional infusions of ideologically motivated misinformation. "The quack, the charlatan, the jingo, and the terrorist, can flourish only where the audience is deprived of independent access to information," wrote Lippmann. But the author contends that they can thrive just as easily when elites cannot be bothered to provide accurate information or refuse to do so in the service of their own political, ideological, or economic interests.   [More]  Descriptors: Access to Information, Journalism, Citations (References), Newspapers

Karal, Hasan; Cebi, Ayca; Turgut, Yigit Emrah (2011). Perceptions of Students Who Take Synchronous Courses through Video Conferencing about Distance Education, Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology – TOJET. The objective of this study is to determine how students who are taking synchronous distance education classes via video conferencing perceive distance learning courses. A qualitative research approach was used for the study. Scale sampling was also used. The study's subjects consisted of a total of nine students comprised of 2nd and 4th grade students engaged in a course via synchronous distance education. For the study, the case method, a qualitative research method, was used, and research data was obtained via semi-structured interviews and observation results. Data was analyzed by means of the descriptive analysis method. Findings obtained at the study's conclusion indicate that students' perceptions of the course changed during and at the completion of the course. It was generally seen in the descriptions students made about the environment before taking synchronous distance education that they did not have advance information or that they had a prejudice due to their misinformation. It is seen in the conducted interviews that these prejudices start to be eliminated thanks to the opportunities provided by synchronous distance education through this process. It appears, from students' descriptions of the course environment prior to taking the course, that they did not have enough information or had preconceived ideas. As the course progressed, student perception changed and they were able to perceive more clearly the opportunities that synchronous distance education can provide. In this study, the most important problem in synchronous distance education was determined to be disconnection and sound problems. In this study, a significant problem was the hardware–i.e., sound, speed and connectivity issues. As well, students became bored after some time because of limited camera angles and cameras. It was concluded that this situation prevents the continuity of the course and so leads to distraction. On the other hand, it was observed that students start to get bored of the course after a while due to the fixedness of the camera angle and the small quantity of cameras. We also noticed that the fixed camera angle, small number of cameras and problems occurring in the images affected student perceptions. Besides these technical problems, the researchers observed, and the students expressed that the factors of teacher, environment, distance, course type and duration also caused the students' perceptions to change.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Qualitative Research, Student Attitudes, Distance Education

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