Bibliography: Misinformation (page 16 of 30)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized for the Alternative Facts website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include John Sommers-Flanagan, Cindy Davis, John Weckert, Law Siu Wing, Giuliana Mazzoni, Tammy A. Marche, Kathleen Marie Oertle, Miriam Beth Noel, Mark L. Howe, and Robert B. Frary.

Marche, Tammy A.; Howe, Mark L. (1995). Preschoolers Report Misinformation Despite Accurate Memory, Developmental Psychology. Examined the long-term retention of 216 preschoolers, half of whom received a single slide presentation and while the other half received consecutive presentations until they learned the material to criterion. Exposure to misleading information 3 weeks after the presentation encouraged the preschoolers to report misinformation 4 weeks after the presentation. Descriptors: Influences, Long Term Memory, Models, Preschool Children

Manion, U. Vincent (1975). Aging: Old Myths versus New Facts. Retirement Preparation Guide No. 2. Since attitudes toward retirement may be influenced by attitudes toward aging, this article is intended to correct some of the myths and misinformation held about human aging. Up-to-date research is drawn on to offer a picture of the aging process and its normal changes. Descriptors: Adjustment (to Environment), Attitudes, Expectation, Interests

Dahlgren, John C. (1997). The Law Makers, the Screen Writer, and the Indian Chief: A Parable of Sorts for the (Mis)information Age, Indiana Media Journal. Argues against perpetuating misinformation in this technological age, as illustrated in recent Indiana legislation mandating that selected historical writings be included in school library collections; among documents listed is a letter from an Indian chief which has been proven to be fictitious. Descriptors: American Indians, Educational Media, History, Information Sources

Mazzoni, Giuliana (1998). Memory Suggestibility and Metacognition in Child Eyewitness Testimony: The Roles of Source Monitoring and Self-Efficacy, European Journal of Psychology of Education. Examines mechanisms underlying the misinformation effect, in which children can be made to believe that they have seen or experienced something they never have. Suggests that the effect in younger children is mainly due to memory errors, whereas in older children it is mainly due to acceptance of misleading information. Descriptors: Age Differences, Children, Cognitive Psychology, Memory

Lowry, Stephen R. (1977). The Effect of Luck and Misinformation on the Discrepancy between Multiple-Choice Test Scores and True Ability. The effects of luck and misinformation on ability of multiple-choice test scores to estimate examinee ability were investigated. Two measures of examinee ability were defined. Misinformation was shown to have little effect on ability of raw scores and a substantial effect on ability of corrected-for-guessing scores to estimate examinee ability. Luck was shown to be influential on ability of raw and corrected-for-guessing scores to estimate ability, though this influence was more pronounced for raw scores. Analysis of data confirmed all theoretical results. Furthermore, empirical results showed that raw scores were better estimators of examinee ability. Descriptors: Ability, College Students, Guessing (Tests), Multiple Choice Tests

Kephart, John G.; And Others (1974). A Journey into the World of the Blind Child, Exceptional Children. Comparison of responses of 49 blind and 37 sighted children, 5 to 7 years of age, on the Kephart Scale (developed to assess personal and environmental awareness of blind children) indicated that the blind children had misinformation, fragmented concepts, and a limited ability to differentiate information. Descriptors: Adjustment (to Environment), Blindness, Body Image, Environmental Influences

Oertle, Kathleen Marie (2009). Rehabilitation Professionals' Participation Intensity and Expectations of Transition Roles, ProQuest LLC. In this mixed-methods study, an on-line survey and interviews were utilized to gather data regarding the level of participation and expectations rehabilitation professionals have of teachers, youth with disabilities, parents, and themselves during the transition process. The survey response rate was 73.0% (N = 46). Six were selected for interviews (13.0%). Three types of rehabilitation professionals (state vocational rehabilitation counselors (counselors), community rehabilitation providers (CRPs) and centers for independent living (CIL) personnel) were involved in providing transition services; each with distinctive expectations resulting in various levels of participation and roles.   Counselors report that their present level of participation is what they expect to be effective in transition services and interagency collaboration. In contrast, CRPs and CIL personnel recognize that they need to be participating more than they are now to have an effective role in transition with the exception of attending transition planning meetings. Overall, rehabilitation professionals report that the frequency of their attendance of transition planning meetings is adequate to be effective despite a large discrepancy in reported levels of participation. Both CRPs and CIL personnel expect to participate more frequently in identifying post school goals with youth and working with educators on transition issues. Likewise, CRPs and CIL personnel report wanting more communication outside of transition planning meetings with educators, youth, and parents/guardians.   Further analysis provided results that suggest when rehabilitation counselors are involved in transition; they do participate at a significantly greater intensity than CRPs. Further, there is a significant difference in expectations. Counselors expect to participate at the same level as they do now while CRPs' and CIL personnel expect to participate more. These results suggest that rehabilitation counselors' participation and expectations have an impact on transition that differs from CRPs' and CILs personnel's involvement in transition services and planning. In the cases of rehabilitation counselors and CIL personnel, their roles and service provisions are mandated and supported by legislation; however, these laws are not specific to transition participation or expectations leaving room for development and implementation by individual states and local agencies.   The majority of these rehabilitation professionals expect educators to initiate their participation, distribute materials, and provide leadership; with the exception of CIL personnel who view youth in this role. However, basic meeting elements such as having an agenda, ground rules, and leadership appeared lacking in most cases. These fundamentals can be manipulated to increase rehabilitation professionals' transition participation and improve their understanding of what is expected of them by educators, youth, and their parents.   Rehabilitation professionals are invested in transition participation because they believe supporting youth is positive practice. Overall, the top reasons given for participating in transition activities were: (a) that transition is part of their responsibilities, (b) being invited, (c) having a transition program, and (d) having funding earmarked for transition services. While rehabilitation professionals participate in transition when they are invited and in response to referrals, they are also self-initiating their participation through outreach efforts because they believe that their contributions add value and connect youth to the community. Drawing from an intense passion for transition-age youth and wanting to assist them to reach their goals, rehabilitation professionals participate in the transition related collaboration because leadership has put policies in place that support transition practices including mechanisms for effective collaboration practices. As a supportive foundation, state vocational rehabilitation provides a critical transition role as the conduit among partners and the bridge that connects educators, parents, and youth to resources and the community.   The findings of this study support the importance of further transition education and training for rehabilitation professionals. As many as a third of this study's participants reported sometimes and often not knowing what is expected of them by youth, parents, and educators. In addition, nearly a quarter of the participants reported not knowing what is expected of them during transition planning meetings. Further education specific to transition participation, collaboration, and expectations could assist in minimizing this confusion and maximize resources. While well over one-half of the study participants reported attending conferences and workshops to learn about transition; the far majority responded that their source of training was on-the-job. Therefore, it is possible that some of the transition practices being passed from one co-worker to another are based on misinformation leading to the insufficient and ineffective levels of participation and misguided expectations found in this study. Joint trainings for rehabilitation professionals and educators focused on transition are necessary. These training should include, among other information, how to: run effective planning meetings, support youth to run their own meetings, work with parents/guardians, and collaborate across systems and agencies and within communities. Additional implications for research and practice are presented.   [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.%5D   [More]  Descriptors: Transitional Programs, Independent Living, Adult Education, Cooperation

Davis, Cindy; Noel, Miriam Beth; Chan, Shui-Fun Fiona; Wing, Law Siu (1998). Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviours Related to HIV and AIDS among Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong, Journal of Adolescence. Assesses adolescents' knowledge about HIV and AIDS. Results show that the majority had rarely discussed HIV and AIDS with their family or teacher and had received most of their information from the media. Finds misinformation about transmittal, personal vulnerability, and the facts among both males and females. Participants report engaging in little at-risk behavior associated with HIV and AIDS. Descriptors: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, Attitude Measures, Females, Foreign Countries

Cardenas, Jose (1984). The Role of Native Language Instruction in Bilingual Education, NABE: The Journal for the National Association for Bilingual Education. Tracing its evolution and stressing the role of native language instruction, a proponent of bilingual education argues that native language instruction allows simultaneous content and second language skill development, diminishes alienation, and facilitates intellectual development, and that criticism of such instruction is founded on emotional responses, misinformation, and discriminatory attitudes. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Educational History, Educational Philosophy, Elementary Secondary Education

Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F. (1998). Fuzzy-Trace Theory and Children's False Memories, Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. Presents a unified theoretical approach to children's false-memory reports that deals with both spontaneous and implanted reports. Details false recognition and misinformation models that allow researchers to determine the impact of identity judgment, nonidentity judgment, and similarity judgment in false memory reports. Descriptors: Children, Cognitive Development, Evaluative Thinking, Mathematical Models

Frary, Robert B. (1980). The Effect of Misinformation, Partial Information, and Guessing on Expected Multiple-Choice Test Item Scores, Applied Psychological Measurement. Six scoring methods for assigning weights to right or wrong responses according to various instructions given to test takers are analyzed with respect to expected change scores and the effect of various levels of information and misinformation. Three of the methods provide feedback to the test taker. Descriptors: Guessing (Tests), Knowledge Level, Multiple Choice Tests, Scores

Sommers-Flanagan, John; Sommers-Flanagan, Rita (1998). Assessment and Diagnosis of Conduct Disorder, Journal of Counseling & Development. Problems and solutions associated with accurate assessment and diagnosis of conduct disorder are reviewed. Problems addressed include client deceitfulness, parent and teacher misinformation, counselor countertransference, diagnostic comorbidity, and confounding cultural and situational circumstances. Methods for increasing diagnostic accuracy are discussed. Case examples are included. Descriptors: Behavior Disorders, Clinical Diagnosis, Counseling Techniques

Ferguson, Stuart; Weckert, John (1998). The Librarian's Duty of Care: Emerging Professionalism or Can of Worms?, Library Quarterly. Examines case studies highlighting accountability, and relates accountability to concepts of responsibility and duty of care. Presents arguments against holding librarians accountable for misinformation, namely, the lack of contract between librarian and patron and the distinction drawn between information intermediaries (librarians) and knowledge workers (lawyers and accountants). Discusses existing codes of ethics and their appropriateness to associations claiming professional status. Descriptors: Accountability, Case Studies, Codes of Ethics, Contracts

Zuefle, David Matthew; Beck, Larry (1996). Are We Ministers of Misinformation?, Legacy. Discusses the problem of dissemination of misinformation–either intentionally or innocently–while attempting to change environmental attitudes. Warns about unwillingness to engage in self-examination in ways that other professional fields do, and states that interpreters, in exchanging accuracy of information for persuasive power, risk losing credibility. Recommends putting forth best efforts for others to see. Contains 13 references. Descriptors: Environmental Education, Environmental Interpretation, Misconceptions, Nonformal Education

Fitzgerald, Mary Ann (1997). Misinformation on the Internet: Applying Evaluation Skills to Online information, Emergency Librarian. Describes online misinformation: incomplete, out-of-date, biased information; pranks; contradictions; improperly translated data; software incompatibilities; unauthorized revisions; factual errors; and scholarly misconduct. Suggests online searchers should be skeptical, establish prior knowledge, distinguish between fact and opinion, evaluate arguments, compare related information from different sources, evaluate source reliability, identify bias, learn the conventions of the Internet, and examine assumptions. Descriptors: Evaluation Methods, Information Retrieval, Information Seeking, Information Skills

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