Bibliography: Misinformation (page 20 of 30)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized for the Alternative Facts website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Debra Ann Poole, Race Relations Reporter, Mark E. Johnson, Stephen R. Lowry, Carol Caruso, James E. Bruno, Siegfried Meryn, Abby L. Holland, Gail S. Goodman, and Mary Ann Fitzgerald.

Race Relations Reporter (1973). Reporter Lead-In. News briefs relating to misinformation on racial conflict in Boston; a drive for impeachment of an Indianapolis judge who ordered the implementation of a new desegregation for the city; slavery in Florida; protection for Arizona Indians from the floods; the coming into the limelight of Miles College, Birmingham, Ala.; and other.   [More]  Descriptors: American Indians, Black Colleges, Court Litigation, Desegregation Litigation

Kourilsky, Marilyn; Wittrock, Merlin C. (1992). Generative Teaching: An Enhancement Strategy for the Learning of Economics in Cooperative Groups, American Educational Research Journal. Increasing the learning of economics among 76 public high school seniors from lower socioeconomic levels by teaching them to use generative comprehension procedures in cooperative learning groups was attempted. Comparison with 66 controls indicated facilitative effects of generative teaching in increasing confidence in correctness of answers and decreasing misinformation. Descriptors: Comparative Analysis, Comprehension, Cooperative Learning, Disadvantaged Youth

Meryn, Siegfried (1998). Multimedia Communication: Quo Vadis?, Medical Teacher. The over abundance of general information and health information on the World Wide Web and the use of computer technology in medicine have changed our communication behavior, introducing fractal communication and the use of infoids. These developments may lead to misinformation and have an impact on communication between patient and doctor. Discusses the new interactive electronic media and entirely new forms of communication. Descriptors: Computer Mediated Communication, Futures (of Society), Information Networks, Information Sources

Holland, Abby L.; Johnson, Mark E. (1986). Interrelationships among Sexual Guilt, Experience, Misinformation and Satisfaction. Research has suggested that high levels of sexual guilt lead to decreased exposure to sexual behaviors, sexual stimuli, or sexual information. A study was conducted to examine the interrelationships among the variables of sexual guilt, sexual experience, sexual misinformation, and sexual satisfaction. College students (N=125), selected through a stratified cluster sampling technique, completed a questionnaire consisting of: (1) Mosher Forced Choice Inventory Sexual Guilt subscale; (2) Brady Levitt Sexual Experience Scale; (3) a list of 40 common sexual myths and fallacies; and (4) three scales measuring sexual satisfaction. Preliminary analyses revealing no significant differences between males and females allowed for combining of all data for main analyses. The results indicated that sexual guilt was positively related to sexual misinformation and to two measures of sexual satisfaction. Sexual experience was negatively related to sexual misinformation and positively correlated to two indices of sexual satisfaction. These findings suggest that an important consideration when treating a couple for sexual dissatisfaction may be feelings of guilt associated with past and present sexuality, and that education and experience may be effective modes for the alleviation of sexual guilt.   [More]  Descriptors: College Students, Experience, Higher Education, Knowledge Level

Bruno, James E. (1986). Assessing the Knowledge Base of Students: An Information Theoretic Approach to Testing, Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development. Presents microcomputer-based test scoring procedure with focus on measuring student information, partial information, and misinformation based on an information theoretic approach model of knowledge assessment. Admissible probability measurement scoring procedure described removes the constraint of forced choices, where guesses are based on partial knowledge, and encourages direct response. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Achievement Tests, Children, Computer Oriented Programs

Suleiman, Mahmoud F. (2001). Image Making of Arab Americans: Implications for Teachers in Diverse Settings. Arab Americans are a very diverse group. Misinformation about Arab culture plays a significant role in American perceptions and understandings of Arab American students. Whenever major events occur in the Middle East, Arab Americans become the focus of investigation. However, the Arab American community has remained relatively silent. The media plays a large part in perpetuating stereotypes of Arabs as terrorists. This is exemplified by the original assumption that the Oklahoma bombing was the act of Arab terrorists. This massive media campaign has detrimental consequences on Arab American students, who report being harassed and attacked by peers. Considerable stereotyping and racializing occurs in contemporary films and literature, where villains often are Arabs or Muslims.  People are often erroneously led to assume that these two groups are synonymous. The media also uses the term fundamentalist interchangeably with terrorist. Erroneously perceived as a unified single ethnic group, the diversity of Arab Americans is very much overlooked. Teachers must engage in rectifying stereotypes about Arab Americans. Schools can take action against prejudice, discrimination, and racism, providing professional training for staff and accurate textbooks for students. (Contains 24 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Arabs, Consciousness Raising, Cultural Awareness, Cultural Differences

Fitzgerald, Mary Ann (1997). Critical Thinking: Tools for Internet Information Evaluation. As World Wide Web access expands into schools and homes, children will likely encounter the misinformation often found in this medium. This qualitative study describes strategies employed by sophisticated adult World Wide Web users as they evaluate authentic Web information with the purpose of adapting these strategies for children in K-12 settings. The six participants in this study followed think-aloud protocols and answered interview questions about two Web documents containing numerous misinformation devices. Evaluative strategies from these verbalizations were extracted and analyzed. Findings include a list of strategies and a description of three evaluative "styles." Suggestions are made for the use and teaching of these strategies in elementary through middle school.  (Contains 41 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Content Analysis, Critical Thinking, Elementary Secondary Education, Evaluation Methods

Bracey, Gerald W. (2004). Research: The Trouble with Research, Part 1, Phi Delta Kappan. Overall the past decade has not been kind to educational research. First, some "research" has been subordinated to and corrupted by ideology. Second, there has been substantial questioning of what educational research should be and a fear that the federal government is moving to a rigid orthodoxy in defining what counts as "science" or "research. Darrell Huff's 1954 publication, How to Lie with Statistics, is still in print and still worth reading.  So is Bail Me Out!, by Gerald W. Bracey, the first third of which is called "Principles of Data Interpretation, or, How Not to Get Statistically Snookered." It's the flip side of Huff — how to know when someone is lying to you with statistics. The techniques in How to Lie with Statistics have been increasingly practiced to influence education policy. Huff titled one of his chapters "The Gee Whiz Graph." In it, he first presents an appropriate graphic depiction of monthly national income increases over a year and says, "That is all very well if all you want to do is convey information. But suppose you wish to win an argument, shock a reader, move him into action. For that, this chart lacks pizzazz. Chop off the bottom." With the bottom half of the graph removed as suggested, the size of the increase is the same, but "what the hasty reader sees now is a national-income line that has climbed halfway up the paper in 12 months all because most of the chart isn't there anymore," Huff shows. He continues, "Now that you have practiced to deceive, why stop with truncating? You have a further trick that's worth a dozen of that. It will make your modest rise of 10% look livelier than one hundred percent is entitled to look. Simply change the proportion between the ordinate and the abscissa." Sadly, the U.S. Department of Education (ED) has been profligate in lying with statistics by means of Gee Whiz Graphs. In the January 2003 column an ED graph that showed increases in budgets for the Departments of Defense, Education, and Health and Human Services was reproduced. The graph made it appear that ED had received much more largesse than the other departments. But it hadn't. A situation in which subgroups show one trend and the aggregate shows a different trend is called Simpson's Paradox. It's common in statistics — a Google search on it garnered 2,700 hits. It was explained it briefly in the Ninth Bracey Report (October 1999), and has also been explained in the February 2004 issue of the American School Board Journal. Education in America appears to be under attack, and one weapon of choice in the information age appears to be mis-information. Descriptors: Politics of Education, Data Interpretation, Deception, Statistical Data

Finn, David M.; Tazioli, Pam (1993). Cleaning Out the Wheelbarrow: Planning Appropriate Assessments for Transition, Rural Special Education Quarterly. Examines issues in the transition of young disabled children between programs: ignorance or misinformation about available resources; eligibility criteria; interagency information exchange; and advance planning. Provides a troubleshooting guide to help agencies evaluate transition procedures. Discusses interagency assessment models and tools to test the functional abilities of child and family. Descriptors: Agency Cooperation, Disabilities, Early Childhood Education, Early Intervention

Poole, Debra Ann; Lindsay, D. Stephen (2002). Reducing Child Witnesses' False Reports of Misinformation from Parents, Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. Explored whether source-monitoring training (SMT) would help 3- to 8-year-olds report only experienced events during a target interview. Found that SMT reduced 7- and 8- year-olds' false reports in response to direct questions but had no impact on younger children's performance. Findings suggest a transition between 3 and 8 years in strategic use of source-monitoring information to support verbal reports. Descriptors: Age Differences, Children, Developmental Stages, Memory

Lowry, Stephen R. (1979). The Effect of Misinformation on Item Discrimination Indices and Estimation Priorities of Multiple-Choice Test Scores. A specially designed answer format was used for three tests in a college level agriculture class of 19 students to record responses to three things about each item: (1) the student's choice of the best answer; (2) the degree of certainty with which the answer was chosen; and (3) all the answer choices which the student was certain were incorrect. Instances where the correct answer was identified as being incorrect were scored as instances of "misinformation." Other items that were not answered correctly were scored as instances of "ignorance." score was computed which was identified as being incorrect were scored as Another score was computed which was identified as "true ability." It was concluded that the additional effort required to obtain estimates of misinformation and ignorance was not justified by item discrimination indices, but was justified in providing appropriate remediation for students, depending on whether the examinee had ignorance or misinformation. Descriptors: Achievement Tests, Confidence Testing, Guessing (Tests), Higher Education

Klentschy, Michael (1990). Use of Information Referenced Testing To Monitor Policy Information Attenuation in a Large Urban District. Misinformation at the point of implementation for educational policy is a serious problem with legal as well as financial implications. As is apparent in public education when central authority for policy making increases due to shifts in power and control, and local decision making decreases, as in public education, local districts and individual school administrators are most vulnerable to information attenuation (loss) and distortions (misinformation). This study examines the information attenuation in a large urban school district between school board policies, implementation procedures, and the school administrators' information base. Using Information Referenced Testing (IRT) procedures, this study quantitatively examines the attenuation and distortions in school board policies and implementation procedures and designs appropriate staff development interventions to address the problem. A copy of the questionnaire and computer printouts of data analyses are appended. (8 references) Descriptors: Administrator Effectiveness, Decision Making Skills, Educational Needs, Educational Objectives

Goodman, Gail S.; And Others (1995). Mother Knows Best: Effects of Relationship Status and Interviewer Bias on Children's Memory, Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. Examined whether interviewer status or a preconceived bias affects children's memory and suggestibility or adults' descriptions of children's reports. Analyses revealed children's free recall accuracy suffered when they were interviewed by biased versus unbiased strangers but not when interviewed by biased versus unbiased mothers. Exposure to the biasing misinformation led to greater inaccuracy in interviewers' descriptions. Descriptors: Age Differences, Bias, Cognitive Processes, Comparative Analysis

Ford, Daniel F.; Kendall, Henry W. (1975). Nuclear Misinformation, Environment. Many scientists feel that research into nuclear safety has been diverted or distorted, and the results of the research concealed or inaccurately reported on a large number of occasions. Of particular concern have been the emergency cooling systems which have not, as yet, been adequately tested. Descriptors: Accident Prevention, Energy, Environmental Education, Federal Government

Caruso, Carol (1997). Before You Cite a Site, Educational Leadership. For uncritical users, the Web can be a tangle of misinformation. A teacher offers tips to help educators and student evaluate the validity of Web sites. The four Ws of site validation involve determining who wrote the site, what the site is saying, when the site was created, and where it originated. Learners should not rely solely on Web resources and ignore information available elsewhere. Descriptors: Critical Thinking, Elementary Secondary Education, Evaluation Criteria, Information Management

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