Bibliography: Misinformation (page 23 of 30)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized for the Alternative Facts website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Margaret Feldman, Paul Messaris, Daniel J. Boorstin, Michael Young, Earl Babbie, The State Univ. Rutgers, Marilyn S. Massey, NY. Professional Staff Congress of the City Univ. of New York, Charlotte M. Hendricks, and Don Sneed.

Benedict, Larry (1973). A Practical Guide for Evaluation. This booklet has been prepared as a guide to evaluation for educational decision-makers. It is intended primarily for administrators although it may be appropriate to other decision-makers as well. The major purpose of this booklet has been to discuss the "what" and why" of evaluation rather than the "how to." After dealing with some basic concepts of evaluation to clarify misunderstandings and misinformation, the author deals with the practical steps of evaluation: Who should negotiate the contract? Who Initiates Evaluation? What are "goal process" and "parts process" and how are they matched? What are the steps in putting the process of evaluation into operation? What are the criteria for assessing observational techniques? What will a decision-maker do with an evaluation report? What can the decision-maker do if a school district has limited resources? A glossary of terms and a list of additional references are included.   [More]  Descriptors: Administrator Guides, Data Collection, Decision Making, Educational Administration

Sneed, Don (1985). VDTs as Potential Health Hazards: A Critical Analysis. Almost from the introduction of the new technology into newsrooms, the video display terminal (VDT) has raised health concerns. Ironically, the newspaper industry–which ordinarily would be at the forefront, acting as a watchdog over worker health and safety concerns–has initiated little news coverage of the VDT radiation issue. The Newspaper Guild and other employee organizations have mounted campaigns to ensure VDT regulation, while the American Newspaper Publishers Association and state and national press associations think education is better than legislation. Both sides, however, engage in misinformation campaigns that only serve to make more confusing the contradicitory scientific evidence concerning VDT radiation hazards. By exercising their roles as "media gatekeepers," publishers may be guilty of subordinating the public interest to their private interests, since the VDT is an efficient, cost saving tool in the newsroom. Descriptors: Computers, Employer Attitudes, Employers, Federal Legislation

Young, Michael; Williamson, Doug (1983). Kindergarten Children and Drugs: Beliefs, Use and Expected Use. A study identified correlates of selected beliefs about drugs, personal drug use, and expected drug use among kindergarten children. As part of a state-wide drug education project, 112 kindergarten children from 5 elementary schools were individually interviewed. Analysis of the data indicated significant relationships between personal use of drugs and race, living arrangement, beliefs about drugs, and expected use of drugs. Significant relationships also existed between expected use of drugs and drug knowledge, beliefs about drugs, and personal use of drugs. Most children exhibited much misinformation about drugs. Early drug education programs should help children develop a correct concept of what drugs are and provide correct information regarding the safe and acceptable use of drugs. Five tables of study data are appended. Descriptors: Beliefs, Comprehension, Drug Abuse, Drug Education

Wavering, Michael J. (1990). What Do Prospective Science Teachers Understand about the Nature of Science?. The questions for this research were: (1) what did preservice teachers know about the nature of science; (2) what were their religious beliefs that had implications for how they viewed science; and (3) what effect did instruction on the nature of science have in changing their knowledge level? A 25-item questionnaire was given to secondary science methods students (N=63) before and after a course. Instruction about the nature of science constituted the first two to three class periods. Students read articles, received lectures, and held discussions pertaining to theories, laws, hypotheses, and scientific processes. Two factors were determined using a factor analysis: religious belief, and nature of science and evolution. Factor 1 had .31 correlation with knowledge of theory and evolution. Many students were very unsure of their knowledge of the nature of science and many had misinformation. The questionnaire is attached.   [More]  Descriptors: Beliefs, Creationism, Evolution, Higher Education

Frary, Robert B. (1980). Expected Multiple-Choice Test Item Scores Under Ordinal Response Modes. Ordinal response modes for multiple choice tests are those under which the examinee marks one or more choices in an effort to identify the correct choice, or include it in a proper subset of the choices. Two ordinal response modes: answer-until-correct, and Coomb's elimination of choices which examinees identify as wrong, were analyzed for scoring rule appropriateness. Rules were analyzed in terms of expected item scores for different levels of information and misinformation, defined by the subset of choices believed to contain the answer. A general method for determining answer-until-correct scores was established. Answer-until-correct scores insured uniformity of quessing, which overcomes a major fault of the Coomb's mode and conventional correction-for-guessing scoring, namely, that the instructions are interpreted differently by examinees. Descriptors: Guessing (Tests), Multiple Choice Tests, Responses, Scoring

Mazurkiewicz, Albert J. (1973). A Rationale for Using i.t.a. This paper provides a rationale which rejects misinformation, assumptions, and biases as bases for decision making on the use of i.t.a. in teaching reading and writing to primary school children. A discussion is provided which questions the reality of professionalism in teacher-administrator populations as well as the reality of a concern for the child. A further discussion of strengths of i.t.a. programs as compared with typical similar traditional orthography (T.O.) programs demonstrates that T.O. constrains; such factors as reactive inhibition and feature characteristics of symbols are realities not accounted for in T.O. programs rather than any weakness in the author's capabilities. Rejection of the notion that traditional orthography is optimal for reading-writing purposes is supported.   [More]  Descriptors: Alphabets, Beginning Reading, Conference Reports, Elementary Education

Professional Staff Congress of the City Univ. of New York, NY. (1974). The Administration and Evaluation of Open Admissions at the City University of New York. The Professional Staff Congress of the City University of New York (CUNY) presents in this document a critique of the open admissions policy at CUNY. If open admissions students were given a reasonable opportunity for collegiate success, then retention rates would lose much of their significance in evaluating the programs at the CUNY. But remediation has not been adequately administered, class size limitations have not been honored, the University's academic support program in the form of curricular research and professional training is still being developed, and the assessment of outcomes has been meager and simplistic. All that is on the public record is a misleading picture of retention that generates expectations among the students and the public. The authors conclude that CUNY has mismanaged the open admissions program and has covered up this mismanagement with misinformation. Appendices include newspaper reports, letters concerning class size and the commitment of the Congress to open admissions.   [More]  Descriptors: Administrative Problems, Educational Administration, Educational Opportunities, Enrollment

Zulu, Itibari M. (1993). The Ancient Kemetic Roots of Library and Information Science. This paper argues that the ancient people of Kemet (Egypt), "the black land," built and operated the first major libraries and institutions of higher education in the world. Topics of discussion include the Ancient Egyptians as an African people; a chronology of Ancient Kemet; literature in Kemet; a history of Egyptian Librarianship; the temple-library-university; the Kemetic library as the prototype for all libraries; the first librarians and library directors; library architecture; Kemetic education; the roots of the Dewey Decimal system in Kemetic classification; the classification system of Kemet; information retrieval and a library catalogs in Kemet; roots of the bookcase/chest in Kemet; and miseducation and misinformation on library history. (Contains 70 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: African Literature, Classification, Development, Dewey Decimal Classification

Feldman, Margaret (1979). Reaching Teenagers with Sex Information. The problem of teenage pregnancy can be viewed as endemic, a part of American culture not easy to change. Although the number of girls under 15 who are becoming pregnant is not very large (13,000 in 1978), the cost of pregnancy to the girls themselves, their families, and society is very great. Results of data analyses from action research, Planned Parenthood and Health Department records and literature reviews indicate that: (1) illegitimate birth rates are unrelated to seasonal variation; (2) the major source of sexual information is from peer group members; and (3) there is widespread misinformation about the "safe time," and about availability of contraceptive materials. Intervention projects to deal with adolescent pregnancy can be conducted in school settings, the community, the church, and parent teacher association groups. Descriptors: Adolescents, Birth, Females, Peer Influence

Babbie, Earl (1977). Innovative Techniques for Teaching Research Methods. An explanation of three innovative techniques the author has used successfully to introduce undergraduate and graduate students to sociological methodology. The three methods are: (1) body-learning, which involves moving students around physically in ways analogous to the data manipulations being taught; (2) experimental learning, which involves having the students personally experience things normally presented cognitively as concepts; and (3) take-away learning, which uses the class meeting to reveal and dissolve misinformation and other considerations the students bring to a topic rather than to impart new information. The use of these techniques helps remove the blocks that often make research methods such a difficult subject for many students. In addition, these techniques make the teaching of research methods stimulating and exciting. The author presents specific examples of techniques for introducing students to three methods of sociological methodology. Descriptors: Classroom Techniques, Creative Teaching, Educational Strategies, Graduate Students

Messaris, Paul (1993). Perceptual Bases of Visual Literacy. The perceptual bases of visual literacy are explored, drawing on research into the interpretation of pictures by viewers not familiar with pictorial representation. Research has indicated that inexperienced viewers do not find it difficult to recognize pictures that may be discrepant in color or shape from a familiar object, but may be troubled by the perception of depth in pictures. Reasons why this phenomenon should be so are explored; and it is suggested that the puzzlement of inexperienced viewers may be due to unfamiliarity with the pictorial media, rather than a response to the content of the pictures. It is precisely because of their accessibility to the untutored viewer that images as a mode of communication may be unmatched in their capacity for manipulation and misinformation. The need for visual literacy in its broadest sense–i.e., as reflective, critical awareness of visual conventions and their uses–should be correspondingly acute. (Contains 25 references.) Descriptors: Access to Information, Nonverbal Communication, Perception Tests, Sensory Experience

Massey, Marilyn S.; Hendricks, Charlotte M. (1997). Identifying and Evaluating Children's Health Resources. ERIC Digest. This Digest provides guidance in helping parents and teachers judge the quality of health education resources and identify sources of appropriate materials. Sources of information about children's health include: university and community libraries, professional organizations and agencies, and the World Wide Web. Guidelines for judging content accuracy include: verifying the credibility of the publisher or source of the materials; reviewing the author's credentials; using one's own knowledge in recognizing misinformation; viewing with skepticism materials containing claims that sound too good to be true; and considering content appropriateness as well as timeliness. Teachers must be especially attentive to formats that are easily integrated into the classroom routine and curriculum, are culturally relevant, and are adaptable for students with special needs. A list of professional organizations, agencies, and Internet sites for health learning resources is included. (Contains eight references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education, Evaluation Criteria, Health Education, Health Materials

Rutgers, The State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ. Inst. for Intercultural Relations and Ethnic Studies. (1975). Bilingual Education in the United States. Topics discussed include the following: the world-wide prevalence of bilingual education, the need for bilingual education in the U.S., a definition of bilingual education, the official status of bilingual education in the U.S., the target audience of bilingual education in the U.S., definitions of terms commonly used in bilingual education, the aims of bilingual education, the "maintenance" and "transitional" approaches to bilingual education, instructional staff in bilingual education, bilingual instruction in subject matter other than language arts, format and content of lessons, the role of English as a Second Language in bilingual education, an example of a lesson integrating ESL with science in bilingual education, history and culture in bilingual education, instructional personnel in bilingual education, teacher preparation in bilingual education (including language preparation, culture-history preparation, and professional preparation), instructional materials in bilingual education, evaluation in bilingual education, and, misinformation and problems in bilingual education.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Compensatory Education, Educational Needs, Educational Objectives

Eddy, James M.; St. Pierre, Richard W. (1978). Death Education: An Overview. A review of the literature of death education reveals a lack of consensus among authors concerning the exact scope and sequence of an ideal death education program. Most authors feel, however, that death education should be a subject of immediate concern to all health educators, and that it is important to determine how children respond to various forms of misinformation about death. Researchers have shown concern with a number of areas in death education including: (1) stages of death and dying, and how patients, family, and medical staff can cope with the problem; (2) principles of communication in a death education experience for young children; (3) scientific and biological concerns of life and death processes; (4) curriculum development and program content; (5) teacher attitudes, feelings, and beliefs about death; (6) input from the community on special topics (input from attorneys, clergy, coroners, psychologists, etc.); and (7) program goals and objectives. A selected bibliography is included. Descriptors: Curriculum Development, Death, Educational Needs, Educational Programs

Boorstin, Daniel J. (1979). Gresham's Law: Knowledge or Information? The Center for the Book Viewpoint Series No. 3. There is a distinction to be made between knowledge and information. Knowledge is orderly and cumulative; information is random and miscellaneous and may be collected simply because it is there. The information industry is flourishing, but knowledge institutions–colleges, universities, and libraries–go begging. The knowledge industry is actually being transformed and to some extent displaced by the information industry. Libraries must make use of computer technology, but they must also remain fortresses of knowledge which is still preserved mainly in books. Similarly, libraries must be repositories of information, but also places of refuge from the tidal waves of information–and misinformation. The autonomous reader, amusing and "knowledging" himself, should be the be-all and end-all of libraries. (A brief description of the Center for the Book, in the Library of Congress, prefaces the pamphlet).   [More]  Descriptors: Books, Information Services, Libraries, Library Role

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