Bibliography: Misinformation (page 24 of 30)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized for the Alternative Facts website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Marlene Atleo, Naomi Caldwell, Leslie M. Templeton, Sharon A. Wilcox, Journal of Young Adulthood and Middle Age, Debby Reese, Fred H. Groves, At Home with Consumers, Debra J. Robbin, and La Vera Rose.

Iona, Mario (1971). School Texts, a Source of Misinformation. The author's stated purpose is to promote greater efforts to prevent the use of so much erroneous material in the schools under the name of science and physics. Two texts are chosen as examples, "Modern Physics" 5th Edition by (Dull) Williams, Metcalfe, Trinklein, and Lefler, and the "Pathways in Science" series by Oxenhorn. Specific errors are cited by page number and the corrections indicated. A request is made for more involvement on the part of physicists in correcting and preventing such errors in textbooks.   [More]  Descriptors: Physics, Resource Materials, Secondary School Science, Textbook Content

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD. (1993). Asthma Awareness: Curriculum for the Elementary Classroom. Asthma is the most common chronic childhood condition and a leading cause of school absences. With asthma occurring in almost every classroom in America, this curriculum guide, developed for use by elementary school children, suggests that teachers integrate an asthma lesson into a comprehensive health education curriculum. The lessons include suggestions for math, science, art, and language arts and can be integrated into the social sciences as they relate to getting along with others and learning about community resources. There are two 30-minute lessons for grades K-3 and 4-6. The lessons are designed to: (1) develop a basic understanding of asthma and help correct misinformation; (2) inform students about appropriate actions that can help people with asthma; and (3) provide resources to share with parents and other family members. In addition, the resource section provides information to help teachers learn more about asthma before teaching the lessons. Pre- and post-tests for grade K-3 and grade 4-6 students, a letter to parents written in both English and Spanish, and activity sheets including hidden pictures, mazes, crosswords and scenarios are included.   [More]  Descriptors: Asthma, Curriculum Guides, Elementary Education, Elementary School Students

Newitt, Jane (1983). The Treatment of Limits-to-Growth Issues in U.S. High School Textbooks: Report of a Research Project Conducted for Hudson Institute's "Visions of the Future" Program. Final Report. Sixty-three basal high school textbooks from 18 publishers were reviewed to determine their treatment of population growth, resources, environmental problems, economic development, and "package" handling of these limits-to-growth (LTG) topics. The textbooks included 21 U.S. histories, 9 economics texts, 5 civics texts, and approximately (there is overlap between the categories) 15 geographies and 13 world histories. The key criteria employed in the review were objectivity and adequacy. Adequacy is defined as the quality of what is offered (e.g., Are there factual errors? Are materials outdated?). General impressions are discussed and detailed findings are presented for each topic. Regarding adequacy, most of the texts contain misinformation and sloppy writing. For example, although 52 of the textbooks reviewed have 1980's publication dates, none alludes to the fact that the world's population rate has declined. Most texts were also found to have a lack of objectivity that was associated with a sense of urgency to change students' attitudes and behavior. Of the 63 texts, 4 made no reference to any LTG topic. The most commonly treated topics were energy (in 48 texts), environmental problems (in 46), and population (in 42). Only the energy crisis is treated in a balanced, informative way by a significant number of textbooks. Descriptors: Civics, Controversial Issues (Course Content), Economic Development, Economics Education

Mikulecky, Larry (1986). The Status of Literacy in Our Society. Noting that the popular press and other media have purveyed much information and misinformation about the status of adult literacy in the United States, this paper focuses upon what is known about literacy levels and gives special attention to changes in literacy demands and to what is currently being done to meet those demands. The first section of the paper ("What Is Literacy and Who Is Literate?") examines several historical definitions of literacy before looking at national surveys of literacy abilities. The second section ("Changes in Literacy Patterns and Demands") explores changing demands, habits, and abilities of the population since the 1700s; while the third section ("Adult Literacy and Basic Education") summarizes demographic information about who receives basic education, what is known about the cognitive characteristics of adult illiterates, and how much time is required for learning gains. The fourth section ("Effective Literacy Programs and the Problem of Transfer") reviews research on effective programs and studies of the extremely limited transfer of newly learned literacy abilities. The final section of the paper identifies trends in the research, some problem areas and recommendations for future study. (A six-page reference list is appended.)   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Basic Education, Adult Literacy, Adults, Educational Research

Groves, Fred H.; Pugh, Ava F. (1996). College Students' Misconceptions of Environmental Issues Related to Global Warming. Students are currently exposed to world environmental problems–including global warming and the greenhouse effect–in science classes at various points during their K-12 and college experience. However, the amount and depth of explosure to these issues can be quite variable. Students are also exposed to sources of misinformation leading to misunderstanding and confusion. This study focuses on the idea that some student misconceptions may arise from incorrect understandings passed along by teachers. A questionnaire about the greenhouse effect was administered to 330 college students at a regional university from the colleges of Education, Pure and Applied Sciences, Pharmacy and Health Sciences, and Liberal Arts. Only juniors or seniors were selected to ensure that a substantial portion of their science coursework had been completed. Analysis of college assignment found that science majors scored higher than education majors and there were no other significant differences between the colleges. No significant differences were found between elementary education students and other education majors (excluding the science education majors). Future research needs to examine teaching approaches that best promote solid understanding of these complex issues. The Environmental Issues Questionnaire is included as an appendix.   [More]  Descriptors: College Science, College Students, Education Majors, Environmental Education

At Home with Consumers (1987). Are Credit Card Rates Too High? At Home with Consumers. Volume 8, Number 1. The four articles in this journal issue examine the pros and cons of the proposition that credit card rates are too high. In "How Congress and Consumers Will Crack the Credit Card Market," Congressman Charles E. Schumer argues that banks can get away with their excessive rates because of consumer misinformation and the unfair competitive edge held by the larger banks that set the tone for the high rates. He therefore recommends the passage of legislation that would require credit card companies to make a full disclosure of their charges before the consumer obtains a card (rather than after as is currently allowed). In "Bank Credit Cards: An Important Financial Option," Jerry D. Craft makes the case that bank card rates are service rates rather than interest rates and that credit cards have high administrative costs, are affected by fraud, and are actually one of the most competitive products in the United States. Elgie Holstein, in an article entitled "Bank Credit Cards: Defying Economic Gravity," contends that although bank credit cards are the single most profitable area of banking today, credit card price controls would hurt consumers. Holstein suggests a "floating" ceiling on credit card interest rates as a compromise. In "Retail Credit Card Rates: Reality vs. Rhetoric," Tracy Mullin distinguishes between retail and bank credit card plans, argues that revenues from retail credit cards are reasonable, and reaffirms Holstein's view that interest rate caps would not help consumers.   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Education, Consumer Education, Credit Cards, Credit (Finance)

Women's Educational Media, San Francisco, CA. (1996). It's Elementary. Talking about Gay Issues. [Videotape.]. Many educators are unsure about how to respond to gay issues at the elementary and middle school levels. It has been found that by third grade almost all children have been exposed to some information and misinformation about gay people. If schools are serious about preparing students for the diversity in our communities, preventing violence, and fostering equality between girls and boys, then gay issues will need to be addressed. This 78-minute documentary makes a case that children should be taught to respect all people, including lesbians and gay men, as part of their early education. At its heart is footage of elementary and middle school classrooms where teachers are finding age-appropriate ways to confront anti-gay prejudice and counter gay invisibility. The documentary demystifies what it means to incorporate information about gay people into early education, showing through classroom vignettes how it can be done. It is designed to inspire teachers and administrators to take the next steps at their own schools to increase student knowledge and sensitivity for this aspect of diversity. Descriptors: Elementary Education, Equal Education, Homophobia, Homosexuality

Chevalier, Shirley A. (1998). A Review of Scoring Algorithms for Ability and Aptitude Tests. In conventional practice, most educators and educational researchers score cognitive tests using a dichotomous right-wrong scoring system. Although simple and straightforward, this method does not take into consideration other factors, such as partial knowledge or guessing tendencies and abilities. This paper discusses alternative scoring models: (1) credit for omissions; (2) disproportionate correction for wrong versus omitted items (correcting for guessing); (3) scoring only for items that a given examinee is expected to get right based on one-parameter item response theory (Lawson, 1991); and (4) scoring using various partial credit models, including misinformation. The literature regarding the utility of each algorithm, including validity and reliability, is also summarized briefly. Psychologists should be familiar with alternative scoring strategies, since such strategies can be useful in the design, administration, or analysis of results from measures of cognitive abilities, especially in high stakes testing. Findings from this exploration indicate that correction for guessing formulas do not show significant benefits over conventional scoring (no correction), and while results on partial credit scoring algorithms are inconclusive, the observed slight increases in reliability and validity do not justify the additional complexity, time, and cost involved in developing, administering, scoring, and interpreting test results. (Contains 1 table and 20 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Ability, Algorithms, Aptitude Tests, Cognitive Tests

Prather, J. Preston (1990). Techniques for Promoting Intellectual Self Confidence among At-Risk Science Students in Rural and Small Schools. Most students enter their first formal science courses with intelligently conceived and sophisticated concepts of science. Some of these may be compatible with the principles of modern science, but others may be incorrect, inadequate, outdated, or otherwise unacceptable. Conceptual frameworks based on intuitive misperceptions, naive inferences, incorrect logic, or misinformation constitute a threat to further science education. Many studies have found evidence of widespread scientific misperceptions among young children, high school and college students, college graduates, and even science teachers. Examples, include ideas about the relation of force and motion similar to medieval or Aristotelian theories, and outdated concepts of time, space, and photosynthesis. Some misconceptions are so intuitively satisfying and so ingrained that they are not easily displaced by later science instruction. Diagnostic techniques and skills can enable teachers to identify their own misconceptions and help students articulate and unlearn scientific preconceptions without undermining their intellectual self-confidence and receptivity to science learning. Many rural and small schools do not have the resources to deal with this problem. Some simple experiential techniques to help students articulate what they believe about natural phenomena include the "Tennessee Teaching Machine" (force and motion), "World on a String" (space), and "Plant Diet" (photosynthesis). A rationale for a constructivist approach to science instruction is presented, based on theories of Piaget and Ausubel. This paper contains 20 references. Descriptors: Concept Formation, Concept Teaching, Elementary Secondary Education, Experiential Learning

Reese, Debby; Slapin, Beverly; Landis, Barb; Atleo, Marlene; Caldwell, Naomi; Mendoza, Jean; Miranda, Deborah; Rose, La Vera; Smith, Cynthia (1999). A Critical Review of Ann Rinaldi's "My Heart Is on the Ground: The Diary of Nannie Little Rose, A Sioux Girl, Carlisle Indian School, Pennsylvania, 1880.". This paper critically reviews the book, "My Heart Is On the Ground: The Diary of Nannie Little Rose, a Sioux Girl, Carlisle Indian School, 1800." The review begins with a profile of Captain Richard Henry Pratt who founded the Carlisle (Pennsylvania) Indian Industrial School in 1879. Pratt's philosophy was to "kill the Indian and save the man." Statements from former students describe life at the school as a horrific experience in which Indian children were forced to cut their hair, replace traditional clothing with military uniforms, and speak English. Children were also stripped of their Indian names, a source of cultural pride and identity. Despite all the documented horrors, the book casts the school in a positive light through the eyes of the main character, Nannie Little Rose. The review contends that from a literary perspective, the book lacks consistency and logic; as a work of historical fiction, it has many factual errors; and as a work of multicultural literature, it lacks authenticity. For example, throughout the book Nannie Little Rose uses the phrase "my heart is on the ground" whenever she is sad or upset. In its original form this statement conveys the strength and courage of Indian women, but in the context of the book, it trivializes the Indian belief system. Many other examples show how the book lacks historical accuracy and cultural authenticity and is replete with stereotypical language and treatment of girls and women. The review suggests that this book adds to the great body of misinformation about Native life and epitomizes the lack of sensitivity and respect that has come to characterize the vast majority of children's books about Native Americans.   [More]  Descriptors: Acculturation, American Indian Education, American Indian History, Boarding Schools

Journal of Young Adulthood and Middle Age (1990). Journal of Young Adulthood and Middle Age, 1990. Eleven articles are presented that focus on the family, sexuality, and developmental issues of young and middle aged adults. The "Articles" section includes: (1) "A Role/Career Development Model of Adult Development" (David Payne); (2) "Counseling the Middle-Aged: Misinformation, Myths and Implications for Counseling" (John D. Keshock); (3) "Homosexual Relationships: A Unique Type of Family" (June Williams); (4) "Rural Women: Mid-Life Issues" (Joan England and Jessie Finch); (5) "Women as Single Parent: Issues, Research, and Counseling Implications" (Patricia Y. Leonard and Quinn M. Pearson); (6) "Development Crisis: The Transition to Parenthood" (Bernadette Mathews); (7) "Lesbian Mothers: A Little Understood Minority" (Lynn J. Friedman); and (8) "Resolution of Mid-Life Crisis: The Sexually Addicted" (Daya S. Sandhu). The "Practically Speaking" section includes: (1) "Sexual Offender Treatment Option Program" (Barbara B. Duncan); (2) "The Child Care Counseling Program" (Carol Ann Rudolph and Pamela Feinstein); (3) "Homosexuality: Menacle or Menu/The Question of Choice" (Stephen Paul Flemming). The articles contain a list of selected references.   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Development, Career Counseling, Career Development, Child Abuse

Robbin, Debra J.; And Others (1992). Educating Against Gender-Based Violence, Women's Educational Equity Act Publishing Center Digest. In the primary article, the societal norms that encourage violence against women are reviewed, from both the current and historical viewpoints. Violence in all its forms when used on adolescent women is a contributing factor in many other problems. Both young men and young women learn stereotypes and misinformation about women provoking violence through their behavior and fail to realize the issue is power over women. These stereotypes are learned, and schools can play a part in education for nonviolence. A number of techniques are suggested, including teaching gender equity, violence prevention, conflict resolution, health education, and peer leadership. These should be supplemented with staff training, curriculum integration, parent involvement, support services for both male and female victims, and rehabilitation and disciplinary programs. A secondary article in the digest, "Conference on Sexual Violence and Adolescents Highlights Need for Treatment and Intervention," by Michele Caterina, reports on a Massachusetts conference — Sexual Assault and Adolescents: A Hidden Epidemic. The conference dealt with four topics: (1) the limits violence imposes on victims; (2) abused people often become abusers; (3) widespread societal violence; and (4) males are raised to expect power and be aggressive. Underlying these topics is the theme that stereotypes which portray violence against women as normal are apparent throughout American society. Adolescents are susceptible to these stereotypes, especially if they see them in their own lives or in the media.   [More]  Descriptors: Aggression, Battered Women, Child Abuse, Emotional Response

Polulech, Joan Burgess; Nuttall, Paul (1988). Sexuality. Growing Pains: Sex Education for Parents. A Newsletter Series. Letter I. This document presents the first of five newsletters on sex education for parents. The newsletters were designed to help parents increase their ability to communicate with their adolescents about sexual issues. They explore the origins of the parents' feelings about sex; teach the importance of a healthy self-concept and how to build it in the adolescent; unravel the physical, social, and emotional mysteries of adolescence; and develop some skills that will help parents talk about sex with their adolescents. The specific goals of this newsletter on sexuality are to help parents: (1) know the importance of understanding oneself; (2) understand that parenting is a learned skill; (3) understand how personality is shaped by culture and environment; (4) be able to define concepts related to sexuality; (5) understand how present attitudes and feelings about sex relate to past experiences, information and misinformation; (6) understand how one's attitudes and feelings affect what parents tell and how they tell their children about sex; and (7) be able to identify some personal values, feelings, and attitudes about sex that parents want to pass on to their children. The newsletter is presented in workbook format with spaces provided for parents to write answers to questions and exercises. It concludes with a reference list and a short list of suggested readings for parents.   [More]  Descriptors: Adolescents, Interpersonal Communication, Parent Child Relationship, Parent Education

Parker, Barbara (1984). Nonsexist Curriculum Development: Theory into Practice. The Handbook of the Curriculum Design Project at the University of Colorado, Boulder. Addressing the problems of access and time constraints, this curriculum guide describes a core undergraduate women's studies course in which college level students learn to research, prepare, and present nonsexist curriculum units for public school classrooms. The course was designed to: (1) compensate for the lack of information in the traditional curriculum about women in culture and society; (2) correct any sexism and misinformation generated by traditional disciplines; and (3) equip students to contribute new research and knowledge in the field of women's studies. Containing information on how to recruit both teachers and course participants, this document also includes instructional packets which focus on teaching units for elementary, middle, and junior/senior high school students. Tests utilized to evaluate course participants' sex biases, a course syllabus, and student assignments are included. Stressing the educational objectives of content, skills, and experience, the course lectures focus on: (1) assumptions about males and females, (2) the socialization process, (3) videotaping, (4) sources of information, (5) school socialization, (6) bias in language, and (7) sexism and other "Isms" in educational curriculums. Sample testing, course evaluation instruments, examples of various grade level curriculum units, and an annotated bibliography are featured; and charts and graphs are included.   [More]  Descriptors: College Curriculum, Course Content, Course Descriptions, Course Objectives

Templeton, Leslie M.; Wilcox, Sharon A. (2000). A Tale of Two Representations: The Misinformation Effect and Children's Developing Theory of Mind, Child Development. Investigated children's representational ability as a cognitive factor underlying the suggestibility of their eyewitness memory. Found that the eyewitness memory of children lacking multirepresentational abilities or sufficient general memory abilities (most 3- and 4-year-olds) was less accurate than eyewitness memory of those with multirepresentational abilities and sufficient memory abilities (most 6-year-olds and adults). Descriptors: Adults, Age Differences, Children, Cognitive Development

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