Bibliography: Misinformation (page 25 of 30)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized for the Alternative Facts website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Joseph J. Palladino, Clarence S. Kailin, Gary L. Kreps, James Lynch, Jessica H. Daniel, Andrew Edwards, C. Cargill-Power, Beverly Neuer Feldman, LeVerne S. Collet, and J. C. Powell.

Cargill-Power, C. (1980). Cultural Bias in Testing ESL. Although cultural content is unavoidable as a backdrop for good language testing, cultural bias in testing English as a second language presents many dangers. A picture cue calling for a correct grammatical response may evoke an incorrect answer if the pictorial content is culturally coded. The cultural background behind a test must be accurately reflected, without misinformation or misleading emphases. Current events, especially those involving geography and "hot news items," should be questioned as a cultural setting for test items. A test designed for use abroad should not contain culture-coded items reflective only of certain American households. Test administration must take into account cultural conditioning that may find the student terrorized in the face of a typographical error, a timed test, or the language-specific bias of a cloze test. Syntactic differences between the native language and English may render certain tests useless as placement instruments. Test formats that are taken for granted in the American educational system, especially cloze tests, should be examined for the degree to which they may, by their nature, handicap one linguistic group or another. Descriptors: Cloze Procedure, Cultural Context, Culture Conflict, Culture Fair Tests

Reichelt, Paul A. (1976). Underrepresentation of Adolescents in Education and Health Care Planning. Contary to the impression one can derive from the large amount of mass media discussion, sex education is generally still not an integral part of the school curriculum. One of several important reasons for this state of affairs is that adolescents are usually not represented in discussions of the need for sex education. Even when sex education programs do manage to become operational, the lack of teen input often results in such flaws as (1) having sexual physiology taught without being related to the psychosocial aspects of human sexuality, (2) avoiding controversial topics adults are uncomfortable discussing, and (3) conducting separate classes for males and females. The consequences of limited sex education are unwanted pregnancies and an epidemic level of venereal disease, along with ignorance and misinformation about sex which worries teenagers themselves. Teen input can help overcome such deficiencies. Adolescent representation in the planning and operation of a teen contraception clinic is also useful. Teen input insures that users of the service will not feel alienated by the program and contributes to teenagers' maturity by teaching them how to handle responsibility.   [More]  Descriptors: Adolescents, Curriculum Development, Educational Planning, Information Dissemination

Dykhouse, Caroline Dow (1978). Privacy Law and Print Photojournalism. Reviews of publications about privacy law, of recent court actions, and of interviews with newspaper photographers and attorneys indicate that torts of privacy often conflict with the freedoms to publish and to gather news. Although some guidelines have already been established (about running distorted pictures, "stealing" pictures, taking pictures in courtrooms), some areas of uncertainty exist in the expansion of privacy laws to include torts of false light (misrepresenting the facts either by darkroom or lens distortion or by misinformation in captions), invasion of privacy (publishing embarrassing private facts), and appropriation (making money at the expense of someone's privacy). In general, photographers have not adjusted their picture taking procedures, tending to let editors and attorneys sort out the difficulties attendant to printing news photographs. But procedures could be developed to minimize exposure to lawsuits. Besides the general rules already established, these procedures might include getting identifications from all principals in shots (making them aware of the picture taking), requiring photographers to check captions on their photographs prior to publication, and providing a standard release form for all minors who are photographed. Descriptors: Court Litigation, Freedom of Speech, Guidelines, Journalism

Feldman, Beverly Neuer (1976). A Study of Students' Career Choices in Relationship to Job Opportunities in the Field of Child Development. A questionnaire was administered to 85 Child Development majors at Los Angeles Valley College in the spring of 1976 in order to assess the relationship of career information provided to students in Child Development and the range of vocational options selected. Results showed that the majority of students chose the single career track of nursery school teacher as a vocational goal, even though job opportunities were few and remuneration minimal. No significant differences in career choice were found between those students who had received career information and those who had not. From the evidence, it seemed likely that the career information received by students may have been misinformation. It was recommended that increased emphasis be placed on obtaining and disseminating current job market information, that communication between career information resources (counselors and staff) be strengthened, and that formalized vehicles for information dissemination be established as part of the Child Development program. A list of Child Development professions and requirements, and the questionnaire utilized in the study are appended. Descriptors: Career Awareness, Career Choice, Career Guidance, Career Planning

Lamborn, Robert L. (1986). Public and Private School Perspectives on Educational Reform. This paper considers factors contributing to the perspectives on educational reform held by educators in the public and private school systems of the United States and suggests a common perspective that can be used by both parties. The paper first defends four assertions: (1) the perspectives of those debating the appropriate roles of public and private education are distorted by ignorance, misinformation, bias, and emotion; (2) this distortion of policy perspectives handicaps educators trying to serve the public; (3) differences in public and private perspectives derive more from differences in "ownership,""mission," and "perception" than from differences in philosophy, purposes, or programs; and (4) the significant common core of purposes and concerns shared by public and private education provides sufficient ground for major collaborative efforts toward educational reform. The paper then reviews the fragmentation of education into varied public and private systems and the current movement toward increasing collaboration. A rationale for collaborative effort is proposed based on meeting common needs within a pluralistic society. The paper concludes by urging further scrutiny of the proposal, a long-term promotional effort, coordinated study, development of a national plan for collaborative reform, and conscientious pursuit and modification of that plan. Descriptors: Cooperation, Educational Change, Educational History, Educational Policy

Lynch, James (1988). Pedagogical Strategies To Reduce Prejudice: Towards Middle Range Theories. Educational policies to combat racist attitudes can succeed if comprehensive strategies are developed compatible with the context and the skills of the teachers involved. These strategies should be part of broader social policies and interests. Strategies should be holistic, comprehensive in scope and sequence, and involve the total school environment. Maximum use should be made of the resources and skills of the local community. Teaching strategies for prejudice reduction should include cognitive objectives to correct misinformation, as well as affective and behavioral objectives. Positive values are likely to transfer from one issue to another, but systematic reinforcement is necessary if gains are to be persistent. The purposes, values, and attributes of multiculturalism should permeate the school's functioning, including the following: (1) a democratic classroom and school ethos; (2) ethnic pluralism reflected in staff composition; (3) positive multi-ethnic interactions with significant others; (4) instruction that accounts for culturally different learning styles; and (5) mutual and multiple acculturation of student and teacher. Teaching and learning activities should include development of decision making and social action. Particular attention must be given to assessment and evaluation. A list of references is included. Descriptors: Cultural Awareness, Cultural Interrelationships, Cultural Pluralism, Curriculum Development

Hoffman, Elise; And Others (1978). Designing a Curriculum Model to Include Sexuality and a Procedure for its Administration. Human Sexuality-Nursing 50383. In order to design and implement a plan to integrate human sexuality into the curriculum for associate degree nursing students at Alvin Community College (Texas), levels of knowledge, attitudes and skills necessary in promoting sexual health were defined. Of the four levels in the Mims and Swenson Sexual Health Model (life experiences, basic, intermediate and advanced), it was determined that associate degree nursing students needed to attain at least the basic level when functioning with patients. This involves knowledge of anatomy and physiology of the sexual organs, of sexual variations among people, and seeing, hearing, listening and touching skills. Data collected from surveys and questionnaires of nursing students and instructors indicated that there was much misinformation or lack of information among undergraduate and graduate nursing students which could result in behavior detrimental to the patient. The curriculum was reorganized to reflect the desired level of competency through the use of an instructional change model and the development of a series of case studies, which analyze nursing diagnosis, clinical referents and nursing intervention, for six sexual problems. The instructional objectives for the sexuality curriculum and the sexual attitudes questionnaire are included in the document. Descriptors: Allied Health Occupations Education, Behavioral Objectives, Community Colleges, Curriculum Development

Edwards, Andrew; Hiday, Virginia Aldige' (1987). Attitudes towards and Knowledge of AIDS. Most research on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has been medical and most social science research on AIDS has been concerned with social factors in its spread and with social-psychological effects of contracting AIDS. This study was conducted to examine public attitudes toward, and public knowledge about AIDS. Knowledge about AIDS was measured by an index summing correct answers to 15 true-false items based on information readily available to subjects. Attitudes toward AIDS were measured by a set of 18 belief statements concerning persons with AIDS to which subjects agreed or disagreed on a 5-point Likert-type scale. Both instruments were completed by 117 college students. The results suggest that a large majority of college students have basic knowledge of the mechanisms of AIDS contagion and have little misinformation, yet are limited in their knowledge about its history, progress, and diagnosis. The data also suggest that college students share neither fear of casual contact with, nor moral condemnation of, persons with AIDS. Respondents did show inconsistency between their knowledge and their attitudes. While a majority recognized that AIDS is not spread through casual contact, a majority also expressed aversion toward food preparation and handling by persons with AIDS or by persons living with a person with AIDS. Although a majority of subjects were noncondemning and nonfearful of being in close proximity to persons with AIDS, a minority expressed negative attitudes toward persons with AIDS.   [More]  Descriptors: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, College Students, Higher Education, Knowledge Level

Powell, J. C. (1980). Developing a Training Program to Improve Teacher Effectiveness. A Prospectus for Research Proposals. The selection of wrong answers for multiple choice tests appears not to be blind guessing, as the current theory assumes, but represents systematic choice based upon the ways in which learners extract meaning and solve problems. It appears the departures from "expected" answers arise when the learner interprets the question in a manner different from that intended, uses a solution strategy differently than intended (perhaps incorrectly), or works from different information (perhaps misinformation) to solve problems. It would appear that the learner is unaware of these differences from expectation, and gives the best answer that he or she is able. The limiting factor confounding educators would seem to be inclinations to expound expectations rather than exploring those of the learners. Both teachers and learners may be unaware that their meaning extraction and thinking processes are not equivalent. To overcome this problem an alternative teaching strategy and testing procedure which is derived from wrong answer information is proposed, and a description is given of a teacher inservice course based on these procedures. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Cognitive Processes, Diagnostic Teaching, Elementary Secondary Education

Daniel, Jessica H.; And Others (1977). Child Abuse Screening: Implications of the Limited Predictive Power of Abuse Discriminants from a Controlled Family Study of Pediatric Social Illness. The predictive value of a child abuse screening instrument on unselected populations is illustrated for varying hypothesized levels of child abuse prevalence to demonstrate outcome of a hypothetical national screening program. At any level of application, the prediction of false positives (nonabusing families labeled as abusing or potentially abusing) and false negatives is seen to suggest low practical utility and an unacceptably large social cost. Varying interpretations of the meaning of this possible misclassification are discussed in the context of several program models. The following hypotheses for misclassification are posed: that subjects are really misclassified due to misdiagnosis based on either misinformation or socially induced bias; that subjects only appear misclassified because of limited ability to distinguish between types of cases; and that subjects are misclassified because diagnostic categories are overlapping (i.e. that child abuse is not a distinct category from accidents). Three short case examples demonstrate the implications of these kinds of misclassification for clinical practice program and policy. Descriptors: Case Studies, Child Abuse, Child Neglect, Clinical Diagnosis

Palladino, Joseph J.; Carducci, Bernardo J. (1983). Students' Knowledge of "Things That Go Bump in the Night.". Questionnaires designed to tap misconceptions of the content of psychology courses can serve as pedagogical devices useful for introducing students to topics and for evaluating student learning. The topic of sleep and dreams is of particular interest to students. To develop a useful introductory tool and to evaluate students' knowledge of sleep, dreams, and sleep disorders, a 39-item questionnaire in true/false format was designed. College students in introductory psychology courses (N=232) completed the questionnaire prior to coverage of those topics. In general, the results indicated that students were not poorly informed about the topics of sleep and dreams. Examples of students' inaccurate knowledge included beliefs that dreams only occur during REM (rapid eye movement) sleep, and that insomnia is caused by muscle tension. Students' major area of misinformation centered on some of the rarer sleep disorders, e.g., sleep apnea. However, students were knowledgeable concerning the difficulties associated with various sleep medications. The sleep and dreams questionnaire is appended.   [More]  Descriptors: College Students, Course Content, Higher Education, Instructional Materials

Kreps, Gary L. (1985). Interpersonal Communication in Health Care: Promises and Problems. Interpersonal communication plays an important role in health and health care. Five topic areas of problem-oriented interpersonal health communication research demonstrate this important role: lack of patient compliance, miscommunication and misinformation, insensitivity, unrealistic and unfulfilled expectations, and dissatisfaction. More recently, research in interpersonal health communication has examined the social support functions of interpersonal communication in health care. These studies have demonstrated the need for expressive social communication contacts with others to help maintain individual well-being and psychological health. Unfortunately the focus of research studies thus far has been on the interpersonal communication needs of health care providers, often ignoring the interpersonal communication needs of health care consumers, different specialized areas of health care delivery, and the aged. Future research should be designed to (1) identify the specific communication competencies needed by people involved in digestive disease health care, (2) establish performance-based measures for health communication competencies, and (3) develop educational strategies to help health care consumers and providers cultivate the health communication competencies identified. Descriptors: Communication Problems, Communication Research, Communication Skills, Health Personnel

Kailin, Clarence S.; Sylvester, Mary Jean, Ed. (1974). Black Chronicle: An American History Textbook Supplement. The chronicle provides an accurate and balanced representation of the history of the black experience in an effort to counteract misinformation presented in most textbooks. American history textbooks used in Wisconsin school districts ignore or distort the cultural experiences and contributions of blacks, often omitting important information, overgeneralizing, and distorting historical accuracy. The document is organized as a chronological outline, with dates presented for 11 major historical periods: The Colonial period, the Revolutionary War period, the Civil War and reconstruction, post-reconstruction, industrialization and world involvement, the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s, World War II and the New Deal, post-World War II, the Protest Era, and the early 1970s. For each period, a brief overview summarizes major national and international political and social events which were significant to blacks. Following the historical overview, specific dates within the historical period are listed and events occurring on those dates are described. Example items include 1905, the Niagara Movement was formed by W.E.B. DuBois to reject paternalism, inferiority, and charity; 1939, Senator Theodore Bilbo of Mississippi introduced a plan to colonize black people back to Africa; and 1972, the National Black Convention in Gary, Indiana, drew up an agenda to present to political parties in the 1972 election. Descriptors: African History, Black Power, Blacks, Civil War (United States)

McCarney, Bernard J. (1982). Selection of a Research Topic in Economic Education. A rationale, survey of research findings, and research needs for economics education are offered. The case for the universality of economic literacy has been forwarded by several leading economists. Economics education is seen as an important key for the survival of humanity; the task of the educator is to reduce partial ignorance, misinformation, and lack of foresight. A survey of four major research reviews and recent issues of "The Journal of Economics Education" suggests that past efforts have been narrowly focused or redundant. Also, while economic research is carefully quantified from a statistical stance, outcome measures were less satisfactory than found in science and mathematics educational research. Future research should focus on the teacher's decision-making process on content selection and presentation, academic learning time, and differential benefit gains for students at different cognitive levels. Major issues include investigating how students internally structure and make meaningful the variety of concepts and principles of economics and identifying how psychological and instructional variables assist in student learning. Descriptors: Economics Education, Educational Needs, Educational Research, Elementary Secondary Education

Collet, LeVerne S. (1970). Elimination vs. Best Answer Response Modes for M-C Tests. A critical review of systems of scoring multiple choice tests is presented and the superiority of a system based upon elimination method over one based upon the best answer mode is hypothesized. This is discussed in terms of the capacity of the mode to reveal the relationships among decoy options and the effects of partial information, misinformation and guessing. Tests were administered to two groups of subjects and scored according to each of the three treatment modes, classical, weighted choice, and elimination. In addition, subjects were asked to indicate their confidence in the correctness of each answer. Thus, treatment, confidence, and knowledge scores were computed for each subject and a Gulliksen-Wilks regression test was performed on the data to compare the validity and reliability of the three scoring modes. The results generally support the hypothesized superiority of the elimination scores. Elimination produced higher validities and reliabilities and less guessing than either of the other two treatments. Although the design did not permit a definitive comparison of elimination and confidence scores, there was some evidence that elimination scores were at least as valid as confidence scores.   [More]  Descriptors: Multiple Choice Tests, Scoring, Test Reliability, Test Validity

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