Bibliography: Misinformation (page 26 of 30)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized for the Alternative Facts website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Philip Dauterman, Charlotte Keys, David C. Berliner, Bobbie S. Oh, Juneau. Div. of Family and Youth Services. Alaska State Dept. of Health and Social Services, LaVina Gillespie, Jack Utter, Agnes Grant, Gail M. Nimphius, and Neil Pilkington.

Dauterman, Philip (1970). Are There Any Questions?, Alberta English '70. The crucial variable in good classroom teaching is the verbal behavior of the teacher. Through his questioning techniques–what questions he asks, how and when he asks them, how he replies to students, and how he stimulates students to reply to each other–the teacher can evoke a high level of class discussion and force students to go beyond the factual level of comprehension. To improve his questioning techniques, the teacher should (1) call on the less demonstrative students, unobtrusively correcting misinformation so that all in the class experience some degree of success, (2) sequence and pace questions carefully, (3) avoid using questions which deal with insignificant content or which require fact-recall, opinion, and "either-or" responses, (4) adapt questions to the particular subject areas under discussion, and (5) in teaching literature, use such questions as "Why?""Under what circumstances…?""How can you tell that…?""How would you compare…?""What are the probable causes or possible effects of…?" and "What would happen if…?"   [More]  Descriptors: Class Activities, Classroom Communication, Classroom Techniques, Decision Making Skills

Utter, Jack (1993). American Indians: Answers to Today's Questions. This book aims to fill part of the gap that exists between commonly held misconceptions and the realities of American Indian history and modern life. Part I discusses the "doctrine of discovery," a European legal theory invented to justify the acquisition of Indian lands, and explains why the issue of discovery has had so great an impact on American Indians. Part II contains 115 questions and answers covering definitions and demography; tribes; treaties and agreements between tribes and the United States; misinformation and stereotypes; American Indian languages, culture, and religion; wars; American Indian reservations, natural resources, land use, economics, and social services; legal status of Indians, tribal sovereignty, tribal government, and issues of jurisdiction; structure and programs of the Bureau of Indian Affairs; Indian Health Service, health-related statistics, and alcoholism; history of American Indian education, federal Indian education facilities and programs, and integration of traditional Indian philosophy and Western education; other government agencies and national Indian organizations; and history of Alaska, land claims, the subsistence issue, and socioeconomic problems of Alaska Natives. Part III summarizes the history of U.S. Indian policy. Appendices provide background on Native Hawaiian issues and list tribal entities in the contiguous 48 states, Native entities in Alaska, BIA criteria for a group to qualify as a tribe, Navajo regulations and procedures for tribal membership, and addresses of state Indian commissions. Contains over 400 references, many maps, and an index. Descriptors: Alaska Natives, American Indian Culture, American Indian Education, American Indian History

Clair, Nancy (1993). ESL Teacher Educators and Teachers: Insights from Classroom Teachers with Language-Minority Students. A study explored the beliefs, self-reported practices, and professional development needs of three classroom teachers (grades 4, 5, and 10) with language-minority students. A case history of each teacher was developed from interviews, classroom observations, and entries from teacher journals. Analysis revealed that (1) the teachers' beliefs about language-minority students and their programs may be based on hearsay and misinformation; (2) the teachers do not vary their planning for this population, but frequently vary lesson implementation; (3) selection of instructional practices may be based on naive notions of language proficiency and the demands of the mainstream classroom; and (4) the teachers draw on intuitive wisdom because of lack of preservice education or staff development regarding language-minority students. Based on these findings, it is recommended that: preservice teacher education curricula be designed in a way that integrates the social, political, and cultural realities of a multicultural student population; staff development be specific to the local context; teachers collaborate with other teachers, parents, and administrators about the education of language-minority students; and more research be conducted on teacher beliefs and behavior, innovative preservice teacher education, and inservice staff development models regarding language-minority issues.   [More]  Descriptors: Case Studies, Classroom Techniques, Cultural Pluralism, Educational Needs

Laughlin, David L. (1989). A Selective and Evaluative Bibliographic Essay on Mormonism: For Use in Public, Academic, and Special Libraries. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS) was established in 1830 by six men led by Joseph Smith. Today this group, commonly called Mormons, numbers approximately seven million members worldwide. Mormonism has sometimes been the object of public, political, and ecclesiastical animosity and misinformation. There is now a vast amount of material available on Mormonism. This bibliographic essay addresses the questions of how to keep up with the abundance of material and how to tell the difference between the fair, balanced, and well-researched material and poorly written and biased pieces. It is intended to be a core collection guide for public libraries as well as a reference guide for researchers and students in academic, special, and public libraries. Over 125 citations are divided among 15 subject headings: (1) bibliographies, indexes, and guides, (2) biographies, (3) doctrinal literature, (4) genealogical research, (5) handbooks, directories, and encyclopedias, (6) histories, (7) hymnology, (8) the Mormon Church, (9) Mormon authors, (10) pioneers, (11) polygamy, (12) the Salt Lake Temple, (13) women, (14) periodicals, and (15) newspapers. An alphabetical, enumerative bibliography of the same sources cited in the bibliographical essay is also included. Descriptors: Annotated Bibliographies, Biographies, Books, Females

Berliner, David C. (1992). Educational Reform in an Era of Disinformation. Criticisms leveled at the American education system are examined in this paper, which asserts that misinformation about Japanese education should not be used as a basis for educational reform in the United States. Commonly reported changes made against the American public school system are explored; they include lowered student intelligence, decreased standardized test scores and academic achievement, overly expensive schools, the lack of a relationship between educational funding and school productivity, and declining mathematics and science competition in the world market. A historical overview indicates that business and the elite citizenry have waged a campaign of disinformation that identifies the American school system as a failure. Another conclusion is that many reform efforts will create greater economic and educational disparity. Five alternative national education goals are outlined: school radiness for all (including the provision of preschool programs and adequate day and health care); equal access to operational facilities; the creation of politically and socially involved graduates; the highest paid teachers in the world; and equalized school funding. A total of 17 figures are included. (41 references)   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Comparative Education, Educational Assessment, Educational Change

Kaufman, Donald G.; Oh, Bobbie S. (1996). The Timber Wolf: Hands-On Activities for Elementary Teachers. The focus of this manual is the timber wolf and its experience in the United States. The activities are designed to enable students to gain a factual understanding of the timber wolf, question any misinformation they have learned regarding wolves, and learn to appreciate the wolf as a creature of nature rather than fear it as a creature of fairy tales. To meet these goals the activities in each unit are centered around the following themes: pre- and post-unit attitudes towards wolves, the fictional wolf versus the factual wolf, timber wolf adaptations and habitat, wolf pack social structure, the wolf's role as predator, why the timber wolf is endangered, and wolf reintroduction controversy in central Idaho and Yellowstone National Park. In addition to the timber wolf, many activities incorporate information about Arctic wolves, Mexican wolves, and red wolves. Each unit contains 10 activities written with a particular grade level in mind that can be adapted for a younger or older audience. The format used in each activity includes four sections: objectives, materials, activity, and connections. The wolf resource list includes books, audio-visual materials, internet resources, and organizations. Descriptors: Animal Behavior, Animals, Conservation (Environment), Elementary Education

Grant, Agnes; Gillespie, LaVina (1993). Joining the Circle: A Practitioners' Guide to Responsive Education for Native Students. Overwhelmingly, the cultures of schools reflect the norms of middle-class European-Americans. Many young Native Americans fail to adapt to this culture and are perceived as unacceptable and uneducable. Deprivation of a sound educational system and concomitant social relegation lead to dismal educational outcomes and subsequent effects on health, life expectancy, employment, and income. This monograph examines the still prevalent stereotypes and prejudices operating in mainstream society and schools, and explores research findings and resources that can help chart new directions in Native education. Chapter I discusses the history of assimilation policies, historical misinformation about Native American cultures, the dilemma of non-Native teachers teaching Native students, school failure as a form of resistance, and 10 types of bias found in instructional materials. Chapter II describes the diversity of Native cultures, both among groups and over time, and suggests ways that educators can put Native cultural capital to use. Chapter III discusses the importance of training more Native teachers and the value of tribal colleges in this effort. Chapter IV describes ways that all teachers can become more responsive to Native students, parents, and communities; examples of promising practices; and criteria for constructing a theory of Native education. An annotated bibliography includes 48 related items available through the ERIC system. Contains 72 references.   [More]  Descriptors: Alaska Natives, American Indian Culture, American Indian Education, American Indians

Bruckerhoff, Charles E. (1991). Literacy in Contexts: Perspectives from Society. Critique of "The New Literacy.". John Willinsky's two concerns in his book "The New Literacy: Redefining Reading and Writing in the Schools" are: (1) to make school children's reading and writing into a process-oriented and productive enterprise; and (2) to change the teacher's practice from passive/autocratic to active/democratic. However, the book: (1) expects teachers and other educators to uncritically abandon past beliefs and practices in favor of the new classroom discourse; (2) harbors some faulty ideas, such as its dualistic, either/or philosophy; (3) is tied to determinism, certainty, and millenialism; (4) does not deal with the ways in which reading and writing are instruments of misinformation and propaganda; (5) gives too little attention to the question of how to teach a child to read; (6) portrays the New Literacy is in opposition to one dominant force, namely conservatism; and (7) has problems with mechanics and style. Willinsky's populist definition of literacy is "vulgar pragmatism." The index is a catalogue of names with only six topical entries, and Willinsky uses a mixture of literacy metaphors, producing ambiguity and confusion. Willinsky's New Literacy may be the New Creed, but it is not education. Small as the movement may be, the urge to spread sublime literacy throughout the world imitates past and present crusades for democracy, Christianity, communism, and every other universal, totalizing system.   [More]  Descriptors: Book Reviews, Educational Change, Elementary Secondary Education, Higher Education

Alaska State Dept. of Health and Social Services, Juneau. Div. of Family and Youth Services. (1997). Plain Talk about Childhood Immunizations. This booklet provides parents with information about immunizations and vaccine-preventable diseases, balances the benefits and risk of vaccination, and responds to inaccuracies or misinformation about immunizations and vaccine-preventable diseases. Section 1 presents a message to parents about vaccination. Section 2 offers facts about vaccine-preventable diseases (measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis A and B, and varicella). This section explains that proper immunization saves lives, prevents the spread of disease, and saves money. Section 3 describes how the immune system and vaccines work. Section 4 helps parents understand the importance of vaccinating early rather than waiting to receive any recommended vaccinations. Section 5 answers questions about specific vaccines. Section 6 explains that proper adolescent health care includes immunizations. Section 7 discusses legal requirements and considerations related to vaccinations. Section 8 highlights the safety of vaccines, discussing vaccine approval and monitoring by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Section 9 compares the risks of disease and serious complication to the risk of serious reaction to a vaccine. Section 10 presents news stories about individuals who have contracted diseases because of not being vaccinated. Section 11 presents a list of resources.   [More]  Descriptors: Child Health, Disease Control, Elementary School Students, Elementary Secondary Education

Clair, Nancy (1993). Beliefs, Self-Reported Practices and Professional Development Needs of Three Classroom Teachers with Language-Minority Students. This study explored beliefs, self-reported practices, and professional development needs of three mainstream classroom teachers with language-minority students. Case histories of the teachers were composed from transcripts of interviews, classroom observation, and entries from teacher and observer journals. Analysis reveals that: (1) teacher beliefs about language-minority students may be based on hearsay and misinformation; (2) the teachers do not vary their planning but frequently vary lesson implementation; (3) choice of instructional practices may be based on naive notions of language proficiency and the demands of the mainstream classroom; and (4) teachers draw on intuitive wisdom because of lack of preservice teacher preparation and nonexistent or inadequate inservice education on issues related to language-minority students. Implications are drawn primarily for preservice and inservice teacher education: teacher educators must embrace a conception of schooling that considers the social, political, and cultural realities of a diverse student population when creating innovative curricula; inservice staff development regarding language-minority student issues should be context-specific, driven by the needs and commitments of teachers and the resources of school and community; teachers have a responsibility for engaging in dialogue with teachers, parents, and administrators about these issues; and more research is needed.   [More]  Descriptors: Beliefs, Case Studies, Classroom Techniques, Educational Needs

Nimphius, Gail M. (1991). Designing and Implementing an Educational Program on AIDS for Minority Childbearing Women To Enhance AIDS Awareness. Ignorance, misinformation, and a failure to personalize the risk for acquisition of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) virus has created a situation in which the incidence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) seroprevalence among minority childbearing women in a Florida county is increasing. An increased incidence in this population yields an increased incidence of perinatal AIDS transmission and hence pediatric AIDS. Perinatal AIDS transmission is disproportionately represented by African American and Hispanic women nationwide and this county is no exception. An educational program on AIDS, targeted at minority childbearing women, was implemented in an attempt to enhance the women's knowledge regarding the disease. Subjects (N=127) were antepartum or postpartum patients. A video which featured the testimony of three peer women who had AIDS or were infected with HIV was used to disseminate information. Five major categories of instruction were included: dispelling myths; children and AIDS; transmission of the virus, condoms; and personalizing the risk. Following the video, county statistics were given to validate and further personalize the risk. Human Immunodeficiency Virus testing was discussed and a condom demonstration was performed in an attempt to equip the participants with actual steps which can be taken towards protection. Evaluation data indicated that the project was successful in enhancing the knowledge base of the majority of the participants. Descriptors: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, At Risk Persons, Females, Health Education

Cantor, James; Pilkington, Neil (1992). Homophobia in Psychology Programs: A Survey of Graduate Students. Students experience homophobia in both covert and overt forms. Covert homophobia exists through the neglect of gay, lesbian, and bisexual topics in graduate psychology programs. Overt homophobia exists through the misinformation and perpetuation of stereotypes by faculty, textbooks, and program administrators. Unfortunately little data exist regarding the prevalence of overt homophobia in psychology programs. In this study psychology graduate students (N=79) were surveyed about experiences of homophobic bias they encountered in their programs. The survey asked students questions about their exposure to anti-gay, -lesbian, and -bisexual content in textbook passages, instructor comments, and other facets of graduate training. All but two of the respondents identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. These were the implications of the results: (1) psychology programs not only fail to make appropriate mention of gay topics, they also at an alarming rate, misinform, miseducate, and mislead people who will educate others regarding sexuality issues; (2) in nearly all cases course instructors fail to refute the misstatements of textbooks; (3) students' attempts to expand curricula, to further research, and to fill the existing void of information are thwarted not only by instructors, but also by practicum advisors, administrators, and thesis advisors; and (4) the burden of educating other students currently lies with gay, lesbian, and bisexual students, with the student, rather than the instructor or program becoming the vehicle for advancement of the field.    [More]  Descriptors: Doctoral Programs, Graduate Students, Graduate Study, Higher Education

Keys, Charlotte; And Others (1986). Getting Acquainted: Thinking about the Soviet Union. Elementary Teaching Activities: Days of Dialogue, 1986. This guide is designed to replace the ignorance, misinformation, and negative stereotypes that many students hold about the Soviet Union and its peoples with a reasoned and rational outlook based on critical thinking and class activities. The introduction to these activities provides background and a rationale for teaching about the Soviet Union. The first section of the activities, "Raising Questions…Gathering Information," contains 11 group activities to stimulate thinking; find out what students know; and examine assumptions, perceptions, and information, and their sources. The second section, "More to Explore," contains 19 activities to motivate further study and to provide some background in Soviet history, language, and culture. Examples of the Soviet calendar, the cyrillic alphabet, and maps of the Soviet Union are included. A "Teachers Fact Sheet" of general information on the Soviet Union, a list of 19 recommended resources (organizations and publications), and the "Cheeverwood" cartoon series (M. Fry) on student's attitudes about the Soviet Union are also provided. Descriptors: Controversial Issues (Course Content), Critical Thinking, Cross Cultural Studies, Cultural Activities

Vail, Neil J. (1973). Coping with the Language Arts Riddle. Language arts programs are sometimes aimless because elementary teachers are not quite sure what is meant by the term "language arts." Often the typical language arts offering lacks a maintenance program which can reinforce learning and correct misinformation. Or, the pupils draw back when usage or mechanics are mentioned because they have previously experienced long sessions of dull practice. Recognition of these factors spurred the development of a Daily Oral Usage program which basically involves writing two incorrect sentences on the board each day. First the incorrect sentences are read by the children so that they can listen for errors. Next they search for errors in punctuation, letter format, verb usage, capitalization, and so on. Pupils then volunteer the needed corrections, identifying the type of error in each case and explaining the need for correction. Finally, the class rereads the corrected sentence to hear the right version. The whole procedure takes a maximum of ten minutes each day. Within this context, the teacher can realize the need for some arbitrary placement of skills.   [More]  Descriptors: Elementary Education, Language Arts, Language Programs, Language Skills

Dolly, John P. (1975). A Behavioral Approach in Defining and Teaching Educational Psychology. Behaviorists define the purpose of educational psychology as that of teaching teachers to predict, control, and modify classroom behavior. This conceptualization is contrasted with the approach which views educational psychology as a comprehensive content area emphasizing information rather than skills. A basic distinction between behaviorists and nonbehaviorists can be traced back to the question of whether the role of education and teachers is to instruct and teach skills (behaviorist view), or to be concerned with the development of interpersonal relationships and positive self-concepts (nonbehaviorist view). Much criticism voiced against the behaviorist approach is based on misinformation. Some misconceptions are: (a) that behaviorist approaches are designed for dealing only with deviant behavior; (b) that we cannot discover specific types of teacher behaviors that will lead to certain student outcomes; and (c) that behaviorists teach only Skinnerian and operant procedures. Misconceptions also exist concerning educational psychology courses. Such courses should avoid subject areas which will not aid in facilitating behavioral change. Rather than trying to cover everything, teachers should concentrate on teaching skills students will need later as teachers.   [More]  Descriptors: Behavior Change, Behavioral Objectives, Educational Psychology, Humanistic Education

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