Bibliography: Misinformation (page 27 of 30)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized for the Alternative Facts website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Rebecca Robbins, Doris L. Prater, Esther R. Dyer, Jean A. Steitz, Ronald Garay, C. Ann Terry, Irene K. Spero, Rand R. Wilcox, Rosalind Silver, and Clarence S. Kailin.

Prater, Doris L.; Terry, C. Ann (1985). The Effects of a Composing Model on Fifth Grade Students' Reading Comprehension. A study was conducted to determine whether students who mapped prior and post knowledge of a basal reading lesson would achieve higher scores on a comprehension test and write better summaries of those stories than would students who received traditional basal reading instruction. Subjects, 30 fifth grade students, participated in either a treatment or a control group condition. Subjects in both groups read the same six stories. The treatment group teacher identified key concepts from each story and mapped the students' prior knowledge before each reading. Then the students read to confirm the accuracy of their knowledge, clarify misinformation on their maps, and add new information. Next, they wrote story summaries and completed a comprehension test. Instruction for the control group students concentrated on vocabulary words, silent reading, oral discussion, and summary writing. Results showed that test scores of the treatment group students were markedly higher than those of the control condition students. No difference was found in the overall quality of the writing of the two groups. Descriptors: Basal Reading, Beginning Reading, Comparative Analysis, Educational Theories

Klages, Karen (1981). They Remember the "Lost" People. Estimates of the number of children currently missing in the United States are only approximate because there is no effective central data bank to collect information on missing persons and unidentified bodies. However, the problem appears to have reached epidemic proportions. Some parents of missing persons have formed organizations in different parts of the country to advise other parents with missing children of measures that might prove effective in finding their child and to educate the public about the many problems and frustrations these families encounter. The police and Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), although sympathetic, are often powerless in abduction cases. After several incidences of confusion and misinformation by the police and FBI about jurisdictional authority, the aunt of a missing child organized a volunteer program to press for a central communication network that could prove invaluable in cases with similar details by matching information to identify bodies or lead police to a single offender. If parents of a missing child have filed a full description of their children with the schools, the description could be forwarded in chain-letter fashion to local hospitals, hospitals across the country, and eventually into a central data bank. Federal legislation for this costly, but very feasible network is pending. Descriptors: Adolescents, Children, Communications, Computers

Steitz, Jean A.; Verner, Betty S. (1987). What Do Adolescents Know about Aging?. Increasing the amount of contact with older persons is often proposed as a way to inform young people about aging. This study compared adolescents' knowledge of aging with the amount and quality of contact they had with an older person and compared knowledge of aging in a 1978 sample of adolescents with knowledge in a 1985 sample. For the 1985 sample, questionnaires were administered to students (N=213) in four high schools. Subjects were asked if they had contact with an older person, their relationship to that person, and the older person's gender and place of residence. Knowledge was assessed by the Facts on Aging Quiz. Of the 206 respondents who reported having contact with an older person, 80% chose a grandparent to evaluate and 8% chose a great-grandparent. The 1985 sample answered only 57% of the knowledge questions correctly, indicating that they had a great deal of misinformation or lack of information about aging and older adults. Profiles of the responses on individual items from the Facts on Aging Quiz revealed qualitative differences due to gender, degree of contact, and changes over time in the nature of the adolescents' knowledge of aging. Descriptors: Adolescents, Aging (Individuals), Grandparents, High School Students

Lampe, Philip E. (1984). Mexican Americans: Labeling and Mislabeling. Although the study of self-selected ethnic labels may aid scientists in their understanding of an ethnic group, the uncoordinated use of ethnic labels applied by social scientists and others can result in confusion and misinformation. A literature review yields a plethora of terms used to refer to Mexican Americans. Terms currently popular are Hispanic, Chicano, Mexicano, and Mexican American. One source of data for social scientists has been the government census which has used a variety of identification and classification techniques including objective and/or subjective methods of defining ethnic populations. Many existing terms are too broad or are found to be undesirable by the population to whom the term is applied. The term Hispanic ignores national boundaries. The popular term Chicano refers to a population Mexican Americans perceive as being more ethnocentric, anti-establishment and politically active, but is often used by social scientists without those distinctions. The term Mexican American is most applicable when referring to Americans with ancestral ties to Mexico as it is both descriptive and consistent with terminology presently employed to identify other ethnic groups. Social scientists engaged in Mexican American studies must agree on terminology in order to facilitate comparisons and the accumulation of knowledge. Descriptors: Ethnicity, Hispanic Americans, Identification, Labeling (of Persons)

Dyer, Esther R., Comp.; Hannigan, Jane Anne, Ed. (1978). Cultural Pluralism and Children's Media. School Media Centers: Focus on Trends and Issues No. 1. Ethnic traditions and the search for a cultural identity constitute strong forces in contemporary American society. The school media center has an important role in smoothing the societal transition from a "melting pot" ideal to a multicultural philosophy, for collections of culturally pluralistic materials and services can create bridges of understanding within the society. This document addresses the specific client needs, programs, and materials for four cultural or ethnic groups. The chapter on American Indians states that librarians must avoid materials that perpetuate stereotypes and misinformation. It recommends that media specialists request assistance from Indian librarians in selecting programs and materials that realistically portray the historical and contemporary experience of the American Indian people. The chapter on Afro-American heritage in children's materials cites the need for a variety of settings, occupations, situations, and characters as vitally important. The section on Asian-Americans in literature addresses such issues as syncretism and cultural pluralism, library programs, and Asian images in literature. The final chapter is concerned with the role of the media centers in bilingual education. Focusing on the acquisition of materials for Spanish-speaking children, it seeks to make librarians aware of the diversity of materials available and of some of the myths surrounding selection of Spanish language materials. Descriptors: American Indians, Asian Americans, Bilingual Education, Blacks

Kailin, Clarence S. (1979). Black Chronicle: An American History Textbook Supplement. Revised. This second edition of the chronicle provides an accurate and balanced representation of the history of the Black experience in an effort to counteract misinformation presented in most U.S. history textbooks. A study of U.S. history texts used in Wisconsin school districts reveals major failings. One of the most serious shortcomings of the textbooks is the omission or distortion of the Black experience as well as inaccuracies in the portrayal of Black people. The historical account of events, which the chronicle presents, begins in 50,000 B.C. and ends in 1979. The following major historical periods are covered: early times; the colonial period; slave resistance; the Revolutionary War period to the Civil War; the Civil War; Reconstruction and post-Reconstruction; Black organizational activities from Civil War to 1900; the populist movement; the Booker T. Washington Period; the Harlem Renaissance; the New Deal and World War II; the post-World War II period; the posttest era; the struggle of the 1960's; the decade of the seventies; July, 1978 Justice Thurgood Marshall's Bakke dissent; and 1979. For each period an historical overview is provided, specific dates within the historical period are listed, and events occuring on those dates are described. Examples include: 1890, by the beginning of the 1890's, there were 154 Black newspapers; 1942, James Farmer formed the Congress of Racial Equality (C.O.R.E.); 1978, New Orleans got its first Black Mayor, Ernest N. Morial, on Mondary May 1, 1978. Descriptors: Bibliographies, Black History, Black Influences, Black Power

Robbins, Rebecca (1979). How Communities and American Indian Parents Can Identify and Remove Culturally Biased Books from Schools. Removal from the schools of educational material objectionable to American Indians is a matter of concern to teachers, parents, Indian communities and organizations, and educational decision makers. To appeal to a wider market, publishers often produce materials favoring the interests of the predominant society. Thus, textbooks and other curricular materials too often portray Indian people and institutions in an inaccurate, limited, and unfair manner, thus perpetuating a distorted historical view. Indian youth and adults must attempt to eradicate such historical and cultural misinformation and bias in instructional materials. One way in which unsatisfactory instructional materials can be identified is through the use of the Project MEDIA evaluation catalog developed by the National Indian Education Association. Community members can also identify and evaluate materials by asking specific questions such as "Does the material generate a pride of heritage in Indian students?", and by obtaining Indian students' reactions to the materials. Comprehensive and well-organized requests for curriculum material removal should be presented to appropriate school decision makers and authorities, which differ with the type of school involved. The many Indian and non-Indian organizations involved in efforts to improve the education of Indian children can assist in such efforts. An alphabetical list of such organizations is included.   [More]  Descriptors: American Indian Education, American Indians, Bias, Community Responsibility

McKenzie, Karen S. (1979). Introducing Africa in the Classroom. An Instructional Unit for Seventh Grade Social Studies. Part I. [And] Part II. The document presents a seventh grade social studies unit on Africa. The unit is one of a number of products developed by a summer workshop for teachers on African curriculum development. The objective is to help students understand the concept of culture, how cultures develop, and how and why cultures change. The document is divided into two parts. Part One focuses on students' knowledge and misinformation about Africa, as well as the environment of the continent, a prediction of problems caused by the environment, and an attempt to formulate hypotheses for student inquiry into African culture. Sixteen learning activities include two pretests, class discussion, and mapwork, as well as exercises in knowledge identification, classification, data gathering, speculation, and generalization. All activities emphasize problem prediction and hypotheses formulation about the development of African cultures. Concluding sections list student and teacher resources and offer student handouts. Part II offers activities focusing on African art, music, and oral literature as integrated expressions of the culture. These are intended to supplement the activities of Part I and should be coordinated with them. Stories and proverbs from several tribes are told and discussed, including dilemma tales, singing tales, and tales of gods and heroes. Activities include identifying values, playing games, creative writing, problem solving, reading novels, film viewing, having a story telling contest, and dramatizing. They all emphasize African cultural aspects and values. Teaching strategies and student and teacher resources are suggested throughout. A bibliography concludes the document.   [More]  Descriptors: African Culture, African Literature, Area Studies, Cross Cultural Studies

1978 (1978). Urban Awareness; A Field Trip. A description of a Title III funded project is presented in this paper. The project, Urban Awareness, involves an urban field trip for high school students from suburban areas. Every year, at least five classes from suburban Hamilton spend a school day in Boston's North End and Roxbury districts as a means of studying the city and its ethnic neighborhoods. Both teachers and students see the experience as critical in understanding issues in urbanology and minority group courses. One of the learning objectives of the program is to diminish stereotyped responses and misinformation about the city and its ethnic minorities through contact and first hand information-gathering. The students in the program were to do the following: (1) write a position paper on a current issue in city planning or government, (2) cite 5 examples of ethnic or cultural diversity within an urban neighborhood that they had actually seen, and (3) complete a worksheet containing a series of questions. Advice for teachers when planning an urban expedition is given. The appendix includes the student worksheet. Descriptors: Class Activities, Field Trips, High School Students, Program Content

Garay, Ronald (1976). Congressional Television: Attempts to Implement Televised Coverage of the U.S. Congress. In 1970, the Legislative Reorganization Act authorized the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives to open their committee meetings to both radio and television. Three factors increased interest in implementing media coverage of such meetings: feasibility of televised coverage, public cynicism and hostility generated by misinformation and information gaps, and the realization that television would effectively shift power from the president, who has made increasing use of the medium, to the Congress. Opponents of the use of television cite the disruptive effects of television cameras, bright lights, and microphones as reasons for rejecting media coverage. A report prepared by the Congressional Research Service at the request of the Joint Committee indicated, however, that these objections could be overcome. Steps toward legislative resolutions which would allow televised coverage of committee meetings and open floor debate have not been acted upon, despite the fact that a recent Roper poll of television viewers indicated that more than 50% of those interviewed felt that deliberative sessions should be televised.   [More]  Descriptors: Constitutional Law, Government (Administrative Body), Government Role, Hearings

Butler, Karen L. (1994). Prospective Teachers' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Regarding Gay Men and Lesbians. Although student populations of public schools are becoming increasingly diverse, the teacher population has remained relatively homogeneous, and many teachers do not have sufficient knowledge of or experience with other cultural groups to deal with differences in the classroom. Gay men and lesbians comprise one such cultural group. A survey of 42 prospective teachers enrolled in the Human Diversity in Education course at Kent (Ohio) State University measured general attitudes toward homosexuality, knowledge, educator-specific attitudes, and anticipated educator behavior. The prospective teachers identified themselves as being "predominantly heterosexual." Results indicated that the group held slightly homophobic general attitudes and educator-specific attitudes. The group also exhibited a general lack of knowledge about homosexuality. The high percentages of incorrect responses on items alluding to stereotypes regarding gay men and lesbians suggest that misinformation is prevalent. The group also exhibited unwillingness to address gay and lesbian issues adequately in the context of school or to behave in ways that are supportive to gays and lesbians. Carefully planned and implemented formal instruction may be helpful in changing negative attitudes toward diversity in sexual orientation. Successful interventions may take a cognitive approach, an affective approach, or some combination of the two. (Contains 56 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Attitude Change, College Students, Education Courses, Education Majors

Silver, Rosalind, Ed.; Thoman, Elizabeth, Ed. (1990). News for the '90s: A Question of Values, Media & Values. This special issue of "Media & Values" gives a perspective on how news is changing, what is missing in the news, and how to spot bias and misinformation in news coverage, both print and electronic. Articles examine the impact of computer imaging on the credibility of photographs and the issue of privacy–just how far should journalists go to get a story? In the vital area of news, what is real is too often shaped by reporters and correspondents who rarely are allowed the luxury of depth. Or, more likely, news is shaped by news executives who value ratings and sales more than the public trust. Articles in this issue include: (1) "Whatever Happened to the News?" (Daniel Hallin); (2) "Satisfying an Age-Old Appetite"; (3) "Balance Bias with Critical Questions" (Pat Hynds); (4)"Project Censored Exposes Media's Untold Stories"; (5) "Left/Right/Center" (Jeff Cohen); (6) "Making the News Pay" (Jeff Greenfield); (7) "Touching Up Reality" (Bennett Daviss); and (8) "The News at Any Cost" (Tom Goldstein). Descriptors: Content Analysis, Critical Thinking, Decision Making, Mass Media Effects

Wilcox, Rand R. (1983). Optimal Measurement Considerations for Diagnostic Tests. Methodology Project. This document presents a series of five papers describing issues in educational measurement. "A Simple Model for Diagnostic Testing When There Are Several Types of Misinformation" directly addresses the diagnostic issue. It describes a simple latent trait model for testing, examines use of erroneous algorithms, and illustrates the derivation of an optimal scoring rule for multiple choice test items. "Measuring Mental Abilities with Latent State Models" has three goals: to review the latent state models that have been proposed for measuring aptitude and achievement; to outline the measurement problems that can now be solved with latent state models; and to discuss how latent state and latent trait models are related. "Strong True Score Theory" reviews true score models in light of various assumptions about guessing. "Approximating Multivariate Distributions" suggests a simple approximation of multivariate distributions. The suggested method is compared with several other approximations. These comparisons indicate that the new approximation nearly always gives better results. "Unbiased Estimation in a Closed Sequential Testing Procedure" provides an optimal linear estimator of the proportion of items within an item domain that an examinee would answer correctly if every item were attempted.   [More]  Descriptors: Diagnostic Tests, Estimation (Mathematics), Guessing (Tests), Latent Trait Theory

Spero, Irene K. (1978). Government and Higher Education: A Summary of 21 Institutional Self-Studies. A summary of 21 institutional self-studies concerning government and higher education considers the following areas: equal employment, affirmative action, and nondiscrimination; student affairs (student assistance and the Buckley Amendment); research; and safety and health. Brief excerpts from the institutional reports are presented on these issue areas. There seems to be almost universal agreement that federal laws and regulations dealing with nondiscrimination in terms of both sex and minorities, equal employment opportunity, and affirmative action have had more of an impact at the campus level than other types of regulations. The positive aspects of federal student assistance programs are readily acknowledged, but the procedures that direct these funds to the campus come under attack. The Buckley Amendment concerns protection of students against damaging misinformation being placed and retained in their files. While federal support of academic research is a major force in an institution's research capability, federal funding practices are said to discourage the establishment of long-range research plans. The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, which attempts to standardize and enforce safety and health practices, applies to colleges and universities. Descriptors: Academic Records, Affirmative Action, Compliance (Legal), Educational Assessment

The Bookmark (1983). Reference and Information Services. The Bookmark, Volume 41, Number II, Winter 1983. Thirteen articles comprise this issue on reference and information services: (1) "Librarianship as Information Resources Management," by Bettina H. Wolff; (2) one librarian's views on misinformation, disinformation, and information overload, by Murray Bob; (3-6) descriptions of reference and information services at the John Jay College of Criminal Justice by Marilyn Lutzker, at the University of Rochester Health Sciences Library by Lucretia McClure, at Vassar College by Bernice K. Lacks, and at the State University of New York at Oswego by Blanche Judd; (7) "Reference and Information Services in the Small Academic Library," by Marva L. DeLoach and Elois A. Morgan; (8) "Pamphlet Collection Development (at St. Bonaventure University)" by Michael D. Spencer; (9) "Reference and Information Services in the Information Society: Possibilities for the School Library Media Center," by Jeanne English; (10) "Local History as an Information Service," by Sheldon L. Tarakan; (11) a description of uncomputerized reference and referral services at a small public library in Malone, New York, by David W. Minnich; (12) a report on a survey on the use of computerized literature searching at the New York State Library by Toni Risoli; and (13) a report by Patricia Boylan and others on a survey of young adult services in New York's public libraries. Descriptors: Academic Libraries, Adolescents, Information Services, Learning Resources Centers

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