Bibliography: Misinformation (page 28 of 30)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized for the Alternative Facts website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Paul Woodring, Mary Ann Sagaria, JAMES A. FROST, Highland Heights. Northern Kentucky Univ, David Katz, Charol Shakeshaft, K. Knight, William Toombs, Robert W. Heath, and Don Peretz.

Katz, David; Flugman, Bert (1977). College and Industry: Partners in the Handicapped Employment Role (CIPHER II). As the result of a project utilizing a series of conferences and workshops to create an awareness and responsiveness on the part of business, labor, government agencies, and community college groups to disabled students' work capabilities, aspirations, and educational needs, this report outlines approaches that can be utilized in developing similar programs to increase the employment potential of disabled community college students. The various approaches include: procedures used in organizing the program as a whole and those used in planning individual workshop sessions; techniques of soliciting organizations to participate in workshops; ways and means of organizing advisory groups; methods used in formulating workshop agendas; methodologies for small group problem solving and large group interactions; and assessment techniques to aid in evaluating interim and final outcomes. The report also reviews the project's workshop series in terms of industry and community college updates; job searching skills; concerns and solutions regarding employment of disabled persons; myths, misconceptions, and misinformation; and programmatic activities. Program evaluation indicated a highly favorable reaction to the workshop series overall. Recommendations on how both industry and community colleges can improve their relationship with disabled persons are made. Descriptors: Community Colleges, Conferences, Employer Attitudes, Employment Opportunities

Weaver, Connie (1990). Weighing Claims of "Phonics First" Advocates. The question of whether research supports a "phonics first" approach to teaching reading is not entirely answerable by factual evidence or statistical data: the issue is partly a matter of values and opinion. The debate is over whether phonics should be taught and tested in isolation, as a prelude to reading texts (the phonics-first view) or whether phonics strategies should be developed more gradually, in the context of reading and writing materials that interest students. The debate has been fueled recently by federal legislative actions and by the distribution of a Senate Republican Policy Committee document entitled "Illiteracy: An Incurable Disease or Education Malpractice?" Misinformation abounds in the committee's document. It claims, for example, that there are only two ways to teach reading: phonics and "look and say," which the document incorrectly states is synonymous with "whole language." In addition, many of the studies cited in the document are deficient. Whole language classrooms foster habits and attitudes of independent, self-motivated, lifelong readers and writers to a far greater degree than more traditional classrooms–especially those emphasizing phonics first.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Philosophy, Educational Trends, Elementary Education, Phonics

Shakeshaft, Charol; Cohan, Audrey (1994). In Loco Parentis: Sexual Abuse of Students in Schools. What Administrators Should Know. This paper presents the findings of a 4-year study that examined 225 cases of alleged sexual abuse of students by teachers. Data were collected through interviews with 225 superintendents who had dealt with incidences of sexual abuse–184 in New York State and 41 in other states. An analysis of 10 of these cases included interviews with superintendents, school attorneys, parents, and community members. The paper first defines sexual abuse and describes its different forms. The second section explains why administrators should pay attention to sexual abuse of students by staff. The third section compares the findings of various studies that have estimated the extent of sexual abuse by teachers and staff. Section 4 examines patterns of staff sexual abuse of students, and section 5 describes school district reporting patterns. Actions taken regarding the staff and students involved are discussed in sections 6 and 7. The eighth section offers suggestions for school-district prevention policies, and the ninth section presents guidelines for handling complaints and investigating charges. In summary, although the vast majority of teachers and staff do not abuse students, some do. The problem is exacerbated by lack of clear school policies, inadequate services for students who have been abused, and misinformation. Six tables are included.   [More]  Descriptors: Child Abuse, Elementary Secondary Education, Legal Responsibility, Personnel Policy

Peretz, Don (1982). Reporting Lebanon the Christian Way: The Media in the United States on Lebanon: Part I, A Media Source Guide, Issues for the '80s. This guide is intended to provide journalists with a critical analysis of U.S. media coverage of Lebanon and the underlying issues which make it such a difficult story to cover. It is one of a series of guides treating topics of concern to the U.S. media. The major portion of the guide contains an article, "Reporting Lebanon the Christian Way," in which specific examples of oversimplification, misinformation, and biased selectivity on the part of the media in their coverage of the missile crisis in Lebanon during 1981 are described. For example, during this period most of the media featured news that inevitably led to the conclusion that the crisis was just another battle by Israel and the West against international Soviet instigated terrorism. The guide also contains annotated listings of universities and research centers and nonacademic information sources on the Middle East. The names and addresses of U.S.-based scholars informed about Lebanon are also provided.   [More]  Descriptors: Arabs, Bias, Headlines, Human Resources

Hoppock, Robert (1970). The Use and Misuse of Occupational Information. This paper is concerned with the uses and misuses of occupational information. Several points are made concerning misuse: 1) The Occupational Outlook Handbook needs to be read and interpreted rather than just handed out; 2) too much material is outdated; 3) many materials are biased and need to be replaced; 4) counselors should read all material before passing it out; 5) career conference days need revision so students can attend more meetings; 6) use alumni and students for current job information; 7) the two-week unit on occupations taught by a disinterested person is a great source of misinformation; and 8) a course in occupations taught by a counselor can be made very worthwhile. Some activities which can achieve positive results are to: 1) make an annual follow-up study of dropouts and graduates to evaluate previous guidance, and 2) arrange plant tours where alumni work. An outline of a minimum program of occupational information for a high school or college is included.   [More]  Descriptors: Career Choice, Career Counseling, Career Guidance, Career Opportunities

Woodring, Paul (1983). The Persistent Problems of Education. Because discussions of educational problems seem to be retracing the same paths and problems, there is need to identify and define the enduring controversies in education and explore reasons for their currency. These issues are discussed in a historical context. The questions of what sort of education is of most worth and what subjects should be basic are issues of priorities: Who should determine educational goals and on what bases? As liberal and vocational education vie for dominance, so foreign languages and geography may lay claim to being essential studies. The issues of school prayer, evolution, humanistic values, and sex education raise the question of whose values are to be taught in the schools of a pluralistic society; and in dealing with problems unique to schools, how shall we deal with individual differences among students and cultures? How shall teachers be selected, educated, and rewarded? These problems may persist in American education for a variety of reasons–the unsystematic system of education, diversity of beliefs and expectations, or public misinformation, to name a few. But a balanced view of educational goals may come through the examples of experienced teachers.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Education, Cultural Pluralism, Education Work Relationship, Educational Change

Population Action International, Washington, DC. (1996). Why Population Matters, 1996. Population growth around the world affects Americans through its impact on economy, environment, safety, and health, and the condition of the world children will inherit. The cumulative evidence is strong that current rates of population growth pose significant and interacting risks to human well-being and are a legitimate concern for Americans. The demographic case is presented for U.S. assistance to programs that help slow population growth in developing countries. Furthermore lower rates of population growth would contribute significantly to improving people's lives. The population, which numbers about 5.8 billion people, grows by nearly 90 million people each year, and it is not physically possible for population growth to continue long at today's levels. Sixteen key reasons for slowing population growth are described under the general headings of economic development, the environment, and safety and health. "Education" is key reason number 5 (pages 23-24) under the heading of Economic Development. The U.S. government currently provides its population assistance through bilateral, nongovernmental, and multilateral channels, but growth in U.S. funding for family planning and other reproductive health services has not kept pace with demand. The 30-year U.S. effort to make contraception and related health services available worldwide is threatened by misunderstandings and misinformation. An attachment explains how to write effective letters to legislators in support of population programs. (Contains 17 graphs, 2 tables, 2 figures, and 15 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Birth Rate, Contraception, Demography, Developed Nations

Fielden, Frank, Ed. (1995). Of Primary Interest, 1994-1995, Of Primary Interest. These four newsletter issues provide information on current research and practice to early childhood professionals teaching in the primary grades in Colorado, focusing on readiness of schools for children entering the public school system. The Winter issue focuses on standards of quality for primary programs, and includes discussion of developmentally appropriate art instruction, readying schools for students, constructing curriculum, and a child's readiness for school. The Spring issue focuses on the Texas Education Agency's report "First Impressions," ("Primeras Impresiones") a vision of Texas education in response to issues of diversity, retention, inappropriate curriculum and assessment, and the changing nature of education. This issue also discusses Colorado quality standards, and transition-to-school activities planning in Oregon. The Summer issue focuses on "transitions," providing a historical perspective on what were formerly called "articulation" and "continuity." Also discussed is responding to misinformation about developmentally appropriate practice. The Fall issue focuses on Lev Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development and how the concept can be used to shape instruction in the classroom.   [More]  Descriptors: Developmentally Appropriate Practices, Educational Environment, Primary Education, School Readiness

Northern Kentucky Univ., Highland Heights. (1989). Single Parent/Homemaker Project: SP/H02. Final Report. A study investigated why single parents and displaced homemakers did not choose nontraditional careers more frequently. A survey was administered to 171 men and women in 7 locations in Kentucky who were enrolled in single parent/homemaker programs or in Job Training Partnership Act, vocational training, or associate degree programs. The six-part survey explored the image participants had of people who chose traditional versus nontraditional employment. It asked participants to rank reasons for choosing the job for which they were training and tested the strength of their preference for traditional careers. Participants were asked to name traditional-male and traditional-female jobs in response to questions, and employment and demographic information was collected. Female participants found a female who had chosen a female job more attractive, feminine, and high class. Interest and opportunity for advancement were the most important reasons females gave for choosing to train for traditional jobs. The average number of traditional-male jobs selected was 10.1 (out of 16) for males but 2.7 for females. Females thought female jobs would be more satisfying, interesting, and sex appropriate. Three reasons for choosing traditional careers were suggested: (1) traditional jobs were more interesting, made one more attractive, and were most appropriate; (2) women received misinformation; and (3) training for nontraditional jobs was unavailable. More counseling about nontraditional careers was recommended. (The instrument is appended.) Descriptors: Adult Education, Attitude Measures, Career Choice, Career Education

Knight, K.; And Others (1990). A Methodological Approach To Eliciting Information Relevant to Alcohol Education Programs. To attempt to incorporate the perceptions of consumers of alcohol education programs about topic relevance and importance, a modified version of a methodology that extracts, evaluates, and combines information from novices and experts to determine commonly held scripts and schema was used. In the first of two studies, 37 students at Texas Christian University (TCU) generated and evaluated major categories and subcategories they believed to be important in a drug and alcohol education program for high school seniors (HSSs). In the second study, 24 students at TCU were presented with categories and subcategories mentioned by 50% of participants in the first study, and had to rate: (1) how important knowledge of each item is for HSSs; (2) the degree to which the average HSS is misinformed about each item; and (3) the amount of knowledge the average HSS has about each item. Results from both studies indicate that the extraction methodology has potential for developing alcohol education programs tailored to the prior knowledge and perceived needs of consumers. Categories elicited were consistent and easily ranked and compared statistically, providing an indication of the perceived importance, degree of relative misinformation, and levels of existing knowledge of the subjects. The methodology was also sensitive enough to uncover, in the second study, gender subgroup differences on some major categories and subcategories. Four tables contain study data.   [More]  Descriptors: Alcohol Education, Attitude Measures, College Students, Data Collection

Toombs, William; Sagaria, Mary Ann (1978). Planning an Information System for a Small College. AIR Forum Paper 1978. Data collection and analyses of college records and interviewing provided a cross-sectional view of data flow and information transmission in a small college. The micro-analysis of interview data, forms, and reports yielded a picture of functional relationships, clarified loci of decision making, and stipulated functions served by data items. These became instruments to the identification of critical issues and problem areas. The macro-analysis of the superstructure and policies combined with the policy implications from the external environment yielded a contextual framework for the self analysis. The observations of the study group provided the institution a skeletal reconstruction of its record system. The greatest contributions were descriptions of organizational conditions that had to be addressed as both policy and operational issues. Through the interviews it became clear that each administrator, staff, and faculty member viewed the system, its priorities, effectiveness and efficiency from his reference point in the organizational scheme. By following the information flow it was determined that the admissions office played a key role in establishing and collecting information. The interview sessions also made it possible to identify trouble spots and areas of misinformation. Planning toward an automated information system is considered. Descriptors: Administrative Organization, Administrative Policy, College Administration, College Planning

Kuhmerker, Lisa (1975). Social Interaction and the Development of a Sense of Right and Wrong in Young Children. Brief descriptions of recent research in early childhood moral development and the author's own hypotheses about the relevance of moral development theory on early childhood classrooms and curricula are provided. The three recent research studies focus on young children's development of a capacity for empathy, social perspective, and sense of justice. According to the author, positive reinforcement for thoughtful ways of dealing with conflicts provides a home and classroom environment conducive to learning. Adult verbalization in moral development helps the child bridge the gap between the awareness of his own feelings and his awareness of the feelings of others. When language underscores the child's experiences and when the message is consistent with the social behavior the child sees around him, the language undoubtedly contributes to social learning. A stable, consistent, and accepting environment can help the child learn about fairness even though the teacher makes no overt effort to teach about justice. Finally, since television is often the child's primary view of society, moral education in school must consist of guided discussion of information and misinformation from television viewing.   [More]  Descriptors: Childhood Attitudes, Early Childhood Education, Educational Environment, Family Environment

FROST, JAMES A. (1967). THE RESIDENT COUNSELOR PROJECT IN THE SOUTH-WESTERN CITY SCHOOLS IN CONJUNCTION WITH OHIO UNIVERSITY. A FINAL REPORT. THE MAJOR PURPOSES OF THIS STUDY WERE (1) TO ENRICH THE EXISTING ELEMENTARY GUIDANCE PROGRAM THROUGH THE USE OF RESIDENT COUNSELORS, (2) TO PROVIDE THE OPPORTUNITY FOR SYSTEMATIC RESEARCH CONCERNING THE ELEMENTARY GUIDANCE SERVICES OFFERRED, AND (3) TO EVALUATE THE FUNCTIONING OF RESIDENT COUNSELORS IN AN ON-GOING ELEMENTARY GUIDANCE PROGRAM. RESIDENT COUNSELORS WERE ADVANCED GRADUATE STUDENTS AT OHIO UNIVERSITY. SUMMARIES OF THE ACTUAL COUNSELING CONTACTS MADE IN THE SCHOOL DISTRICT AND REACTIONS OF PRINCIPALS AND TEACHERS TO THE PROGRAM AS A WHOLE ARE GIVEN. A SAMPLE OF THE ACTIVITY LOGS KEPT BY THE COUNSELORS IS ALSO INCLUDED. A SPECIFIC STUDY CONCERNING WORK WAS DESIGNED TO ASSESS THE VOCATIONAL KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES, AND VALUES OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS. SOME OF THE RESULTS WERE–(1) ACADEMIC ABILITY APPEARS TO BE A FACTOR CONTRIBUTING TO OCCUPATIONAL KNOWLEDGE, (2) WHITE COLLAR AND WOMEN'S OCCUPATIONS ARE HELD IN HIGHER REGARD THAN ARE BLUE COLLAR OCCUPATIONS, AND (3) MISINFORMATION FREQUENTLY INFLUENCES CHILDREN. EVALUATIONS OF THE ENTIRE PROJECT AND ITS SUB-PARTS ARE INCLUDED.   [More]  Descriptors: Elementary Education, Enrichment Activities, Internship Programs, Occupational Information

Pompa, Gilbert G. (1978). Remarks by Gilbert G. Pompa Before the Mexican American Lawyers Association Third Annual Banquet, Chicago, Illinois. A number of problems facing Hispanics in general and Mexican Americans in particular lend themselves to local solutions rather than Federal intervention. From a community relations standpoint, there are three major areas of concern for Hispanics nationally: education, immigration and the administration of justice. The two major educational problems of Hispanics are high drop-out rate and the school desegregation process. Desegregation issues such as the lack of quality education and the break-up of bilingual education programs could be resolved locally if local officials take the initiative to work things out in advance with the communities affected. Federally mandated desegregation is an admission that local officials have not acted to the satisfaction of the total community.  Problems associated with immigration focus on the effect illegal immigration is having on this country and conflict over the methods of enforcing immigration laws. Local officials need to address related problems, such as misinformation about immigrant populations and non-jurisdictional interrogation of suspected immigrants by police officers. The final major problem of Hispanics involves the mutual mistrust between minorities and the police. Local officials must take action in police abuse cases to restore minorities' confidence in the justice system.   [More]  Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education, Federal Government, Illegal Immigrants, Immigrants

Heath, Robert W.; And Others (1970). Evaluation of an E.P.D.A. Institute "Teachers for Multicultural Education.". An institute to retrain teachers (K-8) for multicultural education was evaluated to determine 1) types of knowledge relevant to teaching in a minority community that can successfully be taught in an 8-week summer institute and 2) changes in attitude and conceptual structure associated with the institute. The program included sensitivity training sessions, role playing activities, and educational seminars. Participants were certified teachers with at least one year of experience in the district (Ravenswood, California); they were employed for the succeeding year to complete the inservice curriculum-development part of the project. Instruments developed for use in evaluation were a 28-item attitude inventory to measure attitude toward racial and ethnic groups; two 20-item word association scales to assess attitude toward concepts given emphasis in the training; and a 150-item final examination covering the six instructional units: Black Experience in Literature, Racism and Prejudice, History of the Civil Rights Movement, History of Tropical Africa in the 19th Century, Afro-American History, and Contemporary Education of Afro-Americans. Instruments were administered as pre- and posttests to participants (N=25) and as posttests to a control group (N=20). Although findings indicated more success in correcting misinformation and imparting new knowledge than in changing attitudes, the institute was considered successful. (Findings and instruments are included.)   [More]  Descriptors: Black Culture, Cross Cultural Training, Elementary School Teachers, Institutes (Training Programs)

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