Bibliography: Propaganda (page 55 of 66)

This bibliography is reformatted and customized for the Alternative Facts website. Some of the authors featured on this page include Carl Flaningam, Daniel Riffe, Hugh Rank, Tim Moore, Marian S. Gray, David E. Clavier, Mike Gerhard, Richard L. Johannesen, Robert L. Hilliard, and Michael B. Salwen.

Hilliard, Robert L. (1981). Curriculum's Technology Lag (Curricula and Television Literacy). Television has become such an important factor in our culture that it must be made a part of the educational curriculum if our free and democratic society is to survive. Those who know how to use the television medium are able to brainwash the rest of us easily, for most of us are television illiterates. The development of print literacy, opposed by totalitarian regimes, eventually led to the political revolutions that permitted the emergence of democracy, but print is no longer the major source of information in developed nations. All students in all fields of endeavor should have at least as much exposure to visual literacy courses as they have to print literacy composition and literature courses if they are to function in and contribute effectively to their society. Courses in the mass media should be made a basic aspect of education at all levels, from elementary school through higher education. Descriptors: Democratic Values, Elementary Secondary Education, Futures (of Society), Higher Education

Kleiman, Howard (1983). Public Broadcasting and the Fairness Doctrine: A Continued Mandate?. The fairness doctrine states that broadcasters must devote a reasonable amount of time covering contrasting views of public issues. The debate over abolition of the doctrine has largely ignored the possibility that public broadcast stations licensed to government entities may be subject to political and constitutional pressures that would warrant a continued fairness mandate even in the wake of the doctrine's abolition for commercial broadcasters. Although network as well as public station news elicits charges of unfair coverage, commercial broadcasters' fairness obligations could be eliminated because (1) their congressional lobby is extremely effective, (2) the chairman of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) favors eliminating the doctrine, and (3) elimination would be consistent with the deregulation philosophy of the current (Reagan) presidential administration. The rationale for requiring public stations to observe a balance requirement may be more philosophical than practical, since their audience is small and their impact predictably minimal. Nevertheless, a balance requirement prevents the use of a government mass media outlet to promulgate an official point of view and provides public stations with discretion in choosing spokespersons to offer contrasting viewpoints and deciding the form in which those views will be presented. Descriptors: Broadcast Industry, Court Litigation, Ethics, Federal Legislation

Jordan, Myron K. (1988). Illegal, Unethical or Just Fattening? A Revisionist Look at the FTC Hearings on Electric Utility Public Relations and Franklin Roosevelt's 1932 Public Power Pledge. Did President Franklin D. Roosevelt's condemnation of electric utility public relations represent a fair interpretation of the findings of the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) investigation into the electric utility industry as authorized by Senate Resolution 83 in February, 1928, or were Roosevelt's statements simply campaign hyperbole that met the political need for a villain to attack without risk in the anti-business climate of 1932? Roosevelt, drawing upon the FTC hearings, accused the utilities of planting lies and falsehoods in the newspapers–many of which were at least partially owned by the utilities. As the master politician that he was, Roosevelt carefully ignored the fact that the newspapers were willing accomplices, accepting public utility advertising and news releases. Of the eight accusations leveled by the FTC against electric utility public relations, only these four deserve serious reflection: (1) the deluge of news releases; (2) the syndicated editorial clip sheets with undisclosed utility sponsorship; (3) the size and scope of utility advertising; and (4) the combined weight of utility advertising and public relations in comparison to the efforts of public power advocates. Roosevelt's Portland speech denouncing utilities grossly misinterpreted the FTC's findings, and should be considered only campaign rhetoric. It was a master political stroke that diverted attention from the central issues of power generation and distribution to the peripheral question of public relations. (Thirty-nine notes are included and 14 sources are appended.) Descriptors: Editorials, Ownership, Persuasive Discourse, Political Issues

Johannesen, Richard L. (1971). The Emerging Concept of Communication as Dialogue, Quarterly Journal of Speech. Purpose of this essay is to provide groundwork for further investigation of the concept of communication as dialogue. Contains extensive footnotes. Descriptors: Communication (Thought Transfer), Dialogs (Language), Dialogs (Literary), Monologs

Sneed, Don; Riffe, Daniel (1987). The Publisher as Official: Conflict of Interest or Libertarian Vestige?. The press has long been considered the "watchdog" of government, yet today, more than 100 newspaper editors also serve in public office. A study sought to determine the types of role conflict that arise for editors who hold public office, the public's reaction to such dual roles, and the policies of several leading newspapers concerning editors or publishers holding office. Inquiries were sent to press associations to identify publishers who served as public officials, and five publisher/public officials were selected for interview. Additionally, the newspapers they published were examined, and 75 of their readers were polled for their reactions to the newspapers and their publishers. Results showed varied responses from major newspapers, ranging from those who discouraged such activity for fear of conflict of interest, to one who encouraged its editors/publishers to remain active in such community affairs. Results of reader questionnaires suggest that most disagree in principle with editors holding public office, but many do not object to their own newspaper editors doing so. Results from the five interviews suggest that some editor/public officials become printers of "good news" newspapers, using them for community morale boosting. Others are more like the fiery libertarians of the nineteenth century, using their newspapers to attack political opponents. A third style is the editor/official whose newspaper is bland and not thought-provoking.   [More]  Descriptors: Conflict of Interest, Editing, Freedom of Speech, Mass Media

Hollihan, Thomas A. (1982). Propagandizing in the Interest of War: A Rhetorical Study of the Committee on Public Information. The Committee on Public Information was created by President Woodrow Wilson in 1917 and charged with informing the public about the war in Europe. Under the leadership of newspaper publisher George Creel, the Committee undertook a vigorous campaign that included censorship of government press releases; the production of posters, films, and patriotic advertising; the release of pamphlets and newspapers; and the introduction of a national speaking program. Speech teachers played an active role in this latter program. Through an organization called the "Four-Minute Men," they volunteered their expertise and delivered speeches across the nation explaining the draft, urging the purchase of bonds, stressing the necessity of supporting the Red Cross, and explaining why the country was at war. In addition, these teachers helped to train other speakers for the program. The Four-Minute Men used emotive rather than factual appeals, and usually relied on a personal approach to establish rapport with their audiences. The work of the Committee helped to undermine freedom of the press and intellectual freedom, and it is disappointing that the speech discipline has paid so little attention to its role in this endeavor. Descriptors: Censorship, Civil Liberties, Freedom of Speech, Government Role

Gerhard, Mike; Loving, Jim (1985). Effects of Network Commentary on Viewers' Reactions to 1984 Reagan Campaign Film. A study was conducted to examine the effects of NBC television's critical commentary on a 12-minute 1984 Reagan campaign film on audience perceptions of gratifications received from the film. It was predicted that exposure to the critical NBC commentary would result in lower evaluations of the film's helpfulness (gratifications received), and that the commentators' critical remarks would lower evaluations of President Reagan. Subjects were 226 undergraduate communications students, divided into two groups. The experimental group viewed a video tape of the Reagan campaign film and the preceding 10 minutes of commentary during which three NBC newscasters presented their opinions and interpretations of the film. The control group viewed only the video tape of the Reagan film. After viewing the video tape, subjects in both groups were asked to complete a questionnaire. The results indicated that subjects who watched the critical commentary as well as the film responded more negatively than those who saw only the film regarding the perceived helpfulness of the film in learning about Reagan's qualifications, his stand on the issues, and what he would do if elected. The experimental subjects were also less likely to see the film as helpful in providing voting guidance. A majority of subjects in both groups agreed that the film, in general, was worth watching and disagreed with the statement that such films were a waste of time and money. Descriptors: Attitudes, Audience Analysis, Higher Education, Mass Media Effects

Levesque, Cynthia (1983). Drug Advertising and the FDA. With increases in consumer focused advertising for prescription drugs, the Federal Drug Administration has renewed efforts to protect the public from false advertising. In 1982, it charged that the press kits Eli Lilly and Company distributed to reporters on its new antiarthritis drug, Oraflex, misrepresented the product. It recommended that Lilly both remove its claim that the drug halted or reversed arthritis and add a list of possible serious side effects from the drug, such as liver damage. Lilly, however, failed to respond. When criticized by a House of Representatives subcommittee for its slowness in acting, the FDA responded that it was prevented by the First Amendment from taking serious action against Lilly until the press release was proven to be misleading the public.  The FDA's clinical investigations office then recommended prosecuting Lilly for failing to report adverse reactions on four drugs, including Oraflex. Although withdrawing the drug from the market, the company continued to maintain that its press kit was accurate and balanced. The FDA is also having difficulty regulating the promotion of drugs awaiting FDA approval. Since preclearance of ads is not required, it is unclear how to remedy ads found to be misleading. The FDA continues, however, to study and to try to control direct-to-consumer drug advertiseme Descriptors: Advertising, Business, Business Responsibility, Consumer Protection

Salwen, Michael B.; Garrison, Bruce (1986). Sports and Politics: Los Angeles Times' Coverage of the 1984 Summer Olympic Games. To investigate whether political assertions were interjected into American sports coverage of the 1984 Olympic games and which direction those assertions took, a study examined the Los Angeles Times' coverage of the games in its award-winning special supplement sections. The "Times" included these special supplements in its papers from July 22, six days before the games began, to August 14, one day after the Olympic games concluded. All stories that were greater than four square inches, including all graphics and headlines, were examined. Each of the 899 stories was coded for the date, page, headline, square column inches, graphics, source of story, type of sport(s), primary nation-actor(s), whether the story contained political assertions, and whether it was treated as a standard sports-news story, feature, or column. It was found that the large majority of stories did not contain political assertions. Nevertheless, among those stories that did interject political assertions into sports coverage, most of the assertions evaluated the impact of the Soviet-led boycott of the Olympic games, suggesting that the boycott was politically successful.   [More]  Descriptors: Assertiveness, Athletics, Content Analysis, International Relations

Moore, Tim; Clavier, David E. (1980). The Mass Media Role in Terrorist Campaigns. Terrorists seek recognition for their cause by using violence to create public fear which will force the government into repressive counter-measures. The mass media play a vital role in this strategy. News reports of terrorism may magnify the climate of fear, thereby augmenting the public's overreaction. Moreover, broadcast of terrorist acts may enhance terrorism as a technique for social change. Experts call this the "contagion effect," when large amounts of terrorist publicity increase the frequency and intensity of similar terrorist acts. The recent Iran crisis indicates the media's unwillingness to reduce their emphasis on coverage of terrorism. Government control of media news content is an unacceptable alternative, but the media must accept responsibility for self-regulation or risk government censorship brought about by public panic at escalating terrorism. A balanced solution to the problems engendered by allowing terrorists access to the media includes greater cooperation between the media and law enforcement agencies, and more "proportioned" coverage of terrorist acts. Researchers may take an active role in defining approaches to terrorist coverage that will best minimize public fear while assuring that the public remains well informed. Descriptors: Audiences, Censorship, Freedom of Speech, Government Role

Gray, Marian S. (1969). Research and Elementary School Critical Reading Instruction, Reading Teacher. Descriptors: Attitudes, Cognitive Development, Critical Reading, Critical Thinking

Greenup, Tess (1983). Newspaper Activities for Young Consumers. Designed for intermediate and junior high level students, the handbook gives 11 lessons using newspaper activities for teaching consumer education. The activities help students (1) define consumer education terms and distinguish between wants and needs; (2) define the term "caveat emptor" and understand the concept of consumer responsibility; (3) explain why laws are necessary for consumer and seller protection; (4) explain how the Pure Food and Drug Act came into being and possible needs for revision; (5) explain three laws regulating labels; (6) define consumer-related terms; (7) create a classroom newsletter to reflect consumer knowledge; (8) recognize the importance of correctly interpreting information in advertising; (9) recognize and explain different appeals used in advertising; (10) explain the difference between advertisements that use "puffing" and dishonest advertisements; and (11) explain the work of the Federal Trade Commission, identifying two laws controlling advertising. For each stated objective, there are activities involving the clipping of display and classified advertisements for question answering, story writing, label analysis, interviewing, and student advertisement writing. Descriptors: Advertising, Consumer Economics, Consumer Education, Consumer Protection

Flaningam, Carl (1983). The "Checkers" Speech and Televised Political Communication. Richard Nixon's 1952 "Checkers" speech was an innovative use of television for political communication. Like television news itself, the campaign fund crisis behind the speech can be thought of in the same terms as other television melodrama, with the speech serving as its climactic episode. The speech adapted well to television because it was engrossing (the audience was able to perceive it as a real event); it engaged in moral labeling ("good guys" and "bad guys"); and it gave the impression of being definitive and authoritative. Among the conclusions that can be drawn from the episode are the following: (1) television demands soap opera, and the speech was an example of early 1950s soap opera at its best; (2) direct televised appeals are superior to alternative forms of political communication, particularly for "apologia"; and (3) "apologia" virtually requires the direct use of television for the speaker to reach his or her intended audience. Descriptors: Audiences, Communication Research, Credibility, Discourse Analysis

Rank, Hugh (1984). Images & Issues: How to Analyze Election Rhetoric. Although it is impossible to know in advance the credibility of political messages, such persuasive discourse can be analyzed in a non-partisan, common sense way using predictable patterns in content and form. The content of a candidate's message can be summarized as "I am competent and trustworthy; from me, you'll get 'more good' and 'less bad.'" However individuals define good and bad, expect from those speaking to the haves a conservative rhetoric stressing protection of the good and prevention of the bad, and expect from those speaking to the have-nots a progressive rhetoric stressing relief from the bad and acquisition of the good. The "pitch" and the "pep talk" are two common forms of persuasion. Listeners can evaluate the five-part pitch strategy by asking what techniques were used to get the listeners' attention, to build confidence in the speaker's trustworthiness, and to stimulate desire for the product or program. Listeners can also ask whether any urgency stressing techniques were used, and what response the speaker was seeking. The pep talk, which seeks committed collective action, usually follows a pattern of threat/bonding/cause/response. Listeners can evaluate this pattern by asking what the threat is, what words and nonverbal messages were used to bond the group, what the cause being defended is, and what response the speaker was seeking. Descriptors: Advertising, Evaluation Criteria, Language Attitudes, Language Usage

Larson, Charles U. (1988). Breaking through the Advertising Clutter: A Qualitative Analysis of Broken Stereotypes in Print and Television Advertisements. As a result of the overwhelming amount of print and electronic advertisements which compete for consumer attention, advertisers must find effective methods to get through the ad clutter and capture their audience's interest. Several tactics can accomplish this strategy, including the tactic of breaking or reversing audience expectations or stereotypes of electronic advertising. Nine specific approaches employ this tactic: 1) "black or white or is it color?" where some portion of a black and white ad is revealed in color; 2) imitation or parody; 3) the familiar face or aggravating person in a new role; 4) animation, watercolormation, and claymation; 5) "Australia plus special effects"; employing "Crocodile Dundee" look-alikes; 6) self-reflexive television and playing with the audience, where actors step out of character to converse with the camera/audience; 7) the inside story and fear appeals, in which the audience "eavesdrops" on corporate meetings; 8) slow motion, no sound, or mostly music; and 9) "surprise! and testimonials;" which hooks the audience through some attention-getting device, and then surprises them by revealing a secret. Similar techniques used in print advertising include 1) "black and white or is it color" and "scratched sepia"; 2) audience interaction gimmicks; 3) the familiar or aggravating figure testimonial; 4) three-dimensional "pop-outs", and 5) multi-mediated print. (Lists of ads that represent stereotype breaking in television spots and techniques for breaking stereotypes in print ads are appended.) Descriptors: Advertising, Audience Participation, Commercial Art, Communication Research

Share on FacebookPin on PinterestShare on Google+Tweet about this on TwitterEmail this to someone

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *