Bibliography: Propaganda (page 56 of 66)

This bibliography is reformatted and customized for the Alternative Facts website. Some of the authors featured on this page include Susan Henry, Eugenia Zerbinos, Bruce G. Bryski, Lynne Masel-Walters, Kurt W. Ritter, Ruth Smith, Gloria Glissmeyer, Michael L. Mark, Eric Markusen, and Ivan L. Preston.

Bryski, Bruce G. (1981). The "De-Rhetorical" Function of Docudrama: A Generic Approach. An increasingly popular form of mass media persuasion is the "docudrama," a hybrid of the informative documentary and the dramatic film. The docudrama format presents viewers with a purposive viewpoint or value-laden interpretation of reality and contains some degree of historical accuracy and factual authenticity. The docudrama also draws heavily from motion picture production techniques, such as narrative structure, camera angle, and sound. A comparison of the television docudrama "Guyana Tragedy: The Story of Jim Jones" with the dramatic motion picture "Guyana–Cult of the Damned" highlights the differences between these two genres. Docudrama is a form of de-rhetorical speech in that it alters viewers' perceptions of reality, but its distortion of history for dramatic effect does not observe the ethics of rhetoric. The following question is posed by this evolving genre: At what point does a critic draw the line between "dramatic license" and "historical distortion"?   [More]  Descriptors: Comparative Analysis, Documentaries, Drama, Ethics

Masel-Walters, Lynne (1978). Birth Control as Obscenity: Margaret Sanger and "The Woman Rebel.". In spite of the negative aspects of her determination to be the sole motivator, controller, and martyr for the birth control movement, Margaret Sanger was a positive social force in testing and denouncing the Comstock law. The law, named for Anthony Comstock, a postal inspector who had lobbied Congress to forbid the distribution of obscene materials throughout the United States, equated birth control and sex education with obscenity. After Comstock declared two issues of a socialist newspaper unmailable because Sanger had mentioned the names of venereal diseases in her articles on sex, Sanger resorted to publishing her own newspaper, "The Woman Rebel." The first issue and six of the next eight issues were suppressed for their controversial content and Sanger was indicted on nine counts of law violation, despite the fact that the articles contained only general discussions of contraception. After Sanger fled to Europe, alleging that the courts were treating her unfairly, her estranged husband was arrested for passing on one copy of her birth control pamphlet. Resentful of his publicity, Sanger returned seeking a court trial in order to achieve publicity for her cause. When the government decided not to prosecute her, she achieved publicity by forming an organization to promote contraception.   [More]  Descriptors: Censorship, Contraception, Federal Legislation, Females

Smith, Ruth; And Others (1981). The Impact of Mass Communication on Consumer Decision-Making among the Elderly. Elderly residents of a large southern city were surveyed in a study designed to examine the effects of media advertising on the elderly's perceptions. The 91 subjects completed a questionnaire on social factors such as the subjects' self-image, their perceptions of the elderly as portrayed by the mass media, product brand preferences, sex role perceptions, and the ability to distinguish facts from exaggeration in advertising. The results showed that advertising had a negative but insignificant effect on sex role perceptions and self-image. The findings also suggested that exposure to advertising in the mass media reduces the elderly's ability to filter fact from exaggeration, and that brand switching by the elderly is directly related to advertising exposure. Descriptors: Advertising, Aging (Individuals), Attitudes, Communication Research

Glissmeyer, Gloria (1973). The English Teacher and Doublespeak. Doublespeak can be defined as language which is purposely ambiguous, deceptive, or evasive. If we want to promote integrity between act and word, we must teach by living out of the kind of consistency which we hope for in others. Functioning honestly in departmental and pedagogical as well as other personal dealings can be the most effective thing English teachers can do to counter the flood of doublespeak. By realizing that sender-message-receiver-context are intermeshed in complicated ways in the language act, students can study and avoid semantic abuses. Students can also explore aspects of the medium of language and discover ways in which the public is manipulated through language. The study of rhetorical principles can help students avoid using doublespeak while helping them recognize others' doublespeak. To ask students to write in certain highly artificial situations is to ask them to produce doublespeak. However, appropriate writing instruction in all the school years can help preserve students' authentic thoughts and emotions. Teachers should also work to develop students' media literacy skills so that students can begin to recognize and deal with public doublespeak.   [More]  Descriptors: Communication (Thought Transfer), English Instruction, Evaluative Thinking, Integrity

Henry, Susan (1978). Hannah Bunce Watson: Patriot Printer in the American Revolution. Although Hannah Watson had had little printing training prior to her husband's unexpected death, she assumed his job as publisher of the "Connecticut Courant" newspaper, a vehement advocate of the patriot cause, for 16 months during the Revolutionary War. In spite of problems such as wartime printing shortages, the burning and reconstruction of the paper mill, inflation, and the responsibility of settling her husband's estate, Watson's paper was financially successful and maintained a patriotic editorial policy that reminded readers of the war and the principles behind it in every issue. The paper supplied battle descriptions from all of the colonies, analyses of significant events, and news of British home events and criticisms of Parliament, while calling for colonist support and economic sacrifice. Excluding advertising and short local items, the paper carried only nine nonpolitical articles during this period. When Hannah Watson married a successful businessman, she turned over her position and property to him and retired to private life and the newspaper assumed a conservative editorial policy. Descriptors: Employed Women, Females, Freedom of Speech, Journalism

Preston, Ivan L. (1975). The Great American Blow-Up: Puffery in Advertising and Selling. Puffery refers to advertising statements which are not illegal, though they cannot be proven to be true. By legal definition, puffery is advertising or other sales representations which praise the item to be sold with subjective opinions, superlatives, or exaggerations, vaguely and generally, stating no specific facts. This book examines the history of puffery in advertising and selling, its present uses and effects on the consumer, its legal ramifications and governmental controls, and some recommendations for the eradication of false puffery. Such topics are discussed as falsity without deception, the roots of sellerism, misrepresentation, avoiding the facts, the Federal Trade Commission, and puffery. Numerous examples of puffery are given and discussed. Descriptors: Advertising, Communications, Consumer Education, Consumer Protection

Markusen, Eric; Harris, John B. (1984). The Role of Education in Preventing Nuclear War, Harvard Educational Review. Examines the role of education in the Holocaust of Nazi Germany, discusses U.S. nuclear weapons policy and factors of psychological resistance that have limited citizen participation in decision making, and explores the potential of education to help prevent nuclear war. Descriptors: Citizen Participation, Citizenship Education, Civil Defense, Critical Thinking

Mickiewicz, Ellen (1983). Feedback, Surveys, and Soviet Communication Theory, Journal of Communication. Reports on how traditional feedback channels in the Soviet Union work and how public opinion surveys have caused Communist party leaders to assess and expand their feedback channels, particularly in the area of letters from private citizens. Descriptors: Citizen Participation, Communication (Thought Transfer), Communism, Feedback

Zerbinos, Eugenia (1978). The CIA-Media Connection. The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) has paid journalists, used information from unpaid journalists, owned foreign media outlets, planted stories, and put the lid on other stories throughout its 30-year history. Journalism makes a good cover for agents because journalists can ask questions without arousing suspicion. It has been estimated that between 40 and 400 overseas journalists from all media have been on the CIA payroll at least part time. They have written stories, cut them, or not printed them at all at the request of the CIA. On at least some occasions, false stories have been planted in the foreign press, have been reprinted in the United States, and have misled the American public. The use of journalists as agents has met opposition from the owners and publishers of the various news media and has raised questions about the ability of a journalist to serve the purposes of the intelligence community and retain integrity as a newsperson. Descriptors: Federal Government, Foreign Countries, Government Role, Information Utilization

Olson, Lester C. (1983). Portraits in Praise of a People: A Rhetorical Analysis of Norman Rockwell's Icons in Franklin D. Roosevelt's "Four Freedoms" Campaign, Quarterly Journal of Speech. Examines Rockwell's "Four Freedoms" posters and considers the historical circumstances during which they were mass-distributed. Observes how these paintings that praised the political and religious values of Americans were used to educate the people about the necessity of participation in World War II.   [More]  Descriptors: Democratic Values, Identification (Psychology), Painting (Visual Arts), Persuasive Discourse

Powell, Jon T. (1975). Direct Broadcast Satellites: The Conceptual Convergence of the Free Flow of Information and National Sovereignty, California Western International Law Journal. The direct broadcast satellite is the latest in a series of developments in international communication techniques that have radically altered the role of information in the global society. Though now technically feasible, the direct broadcast satellite may never be widely employed because it challenges traditional international political concepts concerning public management of information. Still, this potential for increased flow of information from direct broadcast satellites accentuates the problems of misuse. International efforts to reach consensus on the use and regulation of direct broadcast satellites disclose a basic conflict between national policies governing the public management of information.   [More]  Descriptors: Communications Satellites, Copyrights, Foreign Policy, Global Approach

Heath, Douglas E. (1981). A Map Exercise for Teaching About the War in Vietnam, Journal of Geography. This paper describes a two-part exercise exploring Vietnam's ethnic and political geography as a way for college geography students to examine the lessons of Vietnam. Students analyze maps for geographic factors affecting nationalism and political changes between 1946-68.   [More]  Descriptors: Asian Studies, Ethnic Distribution, Geography, Geography Instruction

Ritter, Kurt W. (1972). The Myth-Making Function of the Rhetoric of the American Revolution: Francis Hopkinson as a Case Study. The author suggests a critical approach to the rhetoric of the American Revolution focusing on the concept of "myth-making. This operates in revolutionary rhetoric when the revolutionist creates a spiritual dynamism for his movement through appeals that suggest the sanction of supra-rational forces. The author applies this concept to the persuasive literature of an American Revolutionary propagandist, Francis Hopkinson. He reveals a close interaction of aggressive rhetoric and unifying rhetoric, operating to generate an American identity, which included a shared vision of both the national character and the destiny of America. He points to such words as "liberty,""genius," and "commerce," as unifying symbols or the ultimate terms of that period. He suggests that in order to grasp the full significance of American Revolutionary rhetoric, scholars focus their attention on the myth-making function. He concludes that the rhetoric of the Revolution was more than manipulated; it expressed ideas with personal significance to both rhetors and auditors–ideas with perhaps lasting impact on the future development of American public address.   [More]  Descriptors: Colonial History (United States), Essays, Mythology, Nationalism

Parks, Phil (1981). Can It Happen Here?, Today's Education: Social Studies Edition. Describes a ninth-grade world history segment designed to explore the historical, economic, and social conditions within Germany which spawned the Holocaust. Milgram's experiments on blind obedience are offered as one explanation for the lack of active resistance to Nazi policies.   [More]  Descriptors: Authoritarianism, Citizen Participation, Grade 9, Junior High Schools

Mark, Michael L. (1980). MENC and World War II Programs, Music Educators Journal. Like other national organizations from 1939 to 1945, the Music Educators National Conference (MENC) worked to promote national unity in the United States. MENC position statements are quoted in this article and its wartime music education programs outlined. (One of three articles on music in the 1930s-1940s.)   [More]  Descriptors: Educational History, Elementary Secondary Education, Modern History, Music Education

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