Bibliography: Propaganda (page 58 of 66)

This bibliography is reformatted and customized for the Alternative Facts website. Some of the authors featured on this page include Maureen Harmonay, W. Lance Bennett, David Isaacson, Maria Palazon, Pamela Espeland, Harvey Gotliffe, Steven R. Goldzwig, Kathleen Reid, Bernardo A. Carvalho, and Jonni Kincher.

Reid, Kathleen (1993). A Rhetorical Approach to Non-Discursive Messages in Information Campaigns. Public information campaigns serve a primary role in contemporary American society to promote more active citizen involvement. When the U.S. government seeks to influence its citizens, it can use mass media to help produce systematic social change, particularly visual communication derived from rhetoric. Rhetorical criticism includes non-discursive forms of communication, or communication through visual forms, that engage attention, transmit information, and evoke audience responses. The McGruff "Take a Bite Out of Crime" public information campaign is examined to present a methodology for assessing the content of the visual messages, and meaning and patterns are derived from this specific campaign. Insight is provided into the development of the campaign by outlining the various visual and verbal rhetoric found within the public service advertisements (PSAs) and how they reinforce or detract from the goals for the McGruff effort. Overall, the McGruff PSAs appear to have communicated with their audiences in a fresh and memorable way. Specific aspects of the campaign that aided in raising awareness, reinforcing existing behaviors, and developing motivation among viewers relied on two important elements: (1) emphasis on the individual and his or her community; and (2) audience identification with McGruff. (Contains 24 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Advertising, Audience Response, Information Dissemination, Mass Media Role

Thompson, Mark E. (1978). Technology as a Craft of Deceit. This essay briefly presents the evolution of technology and the resulting warnings that many prominent writers have offered in defense of an analytic inquiry into man's interaction with technology. Various ways in which technology has been used to manipulate people are described, e.g., Vietnam, Watergate, the CIA, the Tuskegee Study, Subliminal Seduction, and Nuclear Weapons. The reader is warned that sophisticated technology needs to be carefully controlled, and society should not become too dependent on it. Descriptors: Economic Progress, Futures (of Society), Humanization, Industrialization

Coleman, Catherine E. B. (1998). Advertising: Art as Society's Mirror, Art Education. Provides a historical overview of U.S. print advertising from the 1890s to the 1990s. Demonstrates how advertisers adapt their messages and target audiences to the changes each era brings. Conveys that advertising reflects society by giving an image of an era as it aims to persuade. Offers six teaching activities. Descriptors: Advertising, Art, Art Education, Class Activities

Carvalho, Bernardo A. (1977). The CIA and the Press. The involvement of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with both United States and foreign news media has been recorded in numerous publications. This report reviews the important aspects of the CIA-press relationships as they have appeared in print and discusses the implications of these relationsihps for the credibility of the press. Media reaction to these disclosures is considered and the ethical dimensions of the CIA-press involvement analyzed. The report includes a summary of the measures taken by Congressional subcommittees concerning this subject. Descriptors: Credibility, Federal Government, Foreign Countries, Freedom of Speech

Harmonay, Maureen (1975). Two for the See Saw. Broadcast Responsibility and Children's Rights, Journal of Current Social Issues. Suggests that the commercial broadcasting system is an anomaly in a nation which pledges allegiance to child welfare since it permits even more advertising to young viewers than it sanctions for their parents.   [More]  Descriptors: Broadcast Industry, Child Advocacy, Child Welfare, Childhood Needs

Kincher, Jonni; Espeland, Pamela, Ed. (1992). The First Honest Book about Lies. Readers learn how to discern the truth from lies through a series of activities, games, and experiments. This book invites young students to look at lies in a fair and balanced way. Different types of lies are examined and the purposes they serve and discussed. Problem solving activities are given. The book is organized in nine chapters, including: (1) "Truth is Stranger than Fiction: Where Does the Truth Lie?"; (2) "Sniffing Out the Truth: How Your Senses Can Deceive You"; (3) "Be True to Yourself: Lies You Tell Yourself"; (4) "Social Lies: Are We Lying, or Just Being Polite?"; (5) "Myth-Matics: How Numbers Can be Used to Deceive"; (6) "There are No Cats in America: Historical "Facts" and Myths Cultural and Personal"; (7) "Adver-Lies: How Advertisers Shape Your Opinions and Actions"; (8) "All Hat and No Cattle: Public Relations and Media Lies"; and (9) "You Are an Agent of Truth: How to Live in a World of Lies." An answer guide is provided for the included problems, questions and quizzes. The book concludes with a bibliography, index, and author vita. Descriptors: Advertising, Elementary Education, Ethical Instruction, Ethics

Mehl, Marc (1978). Chinese and American Textbook Business–Totally Different the Finding, College Store Journal. Members of the second United States booksellers delegation to the People's Republic of China observed that textbooks in China carry political messages; the state and teachers are involved in the publishing process; texts are written by committees; and textbooks are almost always paperbacks and not available as a retail item.   [More]  Descriptors: Authors, Foreign Countries, Government Role, Higher Education

Dieterich, Daniel; Isaacson, David (1973). ERIC/RCS Report: Doublespeak, English Journal. Discusses the language of deceit," the misuse of language in the service of public persuasion, and describes several ERIC documents dealing with this subject.   [More]  Descriptors: Annotated Bibliographies, Communication (Thought Transfer), Educational Resources, Instructional Materials

Gotliffe, Harvey (1985). A Critical Analysis of Paid-For Communications in the 1984 U.S. Senatorial Campaign in Michigan. In recent years, television spot advertising has become an important part of political campaigns because it allows candidates to select the most favorable content, medium, time, and audience available to them. In the 1984 United States Senate campaign in Michigan, both the incumbent, Democrat Carl Levin, and the challenger, Republican Jack Lousma, ran political spots that attempted to present their own attributes favorably and to accent their opponent's weaknesses. Lousma, because of a hotly contested Republican primary, was on the defensive and tried to erase his image of being an inexperienced outsider. Lousma wavered until mid-October, when he became more direct and more effective. Levin was portrayed from the beginning as an experienced, effective leader. Because of this, he did win the 1984 election and a six-year term in Congress. Descriptors: Advertising, Audience Analysis, Federal Government, Legislators

Gardner, David M. (1975). Deception in Advertising: A Receiver Oriented Approach to Understanding. The purpose of this paper is to examine deception in advertising from a behavioral perspective, and to attempt to formulate a definition that can guide both research and governmental regulation. Whether or not an advertisement is said to be "deceptive" depends on the definition of deception being used. The position advocated here is that the focus of any definition must be the receiver of the message. Based on the analysis of veridical preception, a definition of deception in advertising is offered. An approach to measuring deception is also offered. The techniques are all seen as screening techniques, although by their regular use, advertisers should improve the ability of their advertisements to reach their stated objectives as well as reduce the amount of deception.    [More]  Descriptors: Advertising, Communication (Thought Transfer), Definitions, Government Role

Stark, Rebecca (1987). Creative Ventures: The Media. The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and to encourage students to examine their feelings and values as influenced by the media. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil behaviors described in Williams' Model: fluent thinking; flexible thinking; original thinking; elaborative thinking; risk-taking; complexity; curiosity and imagination. The 57 activities are interdisciplinary in nature and include such topics as TV or movie characters as role models, newspaper slogans, criticism of commercials, eye witness accounts, game shows, and censorship. A final section provides suggestions for follow-up activities. Descriptors: Creative Thinking, Elementary Education, Interdisciplinary Approach, Mass Media

Friedman, Jane; And Others (1984). Managing the Media Maze: A Resource Guide for Child Care Advocates. This pamphlet aims to help child care agencies and centers mount a campaign to counteract negative media coverage about child care. To plan an approach to the media, it is suggested that the child care organization designate a media person, develop a budget, target the audience, develop a message and vehicle, compile a media book with information about local media, cultivate media contacts, and establish a timetable. Specific skills for working with the media are also discussed; these include creating a media packet for the organization and preparing public service announcements, community calendar announcements, free speech messages, and press releases. Suggestions are also given for getting on radio and television, preparing for interviews and talkshows, getting positive results from encounters with the media, and evaluating the success of efforts to use the media. The conclusion stresses the need to coordinate positive media attention with organization of child advocates to improve the field of child care. A list of organizations and books for finding out more about the media are attached along with samples of a press release and a public service announcement. Descriptors: Audiences, Day Care, Day Care Centers, Mass Instruction

Bennett, W. Lance (1985). Communication and Social Responsibility, Quarterly Journal of Speech. Proposes a code for a new communication consciousness that would keep language sensitive and accountable to human experience. Focuses on mass political communication and the tendency toward systematic negative communication inherent in news pronouncements. Descriptors: Communication (Thought Transfer), Communication Problems, Discourse Analysis, Language Usage

Goldzwig, Steven R. (1989). A Social Movement Perspective on Demagoguery: Achieving Symbolic Realignment, Communication Studies. Argues that negative assumptions about demagogues have precluded an adequate understanding of demagogic discourse and its functionality and appropriateness in certain rhetorical situations. Discusses the social movement perspective which employs a "social construction of reality" approach, and analyzes the discourse of Louis Farrakhan using a "symbolic realignment" emphasis. Descriptors: Black Leadership, Communication Research, Definitions, Discourse Modes

Palazon, Maria (2000). The Media and Transformative Learning. The media constitute important sources and resources for development of critical thought about the media themselves and the reality they represent. The first theories of the media were based on the concept of unidirectional communication. Later, factors such as the increasing interest in audiences and development of cultural studies caused media-audience interaction to be viewed as a two-way process. Through media literacy, educators can foster critical understanding that the media are not self-explanatory reflections of external reality but rather symbolic systems that must be read actively. The media's relation to transformative learning stems from the fact that they require audiences to perform a series of decoding exercises and from the fact that their message, words, and images, which represent different realities, encourage critical reflection and active learning. The mediated messages conveyed by the media become important resources both to question an external representation of reality and the audience's internal assumptions about the given representation. Nevertheless, because the media also represent a great handicap for learners who lack the possibility of interaction with the producer of the message, adult educators teaching media literacy must complement decoding exercises with media literacy activities within the formal educational setting. (Contains 20 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Education, Adult Learning, Agenda Setting, Audience Response

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