Bibliography: Propaganda (page 60 of 66)

This bibliography is reformatted and customized for the Alternative Facts website. Some of the authors featured on this page include Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication., Judy Griffith, Edmund Farrell, Robert L. Stevenson, Cindy Vertin, John Edward Tapia, Bangkok (Thailand). East Asia and Pakistan Regional Office. United Nations Children's Fund, Douglas B. Engwall, R. Jeffrey Ringer, and Owen V. Johnson.

Acton, Karen; Griffith, Judy (1980). Critical Judgment. Activity Guide. Designed for a minimum amount of teacher supervision, this guide consists of introductory practice and evaluative activities for teaching secondary school students about critical judgment. A sample grade ladder and calendar help students self-schedule and keep track of their grade and points. The activity unit is preceded by a teacher rationale, unit objectives, and related vocabulary terms. The activity guide provides 15 student worksheets on topics such as misinterpreting observations, understanding the language of advertising, making generalizations, understanding prejudice, making choices, considering authority and context, and making inferences. The theme throughout the unit is that students must become aware of the difference between statements of fact and statements of opinion so that they may recognize the basis upon which judgements are made. This document is part of a collection of materials from the Iowa Area Education Agency 7 Teacher Center project. Descriptors: Advertising, Controversial Issues (Course Content), Critical Thinking, Decision Making

Johnson, Owen V. (1980). The East European Press and Three-Mile Island. This report of the investigation into East European newspaper treatment of the accident at Pennsylvania's Three Mile Island nuclear power plant in the spring of 1979 focuses on the Czech and Slovak media, particularly on the Slovak Communist Party's daily newspaper, "Pravda." The response of the media of other East European countries to energy questions is also summarized. Attention is given to political, cultural, and historical patterns and traditions, and a note on dissident treatment of the nuclear power issue is included. The following observations emerged from the study: (1) there were significant distinctions among the reports of different media; (2) sources for gathering news were often only the governmental press agencies; (3) the social, political, and economic contexts of a news story were often decisive factors in how the story was written; and (4) with the possible exception of Yugoslavia, the media of Eastern Europe seemed to lack diversity. Descriptors: Credibility, Foreign Countries, Information Sources, Journalism

Dianna, Michael A. (1983). Buy, Buy, Buy. How to Recognize Advertising Appeals. A compilation of activities and instructional ideas on advertising helps intermediate or junior high school teachers incorporate simple consumer education concepts into the social studies curriculum. Material is divided into three sections. An outline defines 16 advertising techniques including eye appeal, youth appeal, snob appeal, celebrity endorsement, and expert endorsement. A list provides activities to help students realize the effects of advertising. Examples include compiling an advertising scrapbook, creating imaginary products, analyzing magazine ads, and answering a market survey. A final list contains activities for evaluating television and radio commercials. Descriptors: Advertising, Consumer Education, Consumer Protection, Economics Education

Stevenson, Robert L.; And Others (1987). Soviet Media in the Age of Glasnost. A study analyzed the content of "Pravda," the major newspaper of the Soviet Communist Party and "Vremya," the main evening news program of Soviet television for changes that could be attributed to Soviet General Secretary Gorbachev's policy of "glasnost" (openness). The "Pravda" sample consisted of 18 editions drawn systematically from the first nine weeks of 1987, while the "Vremya" sample was limited to two weeks in January and the first two weeks of the regular World View service which began in February. Results indicated that the news broadcasts were more internationally attuned than "Pravda" and more reflective of "glasnost." The language of "Vremya" and "Pravda" was dull and burdened with ideological excess. Non-exceptional events–texts of speeches, greetings and toasts that fall under the category of protocol news–seemed the staple of Soviet reporting. Surprisingly, Western Europe was covered far more extensively than the Eastern Bloc. Based on these findings, researchers arrived at three tentative conclusions: (1) although there is some open and critical reporting, "Pravda" and "Vremya" remain more like they were in 1967 than like today's Western media; (2) the Soviet Union has shifted its attention from Eastern Europe to its competitors in the West, especially the United States; and (3) there is almost an obsession with equivalence between the two superpowers. These data indicated that talk of "glasnost" in Soviet journalism is clearly an overstatement. (Tables of data and three pages of references are included.) Descriptors: Communism, Content Analysis, Cultural Differences, Foreign Countries

Goldstein, Marc B.; Engwall, Douglas B. (1989). What Should We Mean by Drug-Free Schools: Policy Implications. Over the past decade, a significant shift occurred in the language used by the Reagan administration in the fight against youthful drug abuse. This shift reflects a change both in the "moral climate" regarding drug use as well as a reconception of the appropriate way to confront the issue–the "just say no" philosophy. This paper first provides a sociological overview of the emergence of adolescent drug use as a major social problem. Next, through an examination of government-sponsored literature on drug use produced over the past 10 years, it documents the changes in conceptual focus that have occurred during this time, and it considers some of the potentially adverse consequences of these changes. Finally, a redefinition of the notion of "drug-free school" is proposed.    [More]  Descriptors: Drug Abuse, Drug Education, Educational Policy, Elementary Secondary Education

Pratkanis, Anthony R.; And Others (1983). Consumer-Product and Socio-Political Messages for Use in Studies of Persuasion. Developed as part of a research program directed at obtaining reliable persuasive effects, the two sets of persuasive messages provided in this report–consumer messages and sociopolitical messages–discuss fictitious brands of consumer products and various sociopolitical issues. The consumer messages were developed for the following 12 products: automobiles, cereals, electric fans, electronic calculators, furniture polish, house paint, movie cameras, portable electric heaters, portable radios, screwdrivers, television sets, and 10-speed bikes. Each message presents a brand name, a paragraph about product attributes, and brand evaluations. The 72 attribute paragraphs (6 per product) are based on articles that appeared in "Consumer Reports." The brand evaluations consist of one or two sentences that assign a value of either poor, below average, average, above average, or excellent to a brand on one of the product attributes. The 20 sociopolitical messages consist of arguments in support of one side of an issue along with cues that attribute the message to either a trustworthy or an untrustworthy source. Each message has a sociopolitical question as a title, and the body of the message consists of two paragraphs. The persuasive messages, which constitute the body of the document, are presented as apprendixes to the brief explanatory report. References are included.   [More]  Descriptors: Communication Research, Consumer Protection, Evaluation Criteria, Persuasive Discourse

Vertin, Cindy (1978). Advertisements: There's A Lot More Than Meets the Eye. Teacher's Guide [and] Student Material. This individualized unit of study was developed by teachers to teach intermediate and junior high school students about advertising. Specific objectives are to teach students to identify the different sources and types of advertisements, to recognize the three main purposes of advertisements, and to analyze the purchasing powers behind the basic advertisement. The Teacher's Guide contains special instructions for the teacher, a concise bibliography, pre- and posttests, and all student worksheets. The student booklet contains concise background information and specific directions which the student must follow to complete the unit. Students are expected to keep a folder or notebook of the varied activities in which they participate. Students collect ads from different sources and make a bulletin board display; list the advantages and disadvantages of a display ad and a classified ad; write or draw an original advertisement that has one of the three purposes of advertisement; find two ads which inform, two ads which persuade, and two ads which offer a public service; and conduct a survey of edible products of different brands by use of a taste test. Optional activities involve students in reading books and viewing filmstrips. Descriptors: Advertising, Consumer Education, Consumer Protection, Individualized Instruction

Farrell, Edmund (1973). Where's the Good Word?, English Journal. Discusses the misuse of language by business, military, and political interests, suggesting that teachers must lead the fight against unsound logic and corrupted language as presented to the public through the mass media. Descriptors: Communication (Thought Transfer), English, Language Usage, Mass Media

Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication. (1990). Proceedings of the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (73rd, Minneapolis, Minnesota, August 1-4, 1990). Part VII: Foreign and International Media Studies. The foreign and international studies section of the proceedings includes the following 11 papers: "The Role of Culture in Development Communication Research and the Use of Ethnography in Development Communication Project Planning" (Jeff Merron); "A Catechism for Censorship: The Development of Circular Number 1000 in World War I France" (Ross F. Collins); "Conflictive News Coverage and Public Salience of Foreign Nations" (Michael B. Salwen and Frances Matera); "Political Commentary in Cuban Broadcasting, 1959-1960" (Michael B. Salwen); "Cultivation Analysis: The Case of Violence in the World of Korean Television Drama" (Jong G. Kang and Shin S. Kang); "Expanding News Flow in the South Pacific" (Robert L. Stevenson); "King Wachirawut of Thailand (1910-1925): A Pioneering Use of Media to Promote Nationalism" (Stephen L. W. Greene); "Portrayal of the United States in the Newspapers of the People's Republic of China" (Roy E. Blackwood); "A Comparative Study of Communication and Social Integration in Development" (Paul Siu-nam Lee); "A New Voice against Apartheid: South Africa's Alternative Press" (Gordon S. Jackson); and "The South African Press and the State of Emergency: An Assessment" (Gordon S. Jackson). Descriptors: Apartheid, Censorship, Communication Research, Development Communication

United Nations Children's Fund, Bangkok (Thailand). East Asia and Pakistan Regional Office. (1985). Planning a Breast-Feeding Promotion Campaign. EAPRO Handbooks on Communication and Training No. 3. The development of the communication component of a program promoting breast feeding to a variety of audiences through a variety of media is the focus of this paper. The introduction discusses groups, in addition to pregnant and lactating mothers, who should be involved and receive information. The paper then (1) identifies audiences–including women in the fertile age-group (15-44) and secondary audiences–who influence mothers' attitudes and breast-feeding practice; (2) provides an analysis of audience beliefs and behavior; (3) describes people important in promoting breastfeeding, such as midwives and women who have had good experiences with breastfeeding; and (4) tells how to change the behavior and beliefs of public officials, the medical establishment, and the mass media. A communication matrix for a breast-feeding promotion campaign and a table to be used for planning and implementing a communication program are appended. Descriptors: Audiences, Communication (Thought Transfer), Foreign Countries, Information Dissemination

Ringer, R. Jeffrey (1986). The Language of Fund-Raising Direct Mail: Differences between Letters for National and Local Constituencies. A study examined differences in the language of direct mail advertising used by political campaigns at different levels–national state, and local. Seventeen direct mail fund-raising political campaign letters were content analyzed with Wiseman and Schenck-Hamlin's typology of compliance-gaining techniques, language style and readability. The letters came from national campaigns with a national constituency, campaigns for a national office with a local constituency, and campaigns for local offices with local constituencies. Analysis revealed the following differences between national and local letters: (1) while national letters were emotional and personal in style, local letters were shorter and more general and attempted to maintain a professional, almost removed, style; (2) the national letters were the easiest in terms of readability whereas the local letters were the most difficult; (3) and the national letters contained the most compliance-gaining appeals, as well as explanation and warning appeals, while the local letters concentrated on explanation appeals. These differences probably exist because national letters are most likely written by professionals while local letters are most likely written by volunteers who have little experience with direct mail. Local campaigns may be more hesitant, however, to use the emotion-laden, harsh style of national letters because of their proximity to their constituency. (References, charts, and Wiseman and Schenck-Hamlin Typology are appended.)   [More]  Descriptors: Advertising, Elections, Language Styles, Local Issues

Shears, Nicholas C. (1988). Political Criticism and the Media in the Age of Glasnost. "Glasnost" or openness, to many Western observers, is a sign of democratization and a loosening of central control in almost all aspects of Soviet life. However, an analysis of excerpts from "Pravda" shows no evidence of any breaks with Leninist theory or revision in the roles of the government and masses and instead suggests that "glasnost" fosters criticism of mid-level officials but preserves the autonomy of top party leaders, and their control of the press. One reason for "glasnost's" apparent failure to permit broader popular criticism is that such dissent and use of the press are heretical to Leninist theory, and Lenin's decrees on the use of the press in political socialization have been dutifully heeded. The document states that the success of such socialization, and Lenin's contempt for the competence of the masses, militates against a loosening of central control. Yet it is precisely decentralization and "glasnost" that are essential to Mikhail Gorbachev's efforts to invigorate Soviet economic and political life. Gorbachev has said that with no political opposition in the Soviet regime, "glasnost" must function as the monitor of government. It is held that the main problem is opposition from within the party, and this problem cannot be overstated, given the Soviet political elite's tradition of rule by consensus. (Forty-three notes are included, and 35 references are appended.) Descriptors: Communism, Foreign Countries, Freedom of Speech, Government Role

Henry, Kathleen (1988). Using Radio To Promote Family Planning in Sub-Saharan Africa. Family planning programs in sub-Saharan Africa (42 countries and 450 million population), the fastest growing and poorest region in the world, need effective communications campaigns to educate people about the benefits of contraception, help change attitudes about fertility control and family size, and provide information about available contraceptive methods and family planning services. Radio, an important medium in areas where a strong oral tradition and low literacy exist, is the most effective way to reach people in sub-Saharan African because of its credibility, portability, immediacy, flexibility, imaginative potential, and relatively inexpensive production costs. For family planning communications, radio's limitations include the difficulty of transmitting a complicated idea over the air, and the communicator's lack of control over the medium. Therefore, family planning communicators should use radio as part of a multi-media campaign, in conjunction with personal communication, and should use culturally acceptable messages presented in an interesting way. Family planning programs in other areas of the world–including Columbia's PROFAMILIA, the Jamaica Family Planning Association, and the Johns Hopkins University/Population Communications Service–have used radio programming with varying success. However, innovative approaches based on strong audience research can be used successfully to promote family planning in sub-Saharan Africa, despite cultural barriers and a generally unreceptive audience. (Twenty-seven references are attached.) Descriptors: Advertising, African Culture, Audience Analysis, Cultural Awareness

Tapia, John Edward (1997). Circuit Chautauqua: From Rural Education to Popular Entertainment in Early Twentieth Century America. In 1874, Methodist minister John Vincent began a Sunday school retreat on the shores of Lake Chautauqua, New York, the mission of which was education. Initial offerings such as Bible reading, biblical geography, and public oration were supplemented with general education and entertainment activities. In the late 19th century, the Chautauqua Movement became a popular form of adult education and entertainment in the United States. Using noted lyceum (community-lecture) speakers, such as Teddy Roosevelt and William Jennings Bryan, and local talent, the movement spread throughout the country and was particularly popular in the rural areas of the Midwest. This book provides an overview of early lyceum programs and of adult education in 19th-century America, followed by an examination of the growth of the circuit Chautauqua into big business, from its standardization and commercialization to the specific jobs involved in the program. The Chautauqua lecturer, musical features, dramatic arts, and children's activities are described. Its role in supporting U.S. involvement in World War I and its popularity during the 1920s are detailed, as is its demise, brought on by the Great Depression and the rise of the film industry. Developed during a generation that experienced massive social and economic changes, circuit Chautauqua educated people about these changes and helped them deal with the transformation. It also fostered the acceptance of modern forms of mass media such as film and radio. An appendix contains a summary of 20 years of Redpath Chautauqua programs. (Contains a bibliography with 75 references, photographs, and an index.) Descriptors: Adult Education, Change Agents, Community Education, Informal Education

Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication. (1997). Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (80th, Chicago, Illinois, July 30-August 2, 1997): Advertising. The Advertising section of the Proceedings contains the following 13 papers: "Offering a Creative Track in the Advertising Major: A Case History" (Beth E. Barnes and Carla V. Lloyd); "Messages of Individualism in French, Spanish, and American Television Advertising" (Ronald E. Taylor and Joyce Wolburg); "Frequency Levels and Activity Level Portrayals of the Mature Market: A Content Analysis of Magazine Advertising" (Cecelia Baldwin and Girard Burke); "Campaign Up in Flames: Negative Advertising Backfires and Damages a Young Democrat" (Maggie Jones Patterson, Anitra Budd, and Kristin L. Veatch); "Developing Integrated Marketing Communications Message Delivery Strategies: Challenges and Opportunities Associated with the Brand Contact Concept" (Denise E. DeLorme and Glen J. Nowak);"Animation and Priming Effects in Online Advertising" (S. Shyam Sundar, George Otto, Lisa Pisciotta, and Karen Schlag); "Protecting the Children: A Comparative Analysis of French and American Advertising Self-Regulation" (Ronald E. Taylor and Anne Cunningham); "Applying Integrated Marketing Communications Strategy to Strategic Market Planning: Implications for the Role of Communications in Building and Maintaining Brand Equity" (Saravudh Anantachart); "An Investigation of Three Cultural Values in American Advertising: The Role of the Individual, the Depiction of Time, and the Configuration of Space" (Joyce M. Wolburg and Ronald E. Taylor); "Get Hooked on Collecting: A Qualitative Exploration of the Relationship between the Hallmark Brand and Hallmark Collectors" (Jan Slater); "Calvin Klein's 'Kiddie Porn' Campaign, What's the Fuss? A Q-Sort of Student Attitudes toward Objectionable Advertising" (Robert L. Gustafson and Johan C. Yssel); "A Study of the Underrepresentation of Women in Advertising Agency Creative Departments" (Larry Weisberg and Brett Robbs); and "Preparing Campaigns Students for Groupwork" (Fred Beard). Individual papers contain references.   [More]  Descriptors: Advertising, Comparative Analysis, Females, Internet

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