Bibliography: Propaganda (page 61 of 66)

This bibliography is reformatted and customized for the Alternative Facts website. Some of the authors featured on this page include SISTER MARY CONSTANTINE, David L. Amor, Steve M. Barkin, James R. Bennett, Jerome Cramer, Hugh Morgan, Fred S. Siebert, Carolyn Baker, Mike Wallace, and B. Lee Cooper.

Amor, David L. (1988). State/Media Relations in Developing Nations: The Case of the Republic of Kenya. Using as an example the relations between the state and the mass media in Kenya in the 1960s and 1970s, this paper asserts that in regard to state/media relations, a theoretical middle course exists between the two most common perspectives, the structuralist-functionalists/chroniclers of history and the Marxists. The paper claims that this middle course illuminates variations in the character of state interventions with respect to the mass media, variations both over time and among institutions. The paper proposes that (1) it is the state's relations with "all" the major classes in a particular social formation and the particular configuration of those classes that determine the state's interests in controlling the media, not simply its relation to a dominant or ruling class; and (2) both the class character of the persons/organizations originating mass-mediated messages and the class character of their intended audiences independently contribute to determining the degree of severity of state interventions. The paper sets forth the outlines of a theoretical argument grounding these propositions, identifies a series of specific hypotheses, and tests them against the evidence of the aforementioned particular case, Kenya. The paper finds that the described patterns of state/media relations offer general support for the specific expectations suggested by the theoretical framework, although they by no means provide an unambiguous confirmation. One hundred and one notes are included, and 48 references are appended. Descriptors: Developing Nations, Foreign Countries, Government (Administrative Body), Government Role

Baker, Carolyn; And Others (1975). Who's Talking? Who's Listening? Communicating in N.Y.C. This booklet was developed by New York City junior high school teachers to help other teachers and students to explore various facets of communications and mass media. Media forms examined in a series of loosely structured lesson plans include telephone, television, radio, the postal service, newspapers, magazines, books, printing, and new communications systems being developed for the future. In addition, an extensive set of lessons and suggested activities is presented on the topic of advertising. The importance of all levels of communications and advertising is stressed throughout the booklet. Questions and activities are directed toward clarifying the students' relationship to the world through communication. Descriptors: Broadcast Industry, Communications, Curriculum Guides, Instructional Materials

Barkin, Steve M. (1981). Television Planning in the 1952 Eisenhower Campaign. This report of a study of the activities of a secret planning board, formed to promote the nomination of Dwight Eisenhower through the intensive use of television, concludes that the significance of television planning in the 1952 Eisenhower campaign had less to do with the outcome of the election than with the first massive use of television with politics on a national stage. A discussion of the formation and strategies of the nine-man planning board makes up the major portion of the paper, while the remainder of the report focuses on the role of the Republican National Committee in utilizing the media to accentuate the "warmth of personality" of both Eisenhower and vice-presidental candidate Richard Nixon. Descriptors: Change Agents, Change Strategies, History, News Media

Cirino, Robert (1977). We're Being More Than Entertained. This book is designed to develop the analytical and creative abilities that will enable an individual to discover and to counter the underlying biases in mass media entertainment. Chapters discuss the mass media's conflicts of interest, the establishment of personal values and viewpoints, the classification of political viewpoints, four basic political viewpoints (socialist, liberal, libertarian, and conservative), and issues as they are perceived by these four groups. Specific application of the suggested critical techniques is provided for television drama ("Kojak" and "All My Children"), special-interest programing (the "Los Angeles Times" sports page and "Playboy"), host shows ("Let's Make a Deal" and radio programs that play the top 40), and information entertainment (radio news, Paul Conrad's cartoons, and live coverage by national networks). Each section provides individual and group activities intended to promote awareness of media bias. Additional discussion is directed toward the goal of viewing biased media productions in terms of an overall whole and to establishing an alternative broadcasting system. Descriptors: Bias, Broadcast Industry, Credibility, Higher Education

MARY CONSTANTINE, SISTER, S.S.J. (1968). AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS OF HIGH SCHOOL ENGLISH TEACHERS ENROLLED IN A METHODS COURSE. INTERIM REPORT. A STUDY AT LOYOLA UNIVERSITY (CHICAGO), SPONSORED BY THE ILLINOIS STATE-WIDE CURRICULUM STUDY CENTER IN THE PREPARATION OF SECONDARY SCHOOL ENGLISH TEACHERS (ISCPET), TESTED THE HYPOTHESIS THAT "PERSONS ASPIRING TO BECOME TEACHERS OF ENGLISH IN HIGH SCHOOL CAN BE ALERTED AND TRAINED IN SOME OF THE VARIED, SPECIFIC, SEPARABLE, AND MEASURABLE SKILLS WHICH ARE NEEDED FOR CRITICAL THINKING AND WHICH ARE RELEVANT TO A HIGH SCHOOL ENGLISH PROGRAM, AND THAT THIS TRAINING SHOULD HAVE AN EFFECT UPON THE TEACHERS' ABILITIES TO THINK CRITICALLY." BOTH AN EXPERIMENTAL GROUP (FALL, 1965) AND A CONTROL GROUP (WINTER, 1966) WERE EXPOSED TO THE USUAL CONTENT OF THE ENGLISH METHODS COURSE, EXCEPT THAT THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUP RECEIVED INSTRUCTION RELATIVE TO CRITICAL-THINKING. THIS LATTER GROUP ALSO STUDIED THE OPERATIONS OF THE MIND AS DEFINED BY GUILFORD, THE NEED FOR A "COGNITIVE" RATHER THAN A "STIMULUS-RESPONSE" BIAS IN TEACHING, AND POSSIBLE METHODS USED WITHIN A HIGH SCHOOL ENGLISH PROGRAM TO DEVELOP SKILLS OF CRITICAL THINKING. THE PROGRAM WAS EVALUATED BY PRE- AND POST-TESTS USING THE "WATSON-GLASER CRITICAL THINKING APPRAISAL" AND AN ADAPTATION OF THE "DRESSEL-MAYHEW TEST." THE DIFFERENCES IN PERFORMANCE OF THE EXPERIMENTAL OVER THE CONTROL GROUP WERE POSITIVE BUT STATISTICALLY NONSIGNIFICANT. POSITION PAPERS AND QUESTIONNAIRES COMPLETED BY STUDENTS IN BOTH GROUPS REVEALED THAT THOSE EXPOSED TO THE EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM HAD BECOME MORE AWARE AND APPRECIATIVE OF THE VALUE OF TEACHING FOR CRITICAL THINKING THAN HAD STUDENTS IN THE CONTROL GROUP. (THIS DOCUMENT IS ALSO AVAILABLE (LIMITED SUPPLY, FREE) FROM ISCPET, 1210 WEST CALIFORNIA, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, URBANA, ILL. 61801.) SEE ALSO TE 000 470.   [More]  Descriptors: Audiovisual Aids, Cognitive Processes, Comprehension, Critical Reading

Williams, Thomas E.; Morgan, Hugh (1979). Franklin Delano Roosevelt's Successful Selling of the Destroyer Deal. One of the most evident examples of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's mastery of the press and his manipulation of public opinion was the 1940 arrangement of the transfer of 50 United States naval destroyers to Great Britain while that nation was at war with Germany and Italy and while noninterventionist sentiment was quite strong in the United States. Factors important in Roosevelt's success include his overemphasis of the importance of British bases and his defense plans with Canada, his instigation of public discussion of the plan without his name attached, and his neutralization of the deal as a political issue by keeping his Republican opponent semiinformed through an intermediary. Although Roosevelt's relations with press columnists were antagonistic, he was friendly with and trusted by the Washington press corps. The key to the public relations aspect of the deal was keeping the destroyer issue separate from the bases issue so the merits of a complete deal could not be debated as a whole before the deed was accomplished. Roosevelt provided pieces of a puzzle, not allowing them to come together until the public was fully prepared. Descriptors: Communication (Thought Transfer), European History, Federal Government, Information Dissemination

Roberts, Nancy L. (1979). Riveting for Victory: Women in Magazine Ads in World War II. An examination of the portrayal of women in popular magazine advertising from 1942 to 1945 suggests that the mass media played a major role in calling women out of the home and into the factory and machine shop to assist in the war effort. Discouraged from working during the Depression years when jobs were scarce, in the 1940s women were eagerly invited to join the labor force to help mobilize for global war. With "Rosie the Riveter" as their national heroine, wartime magazines proclaimed women's capability to perform almost every kind of theretofore "male" task. With the closing of war industries and the return of job-hungry soldiers, however, the magazines began to tell women to go home. In the late 1940s, popular magazines featured aproned housewives once again content in a completely domestic role.   [More]  Descriptors: Advertising, Communication (Thought Transfer), Employed Women, Females

Wallace, Mike (1994). The Contribution of the Mass Media to the Education Policy Process. This paper presents findings of a study that conceptualized how the mass media in England are involved in the education policy process, and identified major influences on media production and its link with education policy. The project is being conducted by the National Development Centre for Educational Management and Policy from October 1993 to May 1995. Methodology involves interviews with media professionals and representatives of other groups; content analysis of national media coverage of educational issues; and case studies of progressive education in British schools. It is argued that political debate, especially the antagonistic discourse over progressive versus traditional teaching methods, is a dialectical process of myth making and myth bashing. Media and political myths vary across several dimensions–the degree of simplification, the extent to which certain aspects are omitted, and the level of generalization. In a context of multiple education reform, the policy formation process may be viewed as a continuous dialectic between interest groups who are situated in four mutually influential contexts: the context of influence; the context of text production; the context of practice; and the media context. This paper discounts the theory of relative autonomy and asserts that the media and state are closely linked, and serve to legitimate capitalism. Some key areas for further inquiry are highlighted. One figure is included. Contains 21 references.   [More]  Descriptors: Critical Theory, Educational Policy, Elementary Secondary Education, Foreign Countries

Cooper, B. Lee (1992). Popular Songs, Military Conflicts, and Public Perceptions of the United States at War, Social Education. Examines the images of war represented by popular recordings. Divides the century into four periods based on wars: 1914-38, 1939-63, 1964-89, and 1990-91. Reports that the popular image of the United States at war as represented in music has been positive for all periods except Vietnam, although each period had its share of protest. Lists resources and recordings. Descriptors: Instructional Materials, Popular Culture, Propaganda, Public Opinion

Howie, Marguerite Rogers; Hanna, Kathleen (1976). Effects of Communication and Transportation on Utilization of Agency Services by Rural Poor People in South Carolina. South Carolina State College Research Bulletin No. 5, January 1976. Use of five agencies offering adult education, vocational rehabilitation, food stamps, employment, and health services in Orangeburg County by rural poor people in Bowman, Elloree, and North was studied over a two-year period. The study examined whether communication, transportation, or both increased agency use. In Bowman, information about the agencies was offered; transportation to and from the agencies was offered in Elloree; and in North, both were offered. Flyers from the agencies and specific releases presenting data in capsulate, simplified form were distributed to churches, civic and social organizations, and community centers in Bowman and North. Videotape film schedules were posted in businesses and public places where people congregated. Transportation notices, posters, and announcements were distributed at strategic places in Elloree and North. A sample randomly selected from predominantly black neighborhoods in Bowman and North was also interviewed. It was found that transportation produced no effects while communication produced a significant, patterned effect for two of the five agencies. The additional survey revealed a marked discrepancy between agency use figures and reported use of agency services, and a dissatisfaction with the distribution of agency services.   [More]  Descriptors: Agencies, Attitudes, Black Community, Communication (Thought Transfer)

Olson, Lester C. (1981). FDR's 'Four Freedoms' Campaign: The Rhetorical Contribution of Norman Rockwell's Posters. Rhetorical criticism focusing on Norman Rockwell's paintings of the "Four Freedoms" provides reasons for the paintings' effectiveness within the context of Franklin Roosevelt's campaign to educate Americans about participation in World War II. The epideictic icons in Rockwell's paintings promoted identifications that constitute the tenets of a conjoined religious and political perspective. Rockwell's method of establishing these identifications had at least three salient characteristics: (1) he based the identifications upon institutionalized American values that represented focal points for American unity; (2) he utilized images that traditionally were intimately associated with people and scenes within the institutions in order to establish identification with respect to those institutions; and (3) within these images, Rockwell provided productive ambiguities that enabled him to fuse symbols from different people and scenes, thereby broadening the range of symbols with which the viewer could identify. Descriptors: Art Products, Communication Skills, Democratic Values, Identification (Psychology)

McWilliams, John C. (1991). Drug Use in American History, OAH Magazine of History. Discusses drug use in U.S. history. Argues that a "get-tough" approach did not work in the past and will not work in the future. Suggests that history can provide a scholarly assessment of drugs, foster understanding of drugs in contemporary society, and enable students to evaluate drug policies more objectively. Descriptors: Alcohol Abuse, Cocaine, Drug Abuse, Drug Education

Cramer, Jerome (1982). Your Kids Are the Target When the Klan Comes Calling, American School Board Journal. Describes Ku Klux Klan recruiting and literature dissemination activities in schools and communities and two particularly difficult conflicts caused by Klan activities in Meriden (Connecticut) and East Baton Rouge (Louisiana). Explains the legal issues involved and possible board and administrator responses to such activities and conflicts.   [More]  Descriptors: Administrator Role, After School Programs, Board of Education Policy, Compliance (Legal)

Bennett, James R. (1978). How to Defend Ourselves Against Corporate Image and Ideology Advertising. Since teachers have been encouraged to give attention to advertising, product advertising has been the subject of study, but because of the large amount of money spent on them, two other aspects of advertising need special attention: corporate-sponsored image (which deals with characteristics and image of the company rather than with products or services) and ideology advertising (the propagation of ideas and controversial social issues in a manner that supports the interests of the sponsor while downgrading the sponsor's opponents). The student should use such tools as classical rhetorical awareness of the speaker, knowledge of informal fallacies, and Hugh Rank's "Intensify/Downplay" approach. Study of a corporate-sponsored film would include questions such as: Who paid for it?  What are the explicit and implicit purposes? How truthful are the claims and assertions? How does it intensify the sponsor's own good and its opponents' bad? What does it conceal that might alter our opinion of the claims? What are the formal and informal fallacies in the message? and What verbal and nonverbal devices are employed to persuade? These tools and questions, or slightly modified ones, can be applied to study such advertising as the corporation film put out by Chesebrough-Pond Corporation, "Family," and the ideology advertisement published by Chromalloy American Corporation. Descriptors: Advertising, Business Education, Critical Thinking, English Instruction

Siebert, Fred S.; And Others (1976). Four Theories of the Press. A systematic understanding of the press requires an understanding of the social and political structures within which the press operates. This book discusses four theories that have determined the kind of press the Western world has had: authoritarian, libertarian, socially responsible, and Soviet communist. Each chapter discusses press development, functions, ownership, and control under one of the four theories, indicating the essential differences between theories. A bibliography is included. Descriptors: Authoritarianism, Capitalism, Communism, Freedom of Speech

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