Bibliography: Selective Perception (page 2 of 4)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized for the Alternative Facts website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Kent Clement, Dan G. Drew, Joan E. Sussman, Harold de Bock, Michael P. Brawer, James McQueen, Cheryl Riley Powell, Kathleen M. Galvin, Barbara K. Keogh, and Steven H. Chaffee.

Kjeldergaard, Paul M.; And Others (1969). Perception of Language: Proceedings of a Symposium of the Learning Research and Development Center; Parts I and II. This report describes in two volumes the proceedings of a conference on the perception of language held at the University of Pittsburgh in January, 1968. The objectives of the conference, to present the particular research interests of the participants and to attempt to find points of concurrence in thinking through discussion of the conference topic, are emphasized throughout the nine articles and summary discussion. Major areas of psychological research which are presented as chapters in the proceedings include listening, reading, and grammatical structure; age changes in the selective perception of verbal materials; acoustic and grammatical features of spontaneous speech; the perception of time compressed speech; current approaches to syntax recognition; speech and body motion synchrony of the Speaker-Hearer; an analysis of laterality effects in speech perception; children's language development and articulatory breakdown; and perception of phonetic segments with evidence from phonology, acoustics, and psycholinguistics.   [More]  Descriptors: Acoustics, Articulation (Speech), Language Acquisition, Language Patterns

Wilhoit, G. Cleveland; de Bock, Harold (1976). Archie Bunker in a Foreign Culture: A Panel Study of Selectivity Processes in the Dutch Television Audience. A national sample of 503 Dutch people aged 15 and over who were accessible by telephone was used in this longitudinal study of reactions to a series of eight broadcasts of "All in the Family." Attitude scales were developed for three independent variables–ethnocentrism, lifestyle intolerance, and parental authoritarianism. Questionnaire items were also developed for three dependent variables–selective exposure, selective perception, and selective retention. Analyses concentrated on three questions: Do the Dutch perceive "All in the Family" as pertaining only to the American context, or is it seen as also pertinent to Dutch society? Is there selectivity in the Dutch exposure, perception, and retention that is related to ethnocentrism, lifestyle intolerance, and parental authoritarianism? What are the uses and gratifications received by the Dutch audience from "All in the Family"?   [More]  Descriptors: Adults, Bias, Cognitive Processes, Communication (Thought Transfer)

McQueen, James (1996). Phonetic Categorisation, Language and Cognitive Processes. Notes that in phonetic categorization, listeners hear a range of speech sounds forming a continuum of ambiguous sounds between two endpoints and are required to identify the sounds as one or other of the endpoints. Points out that this task has been used in phonetics and in psycholinguistics to study categorical perception, selective adaptation, speaking rate normalization, and trading relations. (61 references) Descriptors: Ambiguity, Auditory Perception, Auditory Stimuli, Classification

Snavely, William B. (1974). An Instructional Model of the Process of Selectivity. In view of the importance of selectivity to the understanding of the interpersonal, small group, and public communication processes, this concept must be introduced into the communication classroom. This paper introduces an instructional model that simplifies the student's understanding of the four major steps involved in the selectivity process: selective exposure, attention, perception, and retention. Discussion is included regarding possible extensions of this model and suggested areas of classroom application. A diagram of the model is included.   [More]  Descriptors: Attention, Behavioral Science Research, Communication (Thought Transfer), Conceptual Schemes

Braverman, Marc T.; Yates, Mary Ellen (1989). Enhancing the Educational Effectiveness of Zoos. This study addressed whether the educational impact of a zoo visit can be enhanced through the provision of appropriate instructional supports such as preparatory trainings or orientations. One important function of the educational process, in contrast to providing direct information or skill development, is to make the learner more sensitive to the learning environment by developing motivation and increasing skills in attention and/or selective perception. This is particularly significant when dealing with experiential education settings such as zoos, because those settings tend to be unstructured and the learner is more on his or her own. The subjects, Extension 4-H agents, were either presented an orientation lecture with slides, or given a packet of orientation reading materials. The two groups visited the San Diego Zoo in November 1987 as part of the annual meeting of the National Association of Extension 4-H Agents. Both of these groups were tested against a control group. This study demonstrated that orientation sessions can serve to boost the educational effectiveness of zoos, at least in the area of knowledge gain. The orientation did not increase the strength of attitudes and values related to zoos. Descriptors: Class Activities, Educational Facilities, Elementary School Science, Elementary Secondary Education

Drew, Dan G. (1974). Reporters' Attitudes, Expected Meetings with a Source and Journalistic Objectivity. A cornerstone of twentieth century journalism is the concept of objectivity. This experimental study explores psychological pressures on the reporter in a theoretical framework of balance theory and social perception. Specifically, it deals with reporters' attitudes toward their sources, their expectation of a future meeting with the sources, and the type of stories they write. It also seeks to determine whether perceptual screening, resulting from the journalist's attitude toward the source, is a factor in reportorial performance. Objectivity for this study is defined as fairness or balance in decision making, information seeking, and presentation of information. The most important finding of this study is the evidence that attitudes of reporters toward the source seemed to have little impact on news stories or editorials. The data also provide evidence indicating that selective perception is not a particularly strong restraint on reportorial activity.   [More]  Descriptors: Attitudes, Communication (Thought Transfer), Journalism, Media Research

Galvin, Kathleen M.; Book, Cassandra L. (1972). Communication/Speech. This book is intended as a resource for teachers who are adopting a communication approach to a speech course. Organized into seven chapters which each contain behavioral and learning objectives and activities, the book is designed to help educators guide their students toward an understanding of inter- and intrapersonal communication and the development of effective communication skills. The introductory chapter discusses communication models and networks. Chapter two concerns the encoding and decoding of messages in terms of selective perception, accuracy, and interference. Chapters three through six address the numerous communication settings and relationships including intrapersonal, one-to-one, group, and one-to-group communication situations. The final chapter is devoted to the study of nonverbal communication in relation to symbols, sign and signals, space and setting, status, and intercultural influences. Also included is a list of selective terminology with parallel examples used throughout the book, special monographs, and an annotated bibliography. Descriptors: Behavioral Objectives, Communication Skills, Communication (Thought Transfer), Curriculum Guides

Powell, Cheryl Riley (1978). The Reporter's Control of News. A recent study profiles the American journalist as young, male, white, educated, and coming from a solid middle- or upper-middle-class background. Women and minority groups are grossly underrepresented in the field of journalism. Other studies present parallels between the topics that are selected as newsworthy and the characteristics of those who gather and edit the news, revealing that the selective perception of the reporter does influence what becomes news. Other factors that color the individual reporter's approach to the news include reasons for entering the profession, motivation for staying on the job, personal values and professional ethics, mood, intelligence, imagination, and the competitive, self-protective atmosphere of the newsroom. Fearing a loss of credibility with the public, today's reporter faces problems in verifying all information, defining an ethical position toward sources and the public, deciding a personal role as a private citizen, and guarding relationships and affairs from conflict-of-interests charges. Descriptors: Bias, Individual Characteristics, Information Dissemination, Journalism

Griessman, B. Eugene; Bertrand, Alvin L. (1967). Factors Related to Communication of Forest Fire Prevention Messages, a Study of Selected Rural Communities. Two rural Louisiana communities were selected to evaluate the effectiveness of certain types of communication in preventing man-caused forest fires. The communities were selected on the basis of differences in fire occurrence rates and other factors related to conservation. Questionnaires and personal interviews were utilized to determine views of inhabitants and access to communication media. The relation of sociocultural factors to fire occurrence rates, the social process of communication, the potential of mass media and informal media in communication of fire prevention messages, and selective perception and effectiveness of fire prevention messages were evaluated. It was recommended that persons with roles as fire prevention change agents design their information programs to reach all the inhabitants of a community after careful appraisal of all available data on local environmental factors.   [More]  Descriptors: Area Studies, Change Agents, Communication Problems, Communication (Thought Transfer)

Sussman, Joan E. (1993). Auditory Processing in Children's Speech Perception: Results of Selective Adaptation and Discrimination Tasks, Journal of Speech and Hearing Research. Ten children (ages 5-6) and 10 adults participated in discrimination and selective adaptation speech perception tasks using a synthetic consonant-vowel continuum. Results support hypotheses of sensory processing differences in younger, normally developing children compared with adults and show that such abilities appear to be related to speech perception skills. Descriptors: Adults, Attention, Auditory Discrimination, Auditory Evaluation

Brawer, Michael P. (1982). Integrating Motivational Activities into Instruction: A Developmental Model. A model for integrating motivational activities into instruction and the problem with motivational activities in the classroom for the disadvantaged learner are examined. Eight basic learning processes are identified that the teacher should understand in preparation for presenting information to students: attention/reception, selective perception, rehearsal, semantic encoding, search and retrieval, response organization, feedback, and executive control. Motivational activities can help to gain the interest of the learner and make the task relevant to the learner. Four basic steps that should lead a teacher or instructional designer toward a definitive means of selecting appropriate motivational activities and incorporating them into instruction are considered. The first step is to determine the media needs of the learners (e.g., lower ability groups generally respond better to visual stimuli such as films, overheads, or displays). The second component of the model is derived from examining the prior decisions and entails such decisions as whether the motivational activity should focus on related past instruction, or whether remedial activities are needed. A next step is to examine the feasibility of that activity within the learning environment (i.e., the time and materials available), and the final step is to develop/select the actual motivational events of instruction. It is suggested that by examining the problem of motivation, identifying student characteristics, and carefully planning lessons, many of the motivational problems teachers face in the classroom can be overcome. A flowchart illustrating the steps in selecting motivational activities for instruction is appended. Descriptors: Classroom Environment, Diagnostic Teaching, Educationally Disadvantaged, High Risk Students

Kaid, Lynda Lee (1975). The Impact of Political Television Commercials. For decades research on mass media in political campaigns has yielded little evidence of direct, significant effects. Most survey research on elections found adequate explanations for voting decisions while excluding the impact of mass media. Although the increasing use of expensive television advertising campaigns is evidence of the confidence of candidates and their advisors, researchers have remained unconvinced, although in recent years they have begun to examine political television commercials more closely. The number of surveys has remained small, however, and fraught with methodological difficulties. Recent topics of research include: levels of voter exposure; extent of selective exposure; voter recall of information; selective perception and retention of information;"image" versus "issue" spots; the effect of length; direct impact on voting decisions; and the functions that such spots perform for voters. Recommendations for future research include the following: make further efforts to isolate the impact of particular spots; use more realistic viewing situations; measure the cumulative impact of several different spots over time; study the interaction of spots with other information sources; and study the uses voters make of the information derived from spots. Descriptors: Advertising, Broadcast Television, Communication (Thought Transfer), Information Utilization

Keogh, Barbara K. (1977). Early ID: Selective Perception or Perceptive Selection?, Academic Therapy. The state of the art in early identification of children with learning problems is reviewed, and generalizations about the value of early screening are offered. Descriptors: Early Childhood Education, Educational Diagnosis, Elementary Education, Exceptional Child Education

Clement, Kent (1997). The Psychology of Judgment for Outdoor Leaders. Judgment is the process of making decisions with incomplete information concerning either the outcomes or the decision factors. Sound judgment that leads to good decisions is an essential skill needed by adventure education and outdoor leadership professionals. Cognitive psychology provides several theories and insights concerning the accuracy of human judgment. Selective perceptions refers to the fact that perceptions are selective, reconstructive, and subject to memory biases. The context in which one encounters a situation affects the way it is perceived, and therefore will affect judgments and decisions. There are three such context effects: the primacy effect, the recency effect, and the halo effect. General rules to help find solutions are known as "heuristics." Although generally helpful, heuristics can be obstructive by creating predictable biases. Two impediments unique to group decision-making are "groupthink" and "social loafing." Three main types of common traps in decision making are overconfidence, self-fulfilling prophecies, and behavioral traps. The five types of behavioral traps discussed are the time delay trap, ignorance trap, investment trap, deterioration trap, and collective trap. Strategies to mitigate each of these phenomena are given.   [More]  Descriptors: Adventure Education, Bias, Cognitive Psychology, Cognitive Structures

Chaffee, Steven H. (1978). Communication Patterns in the Family: Implications for Adaptability and Change. The argument for renewed theoretical development in the study of family communication has several implications. One is that researchers should concentrate on family communication as such rather than expanding generalizations from family communication to other groups and institutions; this requires grappling more specifically with the explication and testing of theoretical propositions about the ways in which family communication functions. The roster of possible hypotheses includes such empirical theories as reinforcement, selective perception, information-seeking, and de facto selective exposure. Methodologies that are quite different from those used in the past will have to be devised and employed. Firsthand observation, experimental variation, and longitudinal designs are all needed. The latter is particularly important because the greatest implications of what is known about family communication have to do with developments occurring long after the child matures and leaves the family. Both observational and experimental ingenuity are needed to test specific hypotheses about the nature of the process by which family communication patterns shape the developing child's construction of the world around him.   [More]  Descriptors: Communication Problems, Communication Research, Communication (Thought Transfer), Family Influence

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