Bibliography: Selective Perception (page 3 of 4)

This bibliography is selected and organized by the Alternative Facts website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Allen Munro, Albert D. Talbott, Bob Bohlken, Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, John J. Steffen, Herbert J. Gans, Ann Gonzalez, Richard F. Reckman, C. Jay Frasier, and William C. Hill.

Stewart, Robert A.; And Others (1985). Locus of Control as a Mediator of College Students' Reactions to Teacher Compliance Attempts. A study was conducted to determine the effects of student locus of control on perceptions of and resistance to teacher influence attempts. Subjects, 302 college students, were provided with 22 sets of Behavior Alteration Messages and were instructed to rate on a 1-5 scale "how frequently your teacher uses statements of each type to get you to change your behavior in the classroom." Higher scores indicated greater frequency. To measure likelihood of resistance, students were asked to rate on the same scale how likely they would be to resist statements of each type if their teachers were to use them to change students' behavior in the classroom. Analyses of results suggests that locus of control is a significant predictor of students' selective perceptions of teacher Behavior Alteration Technique (BAT) for 14 of the 22 BATs analyzed. Externally oriented students, those who rely on outside forces to govern their behaviors, more often interpret teachers as more powerful people than do internally oriented students. Further research is needed to answer questions that arose as a result of this study. Descriptors: Behavior Change, Behavior Modification, Behavioral Science Research, Classroom Communication

Frasier, C. Jay (1993). Magic in the Classroom: Using Conjuring To Teach Selectivity and General Semantics. Communication teachers can use magic in the classroom to teach the selective nature of the communication process and principles of general semantics. Since magic "works" due to perceptual limitations, selective perception can be illustrated through various magic effects. Magical effects where the secret is apparent to everyone in the class except for one member can show the students that an individual's perception is limited and selective. Several principles of general semantics, including "nonallness" and "nonidentity," can similarly be illustrated through the use of select magic effects. The three best ways that teachers can learn magic that can be used in the classroom are from books, from video tapes, and from personal instruction. Some teachers might desire to start performing magic in their classes but hesitate to do so. Magic is a novel, fun, and interesting way to gain students' attention, to keep their attention focused on the subject matter of the class, and to teach them something in the process. (Contains 37 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Class Activities, Communication (Thought Transfer), Higher Education, Instructional Innovation

Bohlken, Bob (1995). Learning To Listen through Experiences: Developing Listening Competencies. Intended for college-level instructors, this paper aims to establish behavioral objectives for listening or listening competencies and provide experiential learning to develop and assess those objectives and/or competencies. The paper begins with an overview which notes the lack of material on listening competencies in many college speech textbooks and the relegation of listening to the speech communication department. The paper then offers a list of 8 listening competencies for the student, including requiring the student: (1) to discriminate among a series of spoken words or numbers and immediately recall them for interpretation; (2) to demonstrate emphatic listening through questioning; (3) to demonstrate awareness of the listening process through writing, through selective perception, and message abstraction; (4) to demonstrate an awareness of the distinctions among facts, inferences, judgments, and between qualified and unqualified statements; and (5) to demonstrate an awareness of his/her interpersonal listening behavior. A number of specific exercises show how these skills may be developed and tested, among them: an exercise on word meaning discrimination, an exercise on listening to a message, a critical/comprehensive exercise, and an emphatic listing responses exercise. A four-item list of available standardized listening tests concludes the paper. (Each section contains references.) Descriptors: Behavioral Objectives, Class Activities, Communication Skills, Curriculum Evaluation

Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication. (1998). Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (81st, Baltimore, Maryland, August 5-8, 1998). Communication Theory and Methodology. The Communication Theory and Methodology section of the Proceedings contains the following 20 papers: "Information Sufficiency and Risk Communication" (Robert J. Griffin, Kurt Neuwirth, and Sharon Dunwoody); "The Therapeutic Application of Television: An Experimental Study" (Charles Kingsley); "A Path Model Examining the Influence of the Media on Fear of Crime and Protective Act" (Mahmoud A. M. Braima, Thomas Johnson, and Jayanthi Sothirajah); "Cognitive Innovativeness as a Predictor of Student Attitudes and Intent: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Online Learning Environments" (Tracy Irani and Michelle O'Malley); "Source Perception and Electrodermal Activity" (No-Kon Heo and S. Shyam Sundar); "The Crisis of Communication for Citizenship: Normative Critiques of News and Democratic Processes" (Erik P. Bucy and Paul D'Angelo); "The Hoopla Effect: Toward a Theory of Regular Patterns of Mass Media Coverage of Innovations" (Eric A. Abbott and April A. Eichmeier); "Predicting Online Service Adoption Likelihood among Nonsubscribers" (Carolyn A. Lin); "Evidence for Selective Perception in the Processing of Health Campaign Messages" (Ekaterina Ognianova and Esther Thorson); "Revisiting the Knowledge Gap Hypothesis: Education, Motivation, and Media Use" (Nojin Kwak); "Predicting Future Risky Behavior among Those 'Too Young' to Drink as the Result of Advertising Desirability" (Erica Weintraub Austin and Christopher Knaus); "Thoughtful Self-Critique or Journalistic Cannibalism? International Press Coverage of Princess Diana's Death" (Martin Eichholz); "The Third-Person Perception and Support for Restriction of Pornography: Some Methodological Problems" (Ven-hwei Lo and Anna R. Paddon); "A Virtual Fetish: Themes of a Virtual Community as Presented in 'Time' and 'Wired'" (Marjorie Lynne Yambor); "Mood Congruence and the Utility of Sad Media Content–An Exploration of 'Wallowing'" (Kimberly A. Neuendorf); "Identifying Structural Features of Radio: Orienting and Memory for Radio Messages" (Robert F. Potter, Annie Lang, and Paul Bolls); "Video Violence: Desensitization and Excitation Effects on Learning" (Bradford L. Yates and others); "Developing an Integrated Theory of Recall of News Stories" (Margaret H. De Fleur); "Viewer Elaboration about News Video" (Michael Murrie); and "Understanding Deliberation: The Effects of Discussion Networks on Participation in a Public Forum" (Jack M. McLeod and others).   [More]  Descriptors: Advertising, Audience Response, Citizen Participation, Communication (Thought Transfer)

Hill, William C. (1981). Galatea in the Classroom: The Distribution of Teacher-Pupil Interaction and Its Relationship to Class-Size. If what is known about selective processes of perception is coupled with awareness of the extremely rapid pace of classroom interaction, the classroom setting becomes one in which differential teacher expectations are likely to be formed and maintained. In fact, research findings reveal the power of teacher expectations: high teacher expectations can increase student achievement and low expectations can actually decrease achievement. Attempts to alter the communication of differential expectations by retraining teachers have generally been successful, but have been found to be quite expensive. Student achievement is also influenced by class size. Research findings indicate that a student achieving at the 50th percentile in a class of 40, if instructed in a group consisting of 1 to 5 students, is likely to achieve at the 83rd percentile or higher. Because this achievement effect is specific to groups of 20 pupils or less, a "student threshold for achievement" concept of facilitative student-teacher interaction is supported. It is possible that in classes of 21 to 40 pupils, fewer students' thresholds for achievement are reached by teachers due to the much wider distribution of interaction. There are several procedural methods for equitably distributing interaction that teachers can use (1) to counter the reluctance of peripherally seated students to initiate interaction, and (2) to compensate for teacher expectancy behaviors. (Directions for further research are suggested.) Descriptors: Bias, Class Size, Classroom Communication, Elementary Education

Strain, Barbara (1970). Developmental Trends in the Selective Perception of Race and Affect by Young Negro and Caucasian Children, DARCEE Papers and Reports (George Peabody College for Teachers). This study used a "disguised-structured" technique for determining the differential saliency of race and affect on preference behavior of 60 5-, 6-, and 7-year-old Negro and Caucasian children. Positively and negatively valued objects were distributed by subjects among photographs of happy and sad Negro and Caucasian children. No racial preference was found among 5-year-olds of either race or among older Negro children; 6- and 7-year-old Caucasian children showed growing preference for the Caucasian stimuli. Preference for the happy stimuli was shown by all groups of children, the affect differences overriding all race preferences. Included are both references and a bibliography of sources not cited in the text. Appendixes provided include a duplication of task photographs, sample data form, and additional task tables.   [More]  Descriptors: Affective Behavior, Age Differences, Attitudes, Bias

Gonzalez, Ann (1990). Video Materials Production and Use in Intensive Language Instruction: The Experience of the University of South Carolina's Master's in International Business Program. As part of a communicative approach and to provide non-linguistic information to students, authentic videotape recordings were incorporated into the summer intensive Spanish course in the University of South Carolina's master's program in international business. Students were introduced to the tapes by first seeing segments without sound, both to illustrate what can be understood visually and to emphasize the need for selective perception. The second phase was viewing with sound, with or without concurrent exercises. Exercises were created with clear cues to students to pay attention to the video. Video recordings allowed for immediate replay for feedback. The final instructional stage included follow-up activities, the most effective of which were directly related to cultural issues or analysis of the video itself, such as selective use of diminutives in a family situation. Discussion of why students respond with embarrassment or laughter, appropriate or inappropriate, and of the film's possible biases were also found to be essential to understanding the film's content. Use of video was seen to enhance motivation and retention of cultural and linguistic material. Testing, not used in this course, will be incorporated in future courses. Handouts accompanying videos are appended. Contains 13 references.   [More]  Descriptors: Business Administration Education, Business Communication, College Second Language Programs, Cultural Awareness

Talbott, Albert D.; And Others (1974). A News Game Called TRIO: A Task for Reporting, Interviewing and Observing. The reason for creating the Task for Reporting, Interviewing, and Observing (TRIO) was to make selective perception and metaphoric transformation come alive for students. This paper includes the experiences in designing, implementing, and trying out the exercise, a description of the exercise, a summary of the participants' play, and suggestions and recommendations on how the exercise can be used in similar and other kinds of settings. TRIO allows students to play various roles in reporting, being reported on, and news report evaluating. The exercise includes nursing students as specialists who present the pros and cons of abortion to another group of nurses. The presentation is covered by journalism students who write up news reports of the event for a lay audience. Groups of reporters cover the event under differing conditions, including second-hand and third-hand reporting. Afterward the lay audience, the reporters, and the specialists evaluate the coverage and prizes are awarded for the best stories. A give-and-take discussion is held a week after the event for all the participants. (Also included are selected bibliographies on gaming and simulations.)   [More]  Descriptors: Class Activities, Educational Games, Higher Education, Instructional Materials

Munro, Allen; And Others (1981). An Experimental System for Research on Dynamic Skills Training. Interim Technical Report, February 1980-September 1981. A research project was conducted to determine if dynamic skill training differs in important ways from knowledge system instruction. The term dynamic skills was used to mean sets of intellectual processes responsible for selective perceptions in a real time driven content and for the selection and performance of appropriate responses in that context; knowledge systems was used to mean sets of related facts that are commonly taught as a body of coherent subject matter. The research was conducted on a microcomputer-based experimental simulation training system. Experimental subjects were taught to perform a simulation task based on the job of an air intercept controller. The training program permitted controlled differences in instructional treatment for different groups of students in order to explore empirical issues in dynamic skill training. The results of the research show that dynamic skill training differs in important ways from knowledge system instruction; e.g., the demands placed upon students' cognitive processing resources are different in the two types of learning. Ten references are listed.   [More]  Descriptors: Computer Assisted Instruction, Decision Making Skills, Feedback, Military Training

Steffen, John J.; Reckman, Richard F. (1978). Selective Perception and Interpretation of Interpersonal Cues in Dyadic Interactions, Journal of Psychology. Suggests that socially anxious and low anxious males may perceive social events similarly but interpret them differently. Descriptors: Anxiety, Attribution Theory, Behavioral Science Research, Higher Education

Martini, Mary (1994). Acquiring the Language of Learning: The Performance of Hawaiian Preschool Children on the Preschool Language Assessment Instrument (PLAI). The Preschool Language Assessment Instrument (PLAI) was designed as a diagnostic tool for 3- to 6-year-old children to assess children's abilities to use language to solve thinking problems typically posed by teachers. The PLAI was developed after observing middle-class teachers in preschool classrooms encourage children to use language in different ways. The differences in the use of language were grouped into 4 levels of difficulty, and the PLAI consists of 60 items selected from these 4 levels. The performance of 60 Hawaiian preschool children on this test was assessed at the four levels: (1) Matching Perception; (2) Selective Analysis of Perception; (3) Reordering Perception; and (4) Reasoning about Perception. Overall, the children performed better on tasks at lower levels of complexity than on tasks at higher levels. The group's performance was compared to that of a sample of mainly white upper-middle-class, 3- to 4-year-old children attending private preschools; and to a second sample of primarily black or Puerto Rican lower class, 3- to 4-year-old children attending public day care centers. At all four levels, the Hawaiian children scored to varying degrees higher than the lower class sample but lower than the middle class sample. Eight tables and one figure are included.   [More]  Descriptors: Comparative Analysis, Error Analysis (Language), Language Processing, Language Tests

Gans, Herbert J. (1968). The Uses of Television and Their Educational Implications; Preliminary Findings from a Survey of Adult and Adolescent New York Television Viewers. To collect data on how to make television a more effective learning instrument outside of the classroom, a standard probability sample with quotas consisting of 200 adults and 200 adolescents living in New York City was interviewed to study how people use TV, their attitudes toward various types of programing, and their viewing preferences. Designed to exclude light viewers, the interview schedule featured questions on viewing habits, relevance of TV to personal problems, audience preferences in news coverage, and entertainment vs. information. An attempt was made to correlate opinion with variables of age (by describing TV use among adolescents), class, race (by describing the effects of white television in the black community), emotional health (as judged by the respondents), and frequency of viewing. Such variables influence the choice of a network newscaster (Huntley-Brinkley, Cronkite, or Jennings), the selective perception of news and editorial content, and the taste for reality or fantasy in hypothetical programs. Characteristics of the sample, the interview schedule, and attitude data from East Harlem residents are appended to the text.   [More]  Descriptors: Adolescents, Adults, Audiences, Black Attitudes

Johnson, Charles D.; And Others (1974). Personality Mediators of Interpersonal Attraction. The current study was an examination of the effect of personality variables on the relationship between attitude disagreement and attraction. Attraction was measured in a neutral situation, designed to maximize any existing affective predispositions toward attitude agreement-disagreements. Subjects were placed in an ambiguous face-to-face situation in which an accomplice agreed with the subject on 7 of 14 attitude issues. The personality variables of interest were Spielberger's (1966) state-trait anxiety measures and the Marlowe-Crowne (1964) scale of social desirability. In the context of attraction toward neutral strangers, anxiety and social desirability were expected to have quite different, in fact, complementary, effects. Specifically, two hypotheses were advanced: (1) that high anxiety would be related to disliking others and enhanced recall for disagreements; and (2) that high social desirability would be associated with liking others and heightened recall for agreements, when the proportion of attitude agreements-disagreements was constant. Results supported both hypotheses. Neutral interactions elicited very different affective reactions from high anxiety and high need for approval subjects despite the fact that proportion of attitude agreements was constant. Anxiety and social desirability apparently influenced interpersonal attraction by promoting selective perception in an ambiguous social situation.   [More]  Descriptors: Affective Behavior, Anxiety, Attitudes, Interaction

Zarcone-Alessandrino, Lisa (1990). Reading and the ESL Student: Alternative Materials Used To Enhance a Phonetic Approach to Reading. The design and testing of an approach to reading instruction are described. The design system consists of five stages: analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. A needs analysis indicated the necessity to improve the reading skills of limited-English-proficient students. A group of 6- to 8-year-old students were identified for pilot testing of the approach. Five tasks in the development of reading proficiency were identified and linked to specific subskills. Supplementary audio-visual materials found to be highly motivating were used to reinforce and strengthen psychomotor skills, intellectual skills, and verbal information. Instruction was designed to enhance nine internal processes occurring during learning, including: reception, expectancy, retrieval, selective perception, semantic encoding, responding, reinforcement, retrieval and reinforcement, and retrieval and generalization. Formative evaluation was used during the instructional period, with adjustments made in instruction, and summative evaluation was used at the end of instruction. Results showed the use of supplementary materials with dictation to be effective in raising both the reading level and the confidence level of subjects. Appended materials include a weekly and monthly planner for the reading and ESL student development plan, a task analysis, a list of instructional objectives, a sample questionnaire, a performance checklist, the Durrell Analysis of Reading Difficulty Phonetic Inventory, and a scope and sequence storybook list. Descriptors: Audiovisual Aids, English (Second Language), Formative Evaluation, Instructional Effectiveness

SCHMUCK, RICHARD (1967). SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS IN KNOWLEDGE UTILIZATION AS APPLIED TO EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION. THREE PROBLEM AREAS ARE EXPLORED IN THIS SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF RESEARCH UTILIZATION IN EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION–(1) INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN BEHAVIORAL SCIENTISTS AND SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS, (2) PSYCHOLOGICAL LINKAGES BETWEEN THE ADMINISTRATOR'S SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE AND HIS ACTIONS, AND (3) THE LACK OF CONNECTION BETWEEN THE ADMINISTRATOR'S ACTION REPERTOIRE AND THE REQUIREMENTS OF EACH NATURAL SITUATION AS IT ARISES. UNPRODUCTIVE RESEARCHER-ADMINISTRATOR RELATIONSHIPS ARE CHARACTERIZED BY POOR COMMUNICATION, NEGATIVE STEREOTYPES OF ONE ANOTHER HELD BY RESEARCHER AND ADMINISTRATOR, AND DISTRUST AND SUSPICION SUPPORTED BY THE INCONSISTENT NORMS OF EACH ONE'S REFERENCE GROUP. PSYCHOLOGICAL PROCESSES CONTRIBUTING TO THESE DIFFICULTIES IN INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS INCLUDE SELECTIVE PERCEPTION OF EACH OTHER'S BEHAVIOR, DISTORTIONS OF MEMORY, A TENDENCY TO PLACE LOW VALUE ON EACH OTHER'S WORK, AND THE POSSIBILITY OF COLLABORATION THREATENING THE SELF-CONCEPTS OF BOTH RESEARCHER AND ADMINISTRATOR. TEN CLUSTERS OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSUMPTIONS ARE LISTED FOR BUILDING CONNECTIONS BETWEEN THE PRODUCTION OF RESEARCH KNOWLEDGE AND THE IMPROVEMENT OF ADMINISTRATIVE PRACTICE IN EDUCATION. THIS PAPER WAS PREPARED FOR PRESENTATION AT THE UCEA CAREER DEVELOPMENT SEMINAR (17TH), CO-SPONSORED BY THE UNIVERSITY COUNCIL FOR EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND THE UNIVERSITY OF OREGON (PORTLAND, OREGON, OCTOBER 22-25, 1967), AND WILL BE AVAILABLE FROM THE PUBLICATIONS DEPARTMENT, CENTER FOR THE ADVANCED STUDY OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION, HENDRICKS HALL, UNIVERSITY OF OREGON, EUGENE, OREGON 97403.   [More]  Descriptors: Administrator Role, Administrators, Bibliographies, Diffusion

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