Bibliography: Selective Retention (page 1 of 3)

This annotated bibliography is curated specifically for the Alternative Facts website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Craig D. Jerald, Dean Keith Simonton, Gerald Kushel, Anne S. Miner, David N. Perkins, Peng Liu, John Dimmick, MDRC, Oxford Miami Univ, and Mark H. Bickhard.

Miami Univ., Oxford, OH. School of Education. (1971). Admission, Retention and Guidance of Teacher Candidates. This document contained a proposed set of guidelines for admission and selective retention of students in programs of teacher preparation at Miami University, Oxford, Ohio. The presentation was divided into three parts: a) a rationale, b) description of the plan, and c) a set of questions and answers. The rationale recommended the establishment of criteria, standards, and procedures for admission and selective retention of first-year and transfer students to the teacher education program. The outline of admission and selective retention requirements called for a decision by the student regarding his continuation in the program. This decision was based on self-evaluation and evaluation by a designated faculty panel. The first decision came during the freshman year; the second came in the sophomore year; the third preceded the student teaching program. The student, therefore, had the opportunity to evaluate his needs and successes throughout the program. This evaluation technique was also applied to the transfer students and the selective retention program. The questions posed in the final section of the proposal dealt with the supply and demand of teachers and effects of this on teacher training. Suggestions for evaluation of the proposal were made.   [More]  Descriptors: Admission Criteria, Evaluation Methods, Preservice Teacher Education, School Holding Power

Liu, Peng (2013). Evolutionary Dynamics of Digitized Organizational Routines, ProQuest LLC. This dissertation explores the effects of increased digitization on the evolutionary dynamics of organizational routines. Do routines become more flexible, or more rigid, as the mix of digital technologies and human actors changes? What are the mechanisms that govern the evolution of routines? The dissertation theorizes about the effects of increased digitization on path dependence and interdependence mechanisms, and therefore extends current theory on the evolutionary dynamics of organizational routines by taking into account the effects of three basic phenomena: digitization, path dependence and interdependence. In this dissertation, I use computer-based simulation, grounded with data collected in field interviews, to model the evolution of routines. More specifically, this dissertation models routines as networks of action that are subject to an evolutionary process of random variation and selective retention. To assess the evolution of routine, I introduce the idea of evolutionary "trajectory," which is defined as the product of the "magnitude" of change and the "direction" of change in the networks of action. The dissertation also addresses a foundational issue in the literature on organizational routines. Routines are generally believed to remain stable due to "path dependence." An alternative explanation is that routines may be stable due to "interdependence" among actions, which tends to constrain the sequence in which actions can occur. I have developed a simulation that allows me to test the relative importance of these factors, a question that has never been addressed. By addressing this fundamental issue, I provide a deeper, theory driven explanation of the effects of digitization. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.%5D   [More]  Descriptors: Organizational Culture, Technological Advancement, Technology Integration, Computer Simulation

Bickhard, Mark H. (1999). On the Cognition in Cognitive Development, Developmental Review. States that Demetriou and Raftopoulos's theory of cognitive developmental change based on the nature of representation is flawed. Argues against theme of representation as encoding as well as an alternative model of representation as interactivism. Concludes that other issues such as architectural support, variation and selective retention, comparison, connectionism, and wild constructivism should also be addressed. Descriptors: Brain, Cognitive Development, Developmental Psychology, Models

Simonton, Dean Keith (2012). Taking the U.S. Patent Office Criteria Seriously: A Quantitative Three-Criterion Creativity Definition and Its Implications, Creativity Research Journal. Although creativity has recently attracted considerable theoretical and empirical research, researchers have yet to reach a consensus on how best to define the phenomenon. To help establish a consensus, a definition is proposed that is based on the three criteria used by the United States Patent Office to evaluate applications for patent protection. The modified version uses the criteria of novelty, utility, and surprise. Moreover, creativity assessments based on these three criteria are quantitative and multiplicative rather than qualitative or additive. This three-criterion definition then leads to four implications regarding (a) the limitations to domain-specific expertise, (b) the varieties of comparable creativities, (c) the contrast between subjective and objective evaluations, and (d) the place of blind variation and selective retention in the creative process. These implications prove that adding the third criterion has critical consequences for understanding the phenomenon. Creativity is not only treated with superior sophistication, but also paradoxes that appear using the most common two-criterion definition readily disappear when the third criterion is included in the analysis. Hence, the conceptual differences between two- and three-criterion definitions are not trivial.   [More]  Descriptors: Creativity, Intellectual Property, Public Agencies, Criteria

Simonton, Dean Keith (2012). Creativity, Problem Solving, and Solution Set Sightedness: Radically Reformulating BVSR, Journal of Creative Behavior. Too often, psychological debates become polarized into dichotomous positions. Such polarization may have occurred with respect to Campbell's (1960) blind variation and selective retention (BVSR) theory of creativity. To resolve this unnecessary controversy, BVSR was radically reformulated with respect to creative problem solving. The reformulation began by defining (a) potential solution sets consisting of k possible solutions each described by their respective probability and utility values, (b) a set sightedness metric that gauges the extent to which the probabilities correspond to the utilities, and (c) a solution creativity index based on the joint improbability and utility of each solution. These definitions are then applied to representative cases in which simultaneous or sequential generate-and-test procedures scrutinize solution sets of variable size and with representative patterns of probabilities and utilities. The principal features of BVSR theory were then derived, including the implications of superfluity and backtracking. Critically, it was formally demonstrated that the most creative solutions must emerge from solution sets that score extremely low in sightedness. Although this preliminary revision has ample room for further development, the demonstration proves that BVSR's explanatory value does not depend on any specious association with Darwin's theory of evolution.   [More]  Descriptors: Evolution, Creativity, Probability, Problem Solving

MDRC (2015). The Influence of the College Match Program on Near-Peer Advisers. College Match Issue Focus. Educators, researchers, and policymakers across the political spectrum agree that the nation must send more of its young people to college and find ways to help them graduate–especially young people from low-income families. To that end, in 2010, MDRC and a group of partners developed College Match, an innovative school-based college advising program that was pilot-tested in select Chicago and New York City public schools. The MDRC-operated program placed "near-peer" advisers–trained advisers who are recent college graduates–in low-income high schools where they provided college advising to a group of moderate- and high-achieving students, guiding them toward selective colleges where retention and graduation rates are high and they had better odds of success. Here a group of advisers reflect on the influence of the program on their career trajectories. [Advisers contributing to this document include: Ebelio Mondragon, Jessica Salazar, Michele L. (Taylor) Howard, and Kelli Hammond Antonides.]   [More]  Descriptors: Public Schools, College Preparation, Educational Counseling, Comprehensive Guidance

Simonton, Dean Keith (1998). Donald Campbell's Model of the Creative Process: Creativity as Blind Variation and Selective Retention, Journal of Creative Behavior. This introductory article discusses a blind-variation and selective-retention model of the creative process developed by Donald Campbell. According to Campbell, creativity contains three conditions: a mechanism for introducing variation, a consistent selection process, and a mechanism for preserving and reproducing selected variations. Descriptors: Concept Formation, Creative Development, Creative Thinking, Creativity

Cziko, Gary A. (1998). From Blind to Creative: In Defense of Donald Campbell's Selectionist Theory of Human Creativity, Journal of Creative Behavior. Argues that while blind variation and selective retention (BVSR) may not be involved in all forms of human behavior and thought, Donald Campbell has made a compelling case that human creativity and invention involve BVSR. The complementary nature of prior and current BVSR in creative human endeavor is discussed. Descriptors: Concept Formation, Creative Development, Creative Thinking, Creativity

Jerald, Craig D. (2012). Movin' It "and" Improvin' It! Using Both Education Strategies to Increase Teaching Effectiveness, Center for American Progress. Fueled in part by the U.S. Department of Education's Race to the Top program, a massive effort to overhaul teacher evaluation is underway in states and districts across the country. The aim is to ensure that evaluations provide a better indication of "teaching effectiveness," or the extent to which teachers can and do contribute to students' learning, and then to act on that information to enhance teaching and learning. But as states and districts actually begin to adopt policies to measure teaching effectiveness, another kind of debate is now raging: How exactly should school systems use the results of their new teacher-evaluation systems? More broadly, once states and districts begin to measure effectiveness, what kinds of strategies should they adopt to "increase" the amount of measured effectiveness in the teacher workforce over time? Underneath the confusion about what the reforms are really about lie two very different types of strategies for boosting teaching effectiveness in the workforce. The first strategy can be called "movin' it" because it treats a teacher's effectiveness as fixed at any given point in time, then uses selective recruitment, retention, and "deselection" to attract and keep teachers with higher effectiveness while removing teachers with lower effectiveness. In contrast, "improvin' it" policies treat teachers' effectiveness as a mutable trait that can be improved with time. When reformers talk about providing all teachers with useful feedback following classroom observations or using the results of evaluation to individualize professional development for teachers, they are referring to "improvin' it" strategies. In reality, there is nothing about either strategy that precludes the other. Therefore, instead of treating them as "either/or" choices, smart school systems would combine "movin' it" and "improvin' it" policies to maximize increases in teaching effectiveness. In fact, evidence suggests that high-improving and high-performing schools manage to do just that.   [More]  Descriptors: Teacher Effectiveness, Teacher Recruitment, Teacher Persistence, Tenure

Miner, Anne S. (1990). Structural Evolution through Idiosyncratic Jobs: The Potential for Unplanned Learning, Organization Science. Describes an evolutionary model of organizational change through the selective retention of jobs. Idiosyncratic jobs, those created around particular people, serve as a mechanism for change. Discusses organizational processes for adaptation. (83 references) Descriptors: Innovation, Job Development, Models, Occupational Information

Simonton, Dean Keith (2015). On Praising Convergent Thinking: Creativity as Blind Variation and Selective Retention, Creativity Research Journal. Arthur Cropley (2006) emphasized the critical place that convergent thinking has in creativity. Although he briefly refers to the blind variation and selective retention (BVSR) theory of creativity, his discussion could not reflect the most recent theoretical and empirical developments in BVSR, especially the resulting combinatorial models. Therefore, in this article I first provide an overview of contemporary BVSR theory, including both a general combinatorial model and its specific manifestations (internal vs. external selection, simultaneous vs. sequential selection, exploration vs. elimination, and open vs. closed preselection). This overview then permits theoretical treatment of the connections between convergent thinking and BVSR. These connections entail the direct involvement of convergent thinking in BVSR, as well as the occasions in which sequential BVSR operates in a manner resembling convergent thinking. The article closes with a discussion of some misunderstandings regarding the function of domain-specific knowledge in BVSR creativity. This discussion includes the argument that hindsight bias often makes creativity appear far more knowledge based than it was at the time the creative ideas first emerged. This bias can make researchers overlook how BVSR mediates between expertise and creativity. Hence, care must be taken not to bypass BVSR in granting all due credit to convergent thinking.   [More]  Descriptors: Creativity, Convergent Thinking, Creative Thinking, Discovery Processes

Kushel, Gerald (1970). The Counselor's Image and the Chameleon, Sch Counselor. Transference, selective retention, and misperception-overstatement are factors considered in the guidance image problem. Suggests image prototypes for school counselors to project. Descriptors: Counseling, Counselor Characteristics, Counselor Role, Counselors

Perkins, David N. (1998). In the Country of the Blind: An Appreciation of Donald Campbell's Vision of Creative Thought, Journal of Creative Behavior. Reviews the perspective of Donald Campbell on creative thought and argues that the role of blind variation and selective retention in Darwinian evaluation and human invention is different. Proposes that a contrast can be drawn between "smart" and "not so smart" blind variation. Descriptors: Concept Formation, Creative Development, Creative Thinking, Creativity

Simonton, Dean Keith (2013). Creative Problem Solving as Sequential BVSR: Exploration (Total Ignorance) versus Elimination (Informed Guess), Thinking Skills and Creativity. Although the theory that creativity requires blind variation and selective retention (BVSR) is now more than a half-century old, only recently has BVSR theory undergone appreciable conceptual development, including formal three-parameter definitions of both creativity and sightedness. In this article, these new developments are for the first time extended to encompass sequential BVSR, that is, when ideas are generated and tested consecutively rather than simultaneously. Formulated in terms of creative problem solving, sequential BVSR is shown to have two forms: (a) "exploratory" in which the person decreases total ignorance and (b) "eliminatory" in which the person vets informed guesses. Only in the latter case does sightedness for both single potential solutions and the set of potential solutions necessarily increase with each generation-and-test trial. Exploratory BVSR is illustrated by Edison's search for a practical incandescent filament, whereas eliminatory BVSR is exemplified by Watson's discovery of the DNA base code. Hence, although epistemologically and psychologically distinct, both represent important forms of creative problem solving.   [More]  Descriptors: Creativity, Problem Solving, Cognitive Processes, Epistemology

Dimmick, John (1986). Sociocultural Evolution in the Communication Industries, Communication Research: An International Quarterly. Suggests that sociocultural evolution and the processes of variation and selective retention provide a theoretical perspective for understanding past and future changes in communication industries resulting from intrapopulation competition. Descriptors: Change, Communication (Thought Transfer), Competition, Mass Media

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